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Glossary of psych notes

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Created by willyrogers55

monogenetic transmission
The hereditary passing on of traits determined by a single gene.
polygenetic transmission
the process by which many genes interact to create a single characteristic.
heritability
the extent to which a characteristic is influenced by genetics.
2 main parts of Nervous System
Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Central Nervous System
- includes brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
-consists of all other nerve cells in the body.

Includes Somatic Nervous System

-Autonomic Nervous System



Somatic Nervous System
transmits sensory info. to the brain and spinal cord and from the brain and spinal cord to the skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Serves the involuntary systems of the body such as internal organs and glands.

2 Parts

-sympathetic Nervous System

-parasympathetic Nervous System





sympathetic Nervous system
-activates bodily systems in times of emergency
parasympathetic Nervous system
relaxes or returns the body to a less active restful state.
Walter Cannon
"fight or flight"

has to do with the sympathetic nervous system



CNS 2 Cell Types
1.) glial cells

2.) neurons

Glial Cells
provide structural support , promotes efficient communication between neurons and serve as scavengers removing cellular debris
Neurons
cells that process and transmit info. in the nervous system
neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit info. between neurons
3 Major Parts of Neuron
1.) Cell body- Soma

2.) Axon

3.) Dendrites



Soma
contains a nucleus
Axon
extends from soma, transmits electrical impulses toward the adjacent neuron and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters
Dendrites
fingerlike projections from a neurons soma that receive incoming messages from other neurons.
synapse
the junction between an axon and the adjacent neuron, where info. is transmitted from one neuron to another.
Terminal button
knobs at ends of axon that contain tiny sacs of neurotransmitters
3 Types of Neurons
1.) Sensory Neurons

2.) Motor Neurons

3.) Interneurons



Sensory Neurons
receive incoming sensory info. from the sense organs
Motor Neurons
carry commands for movement from the brain to the muscles of the body.
Interneurons
only communicate with other neurons.

-most common neuron in the brain

Action Potential
the impulse of positive charge that runs down an axon
Resting Potential
the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the axon when the neuron is at rest.
synaptic vessicles
sacs in terminal buttons that contain neurotransmitters
2 ways to remove excess Neurotransmitter
1.) enzymatic degradation

2.) Reuptake

Enzymatic Degradation
a way of removing excess neurotransmitter from the synapse; in which enzymes specific for that neurotransmitter bind with the neurotransmitter and destroy it.
Reuptake
excess neurotransmitter is returned to the sending or presynaptic neuron for storage in vessicles and future use.
graded potentials
small changes in membrane potential that by themselves are insufficient to trigger an action potential.

-either increase or decrease the liklihood of an action potential occuring

Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that controls muscle movement. plays a role in mental processing such as learning, memeory, attention, sleeping and dreaming
Dopamine
released in response to behaviors that feel good or are rewarding to the person or animal. also involved in motor control.
epinephrine(adrenaline)
arouses bodily systems

ex. increased heart rate

serotonin
involved in dreaming and in controlling emotional states. especially anger, anxiety, and depression.
GABA
tells postsynaptic neurons not to fire; slows CNS activity and is necessary to regulate and control neural activity.
Glutamate
major excitatory NT. in the brain that increases the liklihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire. important in learning, memory, neural processing, and brain developement.
3 Regions of the Brain
1.) Hindbrain

2.) Midbrain

3.) Forebrain



Hindbrain
3 parts, oldest region directly connected to spinal cord. regulates breathing, heart rate, arousal, and other functions of survival
3 parts of Hindbrain
1.) Medulla

2.) Pons

3.) Cerebellum



Medulla
regulates breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
Pons
serve as a bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity
Cerebellum
involved in body movement, balance, coordination, fine tuning motor skills, learning and language, contains more neurons than any other part of brain.
Midbrain
smallest of 3 regions. different parts control the eye muscles, process auditory and visual info. and initiate voluntary movement of the body
Brain Stem
made up of medulla, pons, and Midbrain
Reticular Formation
network of nerves that run up medulla through both the hindbrain and midbrain; crucial to waking up and falling asleep.
Forebrain
largest of 3 regions, controls cognitive, sensory, and motor function and regulates temp., reproduction, eating, sleeping, and the display of emotions. Most of these brain structures are bilateral
thalmus
receives info. from senses and relays it to the cerebral cortex for processing.
Limbic System- 4 parts
1.) Hypothalmus
Limbic System 4 Parts
1.) hypothalmus

2.) hippocampus

3.) amygdala

4.) cingulate gyrus





hypothalmus
master regulator of almost all drives and motives we have.

ex. hunger, thirst, sexual behavior

hippocampus
wrapped around thalmus, plays vital role in learning and memory
amygdala
important for processing emotional info. especially related to fear.
Cingulate Gyrus
plays important role in attention and cognitive control
Basal Ganglia
Structures surrounding the thalmus involved in voluntary control
Cerebrum
each of the large halves of the brain that are covered with convolutions or folds
cerebral cortex
human thought, planning, perception, and consciousness takes place here.
insula
inside the cerebrum, plays role in perception of bodily sensations, emotional states, empathy, and addictive behavior
Cerebral Hemispheres
Left Hemisphere

Right Hemisphere

Left Hemisphere
processes info. in a more focused analytic matter
Right Hemisphere
integrates info. in a more holistic, or broader manner. Insight and solutions to ideas more likely to occur here.
Corpus Callosum
Nerve fibers that connect the two Hemispheres
Paul Broca
First neuropsychologist. demonstrated for the first time that specific parts of the brain controlled particular behaviors.
Aphasia
inability to speak or comprehend language
Wernickes Area
responsible for speech and language comprehension
Neuroplasticity
The brains ability to adopt new functions, reorganize itself, or make new neural connections throughout life as a function of experience
neurogenesis
the developement of new neurons.
arborization
the growth and formation of new dendrites
synaptogenesis
the formation of entirely new synapses or connections with other neurons
Electroencephalography
method for measuring brain activity in which the electrical activity of the brain is recorded from electrodes placed on a persons scalp.

shows when brain activity occurs not where

Even related Potential
technique that extracts electrical activity from raw EEG data to measure cognitive processes.

good for measuring states of wakefulness

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
uses magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the structure of the brain and other soft tissues.

just tells about structures not activity

FMRI
does tell about activity in brain
Positron Emission tomography
measure blood flow to active areas of brain.
Endocrine System
system of glands that secrete and regulate hormones in the body
hormones
chemicals secreted by glands that travel in the bloodstream to tissues and organs all over the body.
Pituitary Gland
master gland of the body, controls release of hormones from glands throughout the body.
thyroid Gland
controls metabolism
pancreas
releases insulin, controls blood sugar levels.
Adrenal glands
release hormones important to regulating the stress response and emotions.
Catecholamines
chemicals released from the adrenal glands that function as hormones and as neurotransmitters to control ANS activation.

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