Glossary of psych 331 thinking about crime
Created by tbelsheim
- over the efficiency of trying to prevent crime by making would be offenders fearful of punishments
- on average
- no more than three felons out of 100 result in imprisonment for the offender
- Isacc Enlrich
- after controlling for such things as income level and age distribution of the population, found the higher the probably of conviction the lower the robbery rate (severity of punishment had no effect)
- States in which the low probabiliy
- of going to prison for robber is low are also the states that have high rates of robbery
- critics of deterrence
- it is possible as some critics of deterence say, that rising crime rates swamp the criminal justice system so that a negative statistical association between rates of theft and chance of giong to prison for theft may mean not that a decline in imprisonment is causing theft but that a increase in theft is causing imprisonment to become more likely.
- what suggests today that swamping has not occurred
- convicted murders are likely to go to prison today as they were twenty years ago. moreover the deterrent effect of prison on serious crimes like murder and robbery was apparently as great in 1940 or 1950 when the crimes were much less common as it is today suggest that swamping has not occurred.
- alfred Blumstein and Nagin
- studied a relationship between draft evasion and penalties imposed for draft dodging. they found that the higher probability of conviction for draft elevation the lower the evasion rates
- Micheal block
- white collar crime can be deterred
- Kenneth Wolpin of Yale
- found that changes in the probably of being punished seems to cause changes in crime rates.
- What we would like to know is how changes in the prospective costs of crime and in the prospective benefits of pursuing legitimate alternatives effect the behavior of those individuals who are at risk?
- such persons are disproportionately young males
young men hanging around on street corners thieves who associated with other leives tend to depend on information on the accounts of other young men who have had run in, who therefor supply crudely accurate estimate of current risks of arrest prosecution and sentencing.
- what deters most people
- the moral quality of thier actions and the internalized inhibition against misconduct arising out of that moral code, are the biggest deterence of crime.
- success in increase police presence
- results from these studies suggested that more focused and aggressive the police were the greater chance it will make a differnce. chagnes in the level of routine preventaive patrol cars seemed to make little difference in KC but changes in the number of officers riding new york subwas , seemd to make a difference
- Study by H Laurene Ross
- clearly indicates that these hopes were borne out result in a reduction rate as much as two thirds.
- Minneapolis study
- random assignment the assulter to one of three dispostions ; arresting him, councelling him or sending him out of the house to cool off.
- Rockefeller Drug laws
- revised its criminal statues relating to drug trafficking in an attempt to make more sever and more certain penalties for the sale and possession of heroin
no evidence that the law had reduced availabily of herion on teh streets.
difficulties in administering the law weakened it deterring power
as penalties get tought, defendants and thier lawyers have greater incentive to slow down processes. And those judges who for private reasons resist heavy sensitive for drug delaying may use their discretionary power to decline indication accept plea bargains.
- Barley Fox Gun Laws
- in contrast to the new york laws, the frequency of punishment did increase, prison sentences were being delt out five times more frequently on person arrest for illegally carrying firearms than had been before the law was passed.
police prosecutors and judges were not evading the law, by contrast to new york the probability of punishment increased for those who were arrested.
- Williams illegal drinking age study
- in 1970 twenty four states lowered their illegal drinking ages shortly their after concluded that changes contribute to the increase in fatal motor vehicle accidents.
- the narrow line
- punishments must be suffeicnt enought to provide deterence but not to extreme as to flood the justice system.
- crime and unemployment
- the relationship between crime and unemployment is probably complex and not simple
ones natural instinct is to interpreted that rising unemployment causes rising crime
But Rising crime might just as easy create rising
Perhaps it is a third variable
for some unemployment leads to crime for others crime leads to unemployment and for still others social disintegration or personal inadequacy leads to both crime and unemployment
- neighborhood youth corps
- gave poor young persons jobs during afternoons and evenings and all days during the summer.
found no evidence that participation in Youth corps had any effect on the propriton of enroll es who came in contract with the police
- followed 325 men who had ben released and those who were able to find satisfactory jobs were less likely than other parolees to have thier parole revoked
- Waldo and Chrisos
- found no differences whatsoever in re arrest rate between person in and out of work release programs
- TARP (transitional Aid Research Project)
- randomly assignin 2000 ex convicts
financial and job placement
analysis reveled that financial assistance could have been administered so as not to cause unemployment than there was a reduction in come.
- MDRC program
- provided jobs to recently let out inmates,
within a year and a half after entering the program,
welfare recipeints and ex addicts benefited from supported work, but ex convicts adn youthfull school drop outs did not
- - If criminals are rational persons with values different from those of the rest of us, then it stand to reason that temperament an family experience which most shape values will have the greatest effect on crime and that perceived costs and benefits will have a lesser impact.
- In a sense the radical critics of America are correct; I you wish to make a big difference in crime rates you must make a fundamental change in society.
- In the past larger social processes had a greater impact on crime rates than they do today (religion temperance movement.)
- Natural and powerful demographic forces rather than the deliberate re establishment of an older culture may increase the values of those few policy tools which a free society can protect itself.
- rockefella drug laws stipulations
- 2 ounches of a illegal subtance mandatory 15 - life.
exempted 15 year olds and shit
- efficnency of rockafella drug laws
- at teh end of a law only 22 percent had been sentance to the stipulations of the law .
- bartley taft gun law
- somone who did not have a lisence carrying a gun is a mandatory 1 year in prison
- Michigan felony firearm statute
- minimum of two years for commiting a crime with a fire arm two year addition
- once a juvenile has been arrested 3 times there was a 70% chance that he would be arrested again
- since we have only a few studies of the effect of detterence on individuals we cannot be confident that increasing the certanty or certivty of punishment would affect this group of hardcore high rate offenders.
- they found that the chances of giong to prison for a crime were higher in texas than in california . the california intames were twice as likley than the ones in texas to say that they though they could commit the same crime again without getting caught.
- one third of all robberies committed in the united states are commited in the six largest cities even though they contian only 8 percent of the population
- 6 percent of young males become cronic offenders
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