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Glossary of psych 324 (ex 3)

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Health Psychology
-Focuses on the causes of illness, the treatment of illness, illness prevention, and health improvement.
What percent of women who are 55 and older experience at least once chronic health problem??
- 80%
Percent of current women medical school graduates?
- 46%
Biases in health care for women patients?
-1) Women have often been neglected in medicine and in medical research.

-2) Gender stereotypes are common in medicine.

-3) Medical care provided to women is often irresponsible or inadequate.

-4) Physician-patient communication patterns often make women feel relatively powerless.





Mortality def?
Death rate
Why do women live longer?
- 2nd X chromosome may protect them from health problems

-Gender differences in activities and lifestyles are also likely.

-Women are MORE LIKELY than men to visit their heal-care providers more often.



Morbidity def?
illness or bad health
Gender comparisons in overall health?
-women more likely to experience lifelong illnesses, fatigue, obesity, respiratory illness, etc.

-women live longer then men.

-women more likely than men to experience illness and poor health.



How many people- especially women- have NO health insurance?
- more than 46 million us citizens
Gender differences in health insurance?
- men are MORE LIKELY than women to have private insurance provided by their employers.

-women are MORE LIKELY to have medicaid insurance (2nd class benefits) or NO insurance at all.

Women in developing countries?
-Most will never meet a physician, nurse, etc.

-females are likely to suffer when resources are scarce.

-sons are MORE LIKELY to seek medical care than daughters.

-only the wealthiest females have access to medical care.





Female genital mutilation (female genital cutting(
- Cutting or removing the female genitals.
Cardiovascular Disease
- heart attacks, strokes.

- the MAJOR cause of death for U.S. women. more deadly than cancer.

-BLACK women MORE LIKELY than WHITE women to die of heart disease.



Breast Cancer.
- 180,000 women are diagnosed each year.

-40,000 die each year.

Mammogram.
-X-ray of the breast (picture of breast tissue.

-tissue is flattened between 2 plates.

-women over 50 should have yearly exams.



Lumpectomy.
-Surgery that removes the cancerous lump and the immediate surrounding breast tissue.
Cervical Cancer.
-effects the lower portion of the uterus.
Pap Smear test.
-The gynecologist takes a sample of cells form the cervix to see whether they are normal, precancerous, or cancerous.
Cancer of the Cervix.
- Latinas and other women of color MORE LIKELY to die form cancer for the cervix.
Cancer of the Ovaries.
- HIGHEST rate of death of gynecological cancers.

-Symptoms: cramping, abdominal cramping, and vomiting.

-Needs more research.



Osteoporosis.
- Bones become less dense and more fragile.

-Women FOUR times more likely than men to develop this.

-Common among older women.



Disability Studies.
- Examines disabilities from the perspective of social sciences, natural science, the arts, and media studies.
Disability.
-A physical or mental impairment that limits a persons ability to perform a major life activity in the manner considered normal.
Percent of women in the US that have a disability?
- 21%
Elderly women...
- are ESPECIALLY likely to have a disability.
Ableism
-Discrimination on the basis of disability.
Work and the disabled...
- 44% of disabled women are employed.

-49% of disabled men are employed.

-Women w/disabilities average income is 60% of the average man w/disability income.



Heterosexual women with disabilities...
- are LESS LIKELY to date and to marry.

- 28% of women w/disabilities live alone, contrast to 8% of women w/no disabilities.

Women with disabilities are often...
- Excluded from the social world that involves love relationships, sexual desires, and friendships.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Has potential to destroy part of the immune system.

-Invades white blood cells and reproduces itself.

- then Destroys white blood cells (the cells that fight infectious diseases).



AIDS
- estimated 2,900,000 people have died worldwide

-The SECOND leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults.

Ethnicity and AIDS
- Ethnicity is related to the diagnosis of AIDS.

-Black women account for 69% of all females who are HIV positive.

Transmission of AIDS.
-Most women are infected because used injected drugs, or sex with an infected person.

-Heterosexual transmission of AIDS is much more likely in women than men.

HIV and AIDS medical aspects. (HIV positive)
-Women who are HIV positive are likely to develop cervical cancer and vaginal infections.

-People who are HIV positive can be contagious in early stages who no symptoms.

-HIV can damage the central nervous system.



Psychological aspects of HIV & AIDS.
- HIV-positive likely to experience depression, anxiety, anger, and fear.

-Family members may show no sympathy.

Condom Use.
- less then 40% of women report they ALWAYS use condom.s

-Men control whether they use one.

-LATINO MEN likely to control decisions about condoms.



AIDS cure?
-NONE
Percent that does not enclose to their sexual partner that they have HIV?
- as much as 40%
Prevention for AIDS?
-Sex ed that emphasize condom use.
Sexually transmitted Diseases (STD)
-Women are MORE LIKELY to be infected from a single sexual encounter.

-Produce fewer symptoms in women than in men.

-Women suffer the most severe long-term consequences of STDS.



Worst 5 diseases for women.
-HPV
-Gonorrhea
-Syphilis
-Genital herpes
-Chlamydia



HPV
-Human papillomavirus

-Most common STD in the US between ages 15 & 24.

-Pap smear test can help identify it.



Chlamydia
-Can cause infertility
Genital Herpes
-Not curable

-Lead to cervical cancer

Gonorrhea
-Cause infertility
Syphilis
-May be difficult to detect in women.
Smoking
-Cigarette smoking is largest preventable cause of death in the US & other developed countries.

-178,000 A women die each year from diseases related to smoking.

Lung cancer
-Only 15% survival rate after 5 years of being diagnosed.

-44,000 US women die each year.

Women who smoke, increase their risk of...
-Cervical cancer
-Infertility
-Miscarriages
-premature births
-early menopause



Smoking rates..
-22% of women smoke in US, 26% men.

-Ethnicity has major effect on smoking= 41% NA

Factors that start smoking?
-Peer pressure for adolescents

-To control weight and keep slim.

-Black women LESS LIKELY then White to be obsessed with weight and appearance.



Alcohol Abuse (def)
- A pattern of alcohol use that repeatedly leads to significant impairment.

-missing work/school, arrests, family problems.

Problems caused by Alcohol
- Liver disease, ulcers, brain damage, HBP, heart attacks, strokes, cognitive problems, various cancers.

-In women.

Fetal alcohol syndrome
-Characterized by facial abnormalities, retarded physical growth, psychological abnormalities, mental retardation.

-children who are born to alcoholic mothers are LIKELY to have this.

Gender & Alcohol
-Ages 18-45, 4% of women & 9% of men abuse alcohol.

-High school girls drink slightly more than males.

-College males drink slightly more then females.



Binge drinking
-Five or more drinks in a row (for males), four or more drinks in a row (for females)
Other substance-abuse problems
-Adult women are MORE LIKELY to abuse sedatives and tranquilizers than males.

-Adult men are MORE LIKELY to use illicit drugs (weed, LSD)

-Men are MORE LIKELY to know someone who sells drugs



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