Glossary of psych 305 midterm 1
Created by tbelshei
Other Decks By This User
- the impact of a situational factors and thier role in contributing to differences in behboir, situationsalism is the ntional that is constant in behvoiralism
- milgram obeidence study
- blaah, blaah authority
- endler 1983
- found mechanistic models: focus primary on how situations inflence certainpeoples behvoirs
reciprical interactionism: model allow for the possibility that not only does the situaiton have influence but the prson can have influnece on the situation.
- speilberger 1972
- traight anxiety: a person usual or t ypical level of anxiety (ie chronic worier, would be exceptionaly high in trait anxiety)
state anxiety: the current or momentary feeling of anxiety experinced at a specific poitn in time.
- level of state anxiety
- is a joint function of levels of trait anxiety and situational experiences
- personaly factors account for 10% of the variance in behavoir while situational factors accountred for almost 13% of the varaince.
- cardinal traits
- often refered to as supertraits
- allport and dobert (super traits)
- allport and obdert ammased 36,000 terms and adjectives,
- lexical aproach
- the tendency to ammas personality characteristics out language
- Cattell (1943) (lexical) approach
- reduced thousands of adjectives into 132 term and then reduced htem further to just 35 terms, used a statistical approach known as factor analysis
- Cattel 16 personaly factor system
- based on his factor analysis?
- Eysenecks PEN model: extroversion/ intro version
- defined a socaible, lively, active, assertive, sensation seeking, carefree, dominant and venturesom, key distinction that introverts are not neccsarily shy they just dont desire to meet new people
- Eysenecks Pen Model/ Neurotiscism
- related to symbpathetic nervous sytem, anvious depresssed, guilt feeligns, low self estree, tense, irrational, shy and moody and emotional (tendency to be neurtoic) rather than crazy
- eysenicks pen model / Psychotism
- agressive cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive, anti social, unempathetic creating adn though minded low on super ego control
- pen model: intro/extro arousal
- introvers are over aroused, and extroberts are under aroused, in crime and personality, eysneck characterize the criminal perosnality as being hihg on psychotism extroversion and neuroticsm.
- conditioning studies on neuroticsism
- people who are high in Neuroticsm and extroversion are less able to learn from thier mistakes by linking behvoirs whit the consquences that follow. (poor conditionalibily
- psychpathy checklist revised by hare
- First factor Egocentricity, manipulativeness and callousneess
second factor: unstable and antisocial lifestyle marked by impulsivity and irresponsiblity
- gold berg 1980 big....
- coined the term big five in reference to the five factor model.
- Costa and MCrae (1992) had an objective
- set out to deveope a personality cale that could measure supertrait without have to use langauge (NEO PI r)
- costa and mcrae (1992)
- 1) Neuroticm
2) extroversion introversion
3) openness to experince
- Digmann 1997,, AB
- could inporate costa and mcrae into two super traits \
beta (personal growth)(extroversion and intellect)
- an irrational tendency to delay tasks that should be completed(LAY)
- watson 2001
- procastinatio meant, low on consciencousness, not organized, not responcible, at least 25% of students sufer from sever levels of procastination
- Lay 1987 (procastination)
- most procrasinators tend to be pessimistic about the future (also can have a optomistic procrasinator "that they seek the thrill in it"
- the barnum effet
- the widespread tendency for people to acccept personality feeback provided to them as accurate even though its quite vauge. cold reading blahh
- Boyce and Geller
- showed the bennifits of preparing student s by instructing them about the barnum effec tand teachign them critical thinking skills
- ando 1995 Personality and bloodtype
- majority of japanese university students answer yes asked whether blood typing reveals a mans personality. japanese military did it. (my boyfreind is a type B)
- type A blood
- reserved and mild mannered, and fulll of worry
- b blood
- cheefull independant and light hearted
- an external presenation of type B characteristics on the outside but type A features on teh inside
- calm patient strongg willed self convicned an full of convidence.
- personality traight
- refers tp continous personality characteristics, (somewhat pessimist or somewhat optomistic )
- personality type
- dicrete categories, Differ Qauntiavvely in kind rather than in degree
- Sheldons Somatotype Theory
- he posited a link betwee body types and personality temperments, all corelational rather than causational
- sheldon endomorphic bt
- soft body, underdeveloped muscles and round hsaped
love for food
eveness of emtions
love of comfort \
- sheldon Mesomorphjic body type
- hard muscular body, over mature appearance, rectangual shaped
adveturous desire for power
domiance and courageous
- sheldon endomorphic
- super skinny
self concouss, preffer privacy
introverted inhibited, mentally intence, emtional restrained
- sheldon, kinda lame
- photgraphed students nude, conduced all the reserch himself. far from double blind
- Dennis child
- sheldons findings much les robust when proper procidures were put in place
- changed the thinking when he realized that the majority of hte people are ambivert with cahracterisitic of both introversion and extroversion.
- Corda dubois
- various cultures could be constrasted int terms of model personalites
- benedicts 1946,
- the study of national character is the sudy of learned learned cultural bhevoir and that given focus on all the people from the country the mpahis on common personality aspect of people
- Barret and Eysenck 1984 ex happy
- in most text extroversion was the best predictor of happiness
- highest scoring extroversion countires
- nigeria isreal and nigeria, india
- lowest scoring extroversion countires
- china and iran
- at best correlation between personalty traits and behvoirs is .3 about 10 percent
- acheivment striver, competence and diliberation
- trust straightforwardness, altruisim, complaince. modesty, tyendermindedness
- constiutional psychology
- relfects the link betwen personallty and phsyical attributes. (sheldon)
- Ruth Bennedict
- in patterns and culture descrive several culure characteristics
1) appolian: calm and reserved
2) dynoesian: impulive and engage in excess
3) paraniod: preoccupation with possibl betrayals
4) megolmaniiac: overemphasis on wealth and prestige.
- Block ego control and ego resilancy
- ego control: personal degree of impulse control, including control of emotional and motivational tendiecies
ego resiliency: is ability to alter behvoir, according to situational demands
- Nagin and Trebmly 2001
- developmental trajectories are levels of particualr behvoir over time. Flat trajectory, declined trajectory in relation to levels of agression.
- allports bold assumptions
- 1) a personality trait ahs more than a nominal exisitance, allport believed that personality traiths are real entities taht reside within people the concepted fo a trait is not simply a metaphor or symbol
2) a personalitry trait is more generalized than habit, allporot believed tha tpersonaly traits tend to be manifest across situations and life circumstances. this asseration ahs resulted in research on cross situational consistency
3) a personally trait may be established empirically
4) a personality trait is only relatively independent of other traits: the content a nd processes associated with certain traits often overlap kind and altruisitic, behvoir could be enacted by multiple traits
5) a personality trait may be viewed either in the light of personality which it contains if or in teh light of its distribution of the population at large
6) acts and even habits that are inconsistnent with a trait are not proof of non existence of that trait
- common traits cardinal traits
- traits that everyone shares, allport put more of a empahsis on unique traits, a person could be chartarized by one or two cardinal dispositions that are central to thier personality as well as 5 central dispositions that are less obvous and less generalized yet still key components of personality.
- White effecience Theory
- argued that we all have the drive to be competent and a drive to demonstrate impact on outher people and object the self.
- Mischells Challenge to the Trait approach
- 1) traits are poor predictors of behvoirs in situation with correlations between trait measures and behvoiral measure in situations being relatively low
2) the situaiton is better than personality traits in seeking to account for individual differnces in behvoirs
personality coefficeint was .3
- Hans Eysnick
- psotulated a heirachal model of personality that had four levels of specific cognitions
2) actual acts or cognitions
3) trait level - significant intercorrealtions between habitual behvoirs and a realted theme.
4) order traits or borad dimension. (ie extroversion introversion ) (more work)
- Played a important role in the emergence of the five factor model advanced the arguement for including coneincousnes.
- Revell and Mcadams
- Cfritizesed the five factor models (to descriptive)
- Cattel (personality sphere)
- suggested that our overachring goal should be to get an unbaised estimate of the whole in term of toality of human behavoir. he coined he term personality sphere
- developed the term, Locust of control. which refers to invidiual differnces in internal verse external control and reinforcement.
- Levinsons IPC Locust of control Scale.
- measures are culturally senstive
cohort effect, invove changes in locust control over time. more changes in women.
- Desire for control
- reserach tells us whether a person feels the he or she is in control of the outcomes or is in control by factors outside of self. Buger and cooper desire for control scale. depression assocaited with a external locust of control
- Gerbarld and BRosschot 2002 (LOC)
- isolate three factors within the desire for control scale
1)desire to change and control other
2) desire to establish a sence of control
3)willingness to reliquish control to outhers
- Digman and chldren
- confirmed the existance of the five factor model in children
these big personality factors becoem evident early in life.
- Zang et all 2002
- chinese prents spontaneously generate more description that reflect consceincousnes category than dutch parents, in these studies you ask parents to describe the kids
- a cross culural study about lying.
- lie scores greater in collectivist cultures, becuase lieing is assocaited with social desiraiblity. (zhang.)
- Cross sequencial study
- chose a group of people, but you choes numerous groups, study numerous groups in a longitiudal mannter.
- W. James 1890m
- Plastiscity: is the possession of a structure weak enough to yeild in influnce but strong enough not to yeild al at once. (gradual evolving change in personality)as you become older your brain becomes mroe plaster and more rigid.
- Mcae and Costa: master theory
- personality is pretty well fixed by age 30, some psychologists beleive that personality disorder are plter difficult to cahgne as opposed to mood disordres.
- Butteryfly effect
- a small change can lead to a very large effect
- Power of Continuity
- a large change may have no predictable effect, it may be insocnqiencal, someitmes significant events dont change much
- Soldz and Valliant 1999 - ipsative stability
- means measuring yourself against yourself, concerned with comparing a persons performance on a taks wiht that same person over time. compare same behvoir in the same person over time. some psychologist are more concered with rank that isalative stability ( ie ordinal position on a skale
- Ender and Caspo (1988)
personality and stress are related
- life stressors tend in increase the stability of personality traits over tiem becuase peopel respond to lfe stress by returnign to familiar ways and tendeices. (sressors exxagerate or acentuarge exisiting psychologicl features. (if your understres you giong ot use ure first language) somtimes stresfull situations change perosnality if the stresssors maybe highly incogruent with existing personality tendieces.
- Loehiln Et Al. 1985
- found little resemblance in thier presonalites of children and thier adoptie parents as well as little resemblance between adoptive siblings.
- families that adopt end up not being very similar to each other even though there raised in the same setting.
- Rothbard and putnam 2002 - temperment
- temperment is not the what of behvoir but the how of behvoir, differances are often releted in differnces in style expressive behvoirs
- Thomas and Chess
- Used temperament dimensions to distinquish 3 types of children
1)the easy child
2) the difficutl child
3) the slow to warm up child
- TC easy child
- 40%, even tempered typically postive, quite adaptive, predicatble habits
- TC diffucult child
- about 10%, active irrratabel, nd irregual habits often react vigorously and negatively to change in routine
relativly slow to adapt to new people and new circumsntaces
- TC slow to warm up child
- finally the slow to warm up child quite inactive and moody
similar to dificut in being slow to adapt, but much less demonstrative than diffcult children
- Thomas and Chess 1989 (goodnes poornes fit)
- attribute these outcomes to goodness or poornes of fit n terms of childs characteristics and environment.
parental treatment can reinforce or exsaservate pre existin differances in temperment, but by the same token, parental treatment extinguish or mute tempermental characteristics. ie if child is diffuclt and mother is an extrovert not as big a deal. somtimes if their diffuct a mom might just say the hell withit.
- Kagen et al
- focused on temperment in the form of behvoiral inhibition
about 10% of hcidlren are severl u inhbiyted. gender and cultural differances come to play wehen prediting long term success with these children conclusion, therfor shyness is less likely to be rewarded in Us than in Sweeden
- 1998 squeaky wheel Hypothesis, t
- endency to allocate more resources to thsoe who are more likely to fuss and make thier need known as cargivers.
- squeky wheel hyptohesies.
- Diana bumring 1917 and parenting styles
- Authoritarain: over invovled with thier children by bieng to restrictive punative and over controling
they dont want you to rationalize or argue with them
Permissive: show little invovlemnt and may seem disinterested in thier children, allow a child to engage in wahtever acitvies, no expecations
Authortitative: limites and rules but they can be expressed with warmth and a open diaglogue
- Diana Buamring continued
- children respond to peceived harshness fo thier parents by externalizing or interralizing problems. leads to poorer intelecual and social development
exteralzing = hyperaitivy
interalizingt = deprssion.
authortiraina dn permssive lead to negatige outcomes.
- Hoffmans categories of Discipline : power assertion
- power assertion: using rewards and punishments (used with care usualy a short cut to get kid to do what you want them to do.
- Hoffman : love withdrawal
- expressign dissaproval of a child rather than a action, more commonly used wiht mothres than fathers
- verbal reasoning, most diffuct time, becuase of time, requires patines, best though
- influence is bidirection
- the concept of self socialization is baed on the realiztion tht a developing child can make choices and act in such a manner as to infleucne the feedback recevied form others and situations.
- Harris 1998, parents/ child interaction
- parents actions or interaction contribute little to the child interactions i thier personality development, main factors are genetects and infleunces of peer group
- Mcrae (role of culture) 2004
- culuture doe snot have an effect on personality, but personality has an effect on culture
- Deater decard and doge 1997
- parental physical discipline is assocated with agressive behbvoir in european american children but these varibles are either not assocateed or are assocaited negativly with aferican americna children. (key weather physical discipline is approriate within the culture)
its absolut e forbidden in sweeedn.
- invovles a extensive self focus on the indivual and his or her immedate family
- invoes much more of a group empahsis and fostering the cnnection between self and outher people ie china japan but all new genrations are less collectivistic
- Masimuto colectivsim
- much more indivudalist than expected
- Halloway and Behrens 2002
- harhs prental treatment in japan was assocat ed with increased parenting self efficacy.
- Guan (chao 1994)
- refer to a mode of parenting in china which is focused on training. predictor of life happy ness in hongkong but not china.
- Type A
- highly competitive acheivment striving , speed and time urgency
hostility, related to cardio vascular disease characteristics can bee idefitied n children as young as 4-5 years. , there are toxic components and non toxic components of type A
- Type B children
- respond more sloly when working on a task without a time contrain but act similiary when given a time constrain. act like type A
- Fiedman and Ulmer 1984
- type A behvoir is desinged to compensate for feelings of inforiority and that type a behboir attempst to gain approval form signicant outhers.
- Steinberg 1987 imapience anger compnent
- impatince anger compnent was found amoung adolsene with temperments incovling low adaptiily lwo persistne and low sensory threshold.
- Rosenman inheratble type a
- tyoe a behvoir has inhreatible genetic componentt
- Wiedener et all (200): type a biolocal part
- the inherted biological component is most evident in the indivudal differnces in cynical hostility: pessimistic belevies adout the world and outher people in type A
- Matthews yout test for health 1978
- testing type a behboir
2) impatience agression.
hostility seems to be a active ingreedient in health problems
- Keltikangas - jarvinen and Heinonen 2003 - type a families
- 1) family that is not type A
2) family that is descibed as "postive family type A
3) negatie type a family
people with toxic type a have low life sasisfaction and vise versa
- Imposture phenominon
- is most prevlain amoung educated and educated sucssesfull people
it is a feeling that you may experience after success, invovles telling yourself i did it this time but i dont deserve it feeling of i was succesfull due to luck only today, fee like they dont deserve it
- John et al Little five
- Connotes the test for the five factor model for young people. this study confimred the existance of the five factor s and two outher which were identified as irritaibiy and acitivty
- russian children, reported three tenths of parents spontaneously described thier children in ways that touch on all fiv efactors and almost 7 /10 of partnes provided the descriptions that touched on four factors.
- Eysenicks big three in children
- Nueroctism, extroversion and psychotism (may require some modification
- mean level stability
- longitudinal investigation in which the same sample of particpants followed over time an means omapred acors tim e
- Moskowitz, Zurkoff (2004)
- flux: somone who is high in interpersonal sensitivy and is quite reactive to feedback fro others often by responding in kind
Pulse: invididual differences in the overall extremity of interpersonal behvoir
spin: indiviudal differences in differant interperosnal styles (nice to somone hostile to outher one)
- Bell and Chapman 1973 biderectionality
- parents and children influence eachouther.
self socialization: is based on the realization that a developing child can make choices and act in such a manner as to influence the feedback received from outehr sitations that he or she experinces.
- Rogosch and Cicetti
- parental harshness can have very disasterous effect on personality development
comapred 135 maltreatd children
- tenembum and lempkin schema
- significant correaltion betwwen parents and thier childrens gender schemas
- Hofstede 2001
- examined the link between indivudalism and extroversiona robust assocation.
- Karen Mathews
- poineer in the feild of personaly psychology, Matheys you test for health see outher cue
- Random assignment
- particpants are allocated randomly into subgroups, when you draw fom a population its random
- Moderator or interaction effect
- the effect of an independant varible is influened by a level of anouther independant varible (see notes if confused)
- Meditaor effects pg 20
- if a factor is a mediator this suggests that the link betwee a varaible and anouther varible exists primarily of thier mutual link with anouther interveing varible that influence both these varibles
- Baron and Kennys 1986 criteria for Mediation
- a significant assocation between predictor varible and t he criterion varible
a signicnat assocaiton between predictor varible and medaitor varible
and meditor vaible must be a signicant predictor of the criterion varible
- active model
- there are three addtive effects if both types of factors are significant but contirbutue indepdnatly to the predictions of anouther actor
- Demand Characterstics
- most people in experimental studies have a great desire to please the experimetn. , they will try t0 fulfill thier role as a good expeirment by guessing the hypthesis and then trying to get it.
- Median split
- potenitally valuable information is low becuase a range of scores is transformed into a categorical varible.
50 higher 50 lower , advatnage equal # in both groups
- tertial split
- dis: does not gauratnee equal #
advant: dont lose data you can create as many groups as you want but have to explain the cutt of points. (you need a big sample)
- Robinson 1989 ambiverts
- have an optimal level of arousal and optimal functioning in terms of intellegence extreme introversion or extroversion have assocaited levels of arousal that limit intellgence.
- Regression to the mean
- some people will have high scores becuase they are actually high on the attribute but other people will appeal to ahve high scores becuase scores are inflated by measurement erro4r
- carlson 1971
- 71% of studies were exiermental in ature, does this genarlize (external valdity)
- Endler and spreer
- 2/3 studies reviwed by ender and speer were baed on data provided by university students.
- sears 1986 stundents and external validity
- we can realy genaerlize it if were usaing all studntes, mudy break the dependancy on the narrow database
- endler and speer 1998 cros sec
- only 3% are longitudinal., most predominant method was statisical method was correlation. , no causal realtionship
- Block 1977: (L data, ) O Data, T data
- L data - life recond inclduing indivudal faily occuaptional and marital pasts
o data - rating an indivudal by her peers or family members
tdata- performance tests, measure of behvoir and other objective labratory measurement.
- L- Data: the life record including an individuals family occupational and marital pasts
- O-Data (block)
- rating an indivudal by her peers or family member (observer judgment)
- block T data
- performance tests, mmeasure behvoir in a lab
- negative correlation
- exist when there is a liner assocaition between varibles such taht as one varible tend to icnrease the other varible tends to decrease to a coresponding degree
- cohen and corelation coeficinets
- suggested that correaltional coefficients in the order of .1 are small, correlation coeficins about .3 is meduim and .5 is large
- HEmphil 2003 asprin
- even a .03 correaltionc an have a great impact on saving lifes
- directionality issue
- if two varaibles are related all that can be stated is that they are asocaited with eachouther it cannot be assumed that the variblity associted with one carible cuased or contributed to the varible of the other varible
- structured vs unstructrued assesments
- structured assesments are close ended scales in which the scale content has already been determioend by teh people who ahve constructed the meaures and the particpants inidicated thier responce to each itep by selceting an obpetion, an open ended ended scale peopel geerate thjier responces , unstructed assesment can be in the form verbal resp0oncses given during an interview
- se;f report measures and thier limitations
Krugger and dunning 1999
- validit y is regarded wit h sceptiscms
a very large portion of college students who are not skilled beleive they are, self deception
- people with high self deception were rated by aqaintences as arrogant hostile, low in warmth and overconfidence about thier true abilities.
- Social desirability bias
- people have a general tendency to create a postive impression in the eye of other peopela dn one way they can accomplish this is is to answer personality items in a way that makes them appear disriable and importnat.
- tomaka blasovich and kelsey 1992 , impression managment
- provided clear evidence showing that it is possible to empiracly distinguish impression management and self deception
showed theaat people who had high self deception appraised the looming tasks as less threatening and objective measures showed that people high in self deception were less reactive during the acual task
- MCrae and Costa 1983
- amoung others have argued that individual differences in social disirability reflect persoanly triats that is of interest in its own right, not simply as a variable of neucsience.
they found that particpants with high levels of social disirabiliy were related by both themselves and by the information as being high in trait leves of conscousneess and low in neurotisicm. it is a personality construct of importance.
- Flett 1988 impression managment
- both impression managment and self deception infleuicne self reports of emtional expeirnce . higher levels of impression managment were associated with reproted experince of negative emtionas that were less frequent and insense and shorter in duringtion.
self deceptions was associated with less negative emitons and more psotive ratings of postive emotions.
- Personality measures to select employeees.
- subsequent research showed that both high consceinousness and low neutois were good predictors of job performance.
use of latency based time indences
ahsoton - forced choice options are better inorder for people not to lie.
- Funder 1980
- found that agreement between self reprots and informant ratings were high when traits high in social desirability are being rated.
tendencies to describe traits to the target person who is being evualted is postiviity bias.
- Suadanon 2000
- temperments of related babies were quite similar but thier mothers reported them as being quite differant.
shows observer bias.
- problems associated with the internet (johnson)
- submission fo duplicate protocols
failures to fully read items
an unacceptable number of missing responces
carless completion of protocol
- goldberg and smith and E honesty
- internet faciliates hoensty, people lack the eithical debreifing though
- Douglass jackson 1970
4 principles PTD
- 4 principles of personality test development
1) overriding importance of psychological theory
2) need to supress responce style varaince
3) the importance of establishing a convergent and disciminative validy of a measure at the start of the deveopment process.
- Nomological network
- must be outlined as part of the initial process, the nomological network consits of the factors and varibles that are theoreticaly related to the construct in question
- Differential reliablity index
- to evaluate wwheter a particualr test item has to high a correaltion with a measure of social desirability
- Internal consistency
- Homogenity exists if all scale items are tapping the same construct and there are high correlation between the item and the toal scores of items that make up the intended factor being measured
- Lee Chronback 1951 alpha
- introduce the alpha coeficcient, which is based o the degree of intercorelations amoung scale items. a good nubmer is .7
- test re test relaiblity
- is the stability of test scores over time and
- Constuct validity
- to what extent does a measure reflect an abstract hypothetical personality differences (or question your asking)
- content validity
- does a measure have breadth because it has items that fully asses the peronaly construct in question.
- Criterion validity
- is the measure assocated with other measures it should be realted to either measured at the same time or later in time.
- Discriminant validity
- is a measure unrelated to a measure that it should be not related to.
- ecological validity
- does the measure predict meaningfull outcomes in the enviroment.
- factorial validity
- does the hypothses factor strucre of the emaure replciate when tested via factor analysis.
- incremental validity:
- does the measure predict significant unique varince in the outcome varible and beyond the varible attrubatble to anouther predicted varible.
- back translation
- it is perfered when translating in a scale to anouther languaage inorder to maximase language tranlsation.
- sigment freud intro
- he emphasised on the role of unconscous infleunce on our conscouss behbvoirs, thoughs and feelings
he used the introspective method; analysis of ternal thoughts and images including dreams
he baesed his theory at least in part on his own personal introspectiosn adn self anlaysis, his approach was retrospective.
super ego =
conscience+ ego ideal, obeys morality principle
it operates on the perfection prcinciple, the notion that we must act perfectly by meeting soceital dictates, which often come in the form of endorsing and intrenalzing our parents values
- instincual drives fueled by libido, obeys pleasure principle ,
can be satisfies with primary process thinking, which is fantasies.
- mediator between ego adn super ego, obeys reality , determined primarly by a persons experinces , delay gratification until the right time and right place.
- both the id and superego are infleunced by the past
- the id reflects impact of heredity while the superego reflects the infuence of signifcant others in early life
the super ego could also reflect the influce of later succesor such as teachers and public figures who coem to represtn social ideals.
- Freuds stages theory of psychosexual development
- freud beleived that personality developes during a series of psychsexual stages. at each stage a particulr area of the body is the main source of pleasure and sexual gratification for the id and its impluses.
- results from getting to much or too litle gratifcation. the adult personality is a reflection of how these early stages of childhood are dealt with and resolved.
- Neurotic anxiety
- ego is pressured with the id
- realistic anxeity
- ego has problem with reality, has problems with external world rather than interanal.
- defence mechanisms
- unconscious strategies that help by warding of anxiety
they help the id express some of its engery so that the id does not get out of controla nd become too overwhelming
- adaptive and maladaptive defense differ not only in temrs of thier maturity but also in terms of thier conscous awareness.
- 10% of ourselfs is in conscouss awareneess
90% is unconsous or the pre concouses, the goal is to bring this to the center in psychonalysis.
- Wish fullfillment
- Fantasies relfect whishes adm baser desires of the ID
- sex instinct (part of the ID)
- death instict part of id
- Odipus complex / electra complex
- we come to internalize parents value as a way of resolving the odipus complex at age 4 they coert opposate sex parents.
balanced betwen love of his mother and fear of his father and castration anxiety
- penis envy
- girls sufferr from penis envy, they can compnste for this y developing a realationship with thier father.
- F's view on culture
- the world culture and civlization are the same. he defined culure as the sum of acievments and insitutions which differntiate our lives form tjhose of our animal forbearers.
fured focuses on cultur as source of dississtaifactio and unhappiness for people becuase it restrice the ids searhc for pleaure.
- fr souces of dissatisfaction
- the invidivual must give up his or her power to a broader group, cilvization resticts freedom , eros and thantos are reprssed
- fr stages of development: oral stage
- streches from brith to 18 months of age, pleasure centered oral feeding sucking biting, understimulation couold result in a dependant personality, to much gratifacation resutls in overeating or smoking
- fr stage psychosexual
- streches from approximaetly 18th montsh to 3 or 4 years. here pleasure is cetered ar ound the anus, too much gratification can result in somoen over orderlyy and focused on cleanlies to little slobbish person.
- fr stages
- most controversial stage becuse it iduces oepus and electra compelxes it occurs normal in ages 406 , pleasure from the genital ares,
- latency period
- this streches from 6-12 years old , psychsexual urges remaind orman and are sublimated by a focus on school and freind activities
- gential stage
- final stage coincides closely with adolesnce and the physical changes that accompnay puberity. here psychseuxal pleasure is refocused on the gential area with the goal of estblishing a healthy heterosexual realtionships as opposed to uncously lusing after the opposate sex parent
- DM - F
- refusing to recognize objective events in conscouss awareness, not accepting that you are termina ill for ex
- re directing distress from original target to somthing else yelling at ure gf cuase of ure boss
- attibuting personaly undesirably thoughs and feelings to outhers, ie erotic urges by calling your freind a slut.
- reaction formation
- transformation unacceptabel though and urges into thier exact ppopases acting in agree able manner to somone you despise is an example
- retreating to a earlier stage when lfie was presumably simpler, dealing with work stress by asking for nap.
- being unable to remember or reflect on past events or impulses regarded as the most signifcant childhood memories can be respressed having a strong impact on adult functioing
- channeling unacceptable impluses into postive behvoir artisic forms of expresion ex
- immature defenses
- while adaptive defence mechamism are mature defences, malladaptive are immature
- anouther more adpative form of defence it involves coming up wiht cognative explation to counter unacceptable thoughs impluses and behvoir.
- they are quite good at avidoing exposure to emtional inf9ormation, they are less liley to recalle negative emtional information in short term, and they are quick to recall happier times after watching unpleasant upsetting stimuli.
- dsq (andrew et all)
- defence sytles questionare
- anticipation, humor, rationalization sublimination, and suppression. , Neurotic defense styles idealization, passive aggression, reaction formation seudoaltruimism, and undoing. a nd immature defense styles, acting out autistic fantasy, denial, devaluation, displacement , dissocation, isolation, projection, somatisation and plitting.
- Vallants Heirachal model of defence mecanisms
- Defense styles vary in thier maladaptiveness verses adaptiveness, as well as thier assocaited levels of developmental maturity.
psychotic defences - dillusions distortion
immature - projection, denial
Neurotic - reaction formation
mature - sublimination, reaprasal
- Phoebe Cramer
- denial is predominant amoung preschool
project - middle childhood
finnaly college predominat is idenfication.
- fRs cons
- apparent abstractjess and untestable aspects of certian concepts
the great importance put on the concept of libito, and psycoseuxal energy. motives may be more general
relaiuce on case studies
patronizing view of women
- frs pros
- his developmental theory pave the way for subseqent advances in the study of children and although he was not first to discus the concept he drewa attention to it
linking personality and culutre in civilization and its discontents.
- Carl Jung
- also beleived in the significane in dream adn general usefulness of projective tecniques
changed psychsxual to psychosocial
- cJ's collective unconsous
- arctypes are symbols that relect our instincts and how they are expressed, jung suggested that arcetypes are pirmoridal images that reflect the themes that strech back to our early ancestors.
- Mandala cj
- specific arcytype which represented by the images of circles, jung spent extensive periods painting and drawing mandala. it refelcts the ultimate goal of developing a complete and unified self wich applies to everyone
- Individualization cj
- a process occurs when a person becomes a psycholgical invdiual by acheiving a seperate unity or whole
- animia anumus (femaile) cj
- refers to the hidden feminine side of men adn the hiddne masculan side of women.
- Shadow archetype cj
- refers to the dark side of personalitty that is in all of us, according to jung,
- Synchronicity cj
- is a term suggested by jung to refer to the cioniciden co occurance of two things that
- intro/extro cj
- jung suggested that extroverts is libito turned outward and introvrets are libito turned inward. objective (extro) vs subjective (intro)
- myers briggs type indicator
- - most mbti widely used indicator of personaly measures in the world.
- it uses four domeitons outlined above
- extroverted rational types
- ex thinking ex feeling
- extroverted irrational type
- ex sensation
- ex intuitive
- introverted rational types
- introverted thinking type
- introverted feeling type
- introverted irrational types
- intro sensation
- intro intuitive
- evaluation of jungs contribution
- he condcuted no imperical tets, some theorys about collective uncounss might not appeal to everyone
great impact on personaly assemsent (basis for MBTI, promotes cross cultural perspecitive.
- alfred alder intro
- movement is called invididual psychology, to reflect the fact that each person is unique and no pervous theory adequently relrects this individuality, acorrding to alder, the term individual psychopy captures the uniquenes of each indivudal developing hsi or her own style of life.
- the inferiority complex aa
- alder oriinated the concept, the inferiority compelx is a sence of not measuring up to expecations and not being on par with outher people, contributes to a deep sence of neurosis
- AA organ inferioirty
- biological weakness, alder suggested that show offs act in a exaggerated way to overcompneste for feelings of inferiity, to overcome these feeling we strive for superiority and perfection
- aa 3 situations gravely mistaken meanings of life
- organ infeiority, children with physical deficinecies migh grow up to be cynical
pampered children made to feel prominent without having to work for it. can beomc dangerous when there out in the real world and no one will pamper them.
3) neglected children: becuase they have expeirnce a life without freindless alder suggested tha they grow up to expect a hostile interpersonal world and will be cold to outhers.
- AA ruling type
- refers to a individuals who need to control outhers and lets other people take the lead with varous things including activties that need to get completed and decitions that must be made.
- aa avoiding type
- highly aviodant and try to run away form probes so they wont be defeatted
- AA social interest
- grows out of a persons ability to master thre basic taks of life, work love and socail interaction.
- AA socain interest and the mom
- poor social in interests can be assocaited with mom
1) mother makes social contact with outhers difficut or does not regard it as important
@) mother pampers the child and mothers him or her, so contact with other is not neccessary.
- Lepper carwheil huber and the uni bomber
- classic exampel of waht happens in extrme cases of the supioerity complex.
- AA birth order and prsonality
- first born are overly conservative and willing to bow to authpority, which they learned was a way to placate thier parents
second born - are seen as ideal becuase their parents have learned from thier mistakes,
- Sulloway birth mdoel order niche
- he proposed that the second born are rebellion becuase thi is the one way of gaining parental attentiona and distinguishing them from the first borns who are higher in acheivement orientation and more acceptivng of parental indices.
- Alders contribution
- inferiority compelx, highly valid
reminded us the significant of social interest and it s role as a potenail buffer of maldjustment,\
theories higly subjective to his experince.
- karen Horney
- three main contradictions that confront everyone
1)the need to be competive and succesfull vs the nee for love and humility
2) conflict between personal goals and outhers welfare
3) although people are told they are free agents, situational and contexual constrains may substanially limit freedom
she was more opptomistic about human nature by frued.
- KH moving toward against or away
- neurotic person desires cuases them to to do
- kh moving toward
- reflects helplessness an excsesive tendency to move toward people reflect the complaint type personality
there is an excessive need for attention approval and wilinges to self sacrifice pelase outhers.
- moving against people kh
- neurotic style that reflects basic hostility, in essence a person has decided to hurt before they can be hurt.
- moving away people kh
- also represnte a detchament and aleination from others, a sence of isloationn inhereitent in the basic anxiety
- frost interpersonal scale
- multidimentional perfectionsim scale , four aspects of pefectionalism
doubts about actions
concern over mitakes
- horney contributes
- importance of examing social conflcits and relatied factors
etesnsive prains for asserting feminist position
- free association
- os the clasic psychoanlytic tecnique pateint is put into a state of relaxationa nd whiel recling on a chouce, then just say what comes into his head
- word assocation test
- developed by jung
- dream analysis
- projective tecniquye
- manifest content
- symbosl in dream
- latent content
- what the symbols mean in teh deeam
- dream symbolism theory FR
- differant objects are suposed to resprent male and female genteialaia, cuase super ego would get pssied at the id, if it finds out nighmare
- Rieser 2001
- emotional events are encoded in memnory and then become relfect in symbosl and themse that emerge in dreams, making it greater emphaiss today,
- Roshcahr inkblod test.
- developed by herman roschart
has incremental validity when preidcting symbpotms of borderline personality disorder and narscisistic personality disorder, did not hav incremental validty in predicitng anti socail personality distorerd
weiner at el reprote testimony related serously challenged in only 6 ioff 70000 cases.
You must Login or Register to add cards