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Glossary of psych 300 god psych is gay

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professional diagnosis cons
lot of professionals who make decitions about psycholgical diosrders are not well trained in the subject docotrs and judges, and even psychitcirs and psychologists have biases. psycholoogists often dotn agree
legal defintiion of disoder
a distrubance of the mind that result in the need for protection of a indiviudal or society
the assignment is a social act which invovles
a set of behvoir
social cutlural context
a labeller

three models
spiritual - larger forces
biological - phsyiology
psychological - learnign experinces that shape you .

spirutal models of psychological disorders soul loss
explanation of symptoms related to depression
possession
evil spirits take over the persons body or soul, agitation adn threatening behvoir
magical insertion
some powerfull foce has placed somthign inside the indivudal that is controlling or poienitng them
spititual offences
tribal soceities and orthodox soceities, the person isnt diong waht the ancestors want and thsi can lead to depression, psychosis, anxiety, nightmares
spiritual model treatment
sri lanka, healing dance for psychotic people lasting 24 hours and resulting in the psirits remove the curse from the individual.
spiritual models insanity in the middle ages
insanity due to satanic possession gods punishment (person must be bade or they must warrent being possesed by satan)
witch pricking
prickign a witch until they no longer yeld and then they were considered a which for nto feeling pain.
first instituations
started by monks, first goverment ones were impliment in 1200 they imprisoned people for protection from soceity. these patients were not treated very well adn were treated liek animals, with no food or clothing to give them.
contemporary spiritual theories
rick warren, global golitahs, spirtual empitness, depression, not fulliing gods purpsoe
Hippocrates
described and clasffied many disroders we study today )rather of modern medicine
galen
four humours
blood (heart)
yellow (liver)
black bile (spleen)
phegm (brain)

treatments/ bleeding out purging





19th century biological theories
german and french school
19th centuary german school
gresinger, korsakov, wernicke,
19th century
charcot, jent, bernheim.
emil kreplin
coined psychosis
german school
exongenous psychosis due to poisonous infection
korsakovs
gschol demential precox
schizophrenai
gschool nerusois
anxiety disroders
neuraesthenia
psychaesthenia
weak neaves and weak psyche
german shcool 19th centuary intervention
physical managemnt
rest deit ventiatlion
cutodial hospitlaization, except no tratment for deterionation of brain, still looking for the poison

german school 19th c
neurosis treatment
rest cure, exhausted irritated nerves would regenerate if the indivu
g 19th surgical excevations neurosis
some people beleived anxiety is cuaesd by infection leading to removal of teeth, hysterocimes, teeth.
warehousing 20th centuary biological persepctives
custodial care warehousing
20th centuary Electroshcok therapy
van meduna, epilepsy, no siezures, sure, lets do it, induse seizures acutaly works for depression , people died though, needed safer way
cerlettti and bini ECT
a way to relaibly produce a siezure but ended
moniz lobodimies early 20th
inventor, severing conneciton betwen frontal lobes and rest of brain was suppsoed to help schizophrena, found greystone found that it dint acutaly help, surugies continued till 60;s
19th centuary moral treatment
moral= emtional treatment, ie focused raising morall.
moral treatment phillipe pinneal
father of moral treamtent, beleived that mental ill were people and desrived good treatmnts no cages or cahins.
moral treatment underlieing phyilisophy
cause of insanity is psycholical, stress dissapointment= morall causes
psychological proceses can be used to treat mentally ill
goal of treatment; reidecutly to the mind to postive thoughts and pstoive actions

treatment moral therapy
an integrated lifestyle
small supprive residentail units wells taffed
supportive respectful interperosnal enviroment
formal instruction
manual labour
stastics and evealtions kept for each pateint




decline in moral treatment
treatment of all
emphasis on protection
incrase in instituional size
patient doctor rate, immigrants, migration, too many people not enough space nor doctor


decline of moral therapya nd biologoical model
had to find a cure so no point in trying to do anthing but warehouding till then
hysteria
wandering womb, the person would become very emtional was prone to fainting dizzines physical complaing, but would develop unusual physical conditioning only women suffered
charctor hypnosis 20th
hypnosis to treat hysteria, people who look liek they have neurlogical disoders who can be treated by hypotnizing them.
Jenet 20th
respression and the unconcous, if somethign is emtionally upsetting it can be repressed and pushed intot eunconcosu part of the mind where it would still infeuce if the person even if they were not aware of it.
20th bruer
talking cure, beleied taht cathatrsus, would releive the pain of somone
structure of mind frued
id ego superego
psychosexual development
oral, anal, phallic latency

primary motivation is discharged biolgical impulsues, most notably seuxal and agressive impulsues

defence mechanisms
sublimination, projection,
denail
repression
rationalization
reaction formation (gay consverative)
helps the ego deal with the id and super ego




goal and technique of pyschoanalysis
bring unconcous to the concous
tecnique
ambiguous situation - therapsits occuational engage in interpeation, evneatly conflcits come otu and are projected onto the therapists
interptation of dreams
transfernace to therapsits
preoccupations in natural speech.






ego psychology 1950
interpersonal treatment in depression and is very effective, patterns suggest that for most of use the way we realted to otheres directly relfets our early experinces in development. early experinces shapes your views and expections
joseph wolpe
psychotherapy by reciprocal inhiibtion
interested in phobias an anxiety disorders, counter coundinging, parining somehting the person has a phobia about with somthing that is realixing
graduated exposure
fear of somthing, have them relax and pciture the feared object to no illicit fear anymore then get closer and closer to acutaly confronting that fear.
exposure and responce prevention
used for ocd, expose the peopel from touchign something they think will continmeinem themand then prevent themselves from washign thems remove the fear of containing them
aversion therapy
over smoking over drinking, drugs that incues vometing when alchol is driknen, well moreso.
flooding
go right to the top of the heirachy and make them go straight to their fear and face it.
thorndike law of effect
orgnaisms are more likley to repeat behvoir is it is rewarded and less likey if it is punishemnt
BF skinner
reinfrocemnt scheudles
punsihemnt
exticntion
suggesetedd that humasn fallow these rats our perosnality is based on reinfrocement scheudels


problems of interests for behvoiral modification using operant conditioning
oppositional defiant disroder
condcut disorder
depression
social phobia
maritial discord



opposiitonal defiant disroder BM
a kid wont follow requests gets defaint angry temper tanrum, parents seem to reinfroce tantrum and defiatn bevhoir

reinfroced gets what he wants, want to uncondiitoning, reinfroicng parents behavoir

conduct disorder BM
antisocial behvoir, criminal behvoir, kids have engaged in delinquent behvoir adn get attention from their peeprs

peers responce reinfroces bad behvoir

depression bm
becaue they havnt learend behvoirs that lead to rienfrocemnt adn therfor arnt gettaany.
about reinfrocemnt from enviroment
soical phobia
havent learned effective social behvoir or have learned innefective socail behvoir
maritial disrcord
havent learned how to communicate effectively unable to engage in behvoir that brings about good realtionships
behvoir modification operant condiitojning treatment
social skill training, bring about postive reinfrocement
behvoiral activation, get them to engage in behvoir that will keep reinfrocemnt coming and keep it postitive

contignency managment tecnqiues - if somone is controlled setting you can systematically reinfroce or punish their behvoir. alcholics, punish drinking reward not drinking


Bandura main points
complex behvoir
vicarous learning
vacarous controlling - we can pick up behvoirs from outher people indirect classical conditioning chidlren observing their mother beign afraid of a thunderstorm wil vicarously learn fear as well.

modelling and bm
using observational learning, therapsits models approapraite skills behvoir leads to vicarous counter conditioning

problems of interest
phobias
interpersonal problems
antisocial behvoir
oppositional defiant disorder





1960's cognative therories and therapies

rational emotive therapy

not an event or situation that causes fear anger or emtional state, it is your personal interpreation of the event that determines if somethign produces negative emtions which infleunces the enviroment influences feedback then infelucnes your perception
1960s cognative therapies \
cognatative therapy BEck
cognitive therapy for depression, trained spychaonalsits deceided depression wasnt a mood disroder it was a though disrode. because of thigns that happens people they develop baisses (schemas) ways of thinking and theses situations bias our interpeations and perceptions of envorment leading us to be unhappy or unscessfull the key to cognative therapy si to manipualte these schemas intill they invovle health perceptions.
contemporary models of psychopathology
biological processes attempts weave together how biology and psychopathology interact to produce these effects
psychological learning processes
socail development proceses, interpersonal cultural

supportive evidence of contemporary models of psychopathology
enriched enviroments prevent expression of genetically medaited memory deficiency in rats

parenting styles affect genetic expression

traumatic early life experinces have been known to alter neurchemcial activity



SE enriched enviroments
enriched enviroments prevent the expression of genetically medaited disorders

geneically identically rats raisd in diffearnt labs performed stadardized tests very small difernces lead to great differances in performance .

Evidence parenting sytles affect genetic expression of emtion
easily stressed rat pups raised by calm mothers grew up calm

geneticaly reactive mothers reared by calm mother sgrew up coalm adn rasied the ofsprin int eh same way

chidlren of schizophrenic parents rasaised by a functional family did not develope the disroder





traumatic early life experinces
early stresfulll sit causes deficits in serotonin in genetically suceptible primates.

adult suriviors of childhood exual abuse display change sin hippocapus.

gene
sequence of dna molecules
chromisoms
series of gense, 46 chromisomes arranged in 23 pairs
heritability of psychological disorders
enviromenatl infleunes switch on gesne
genetic contributions to personality traits and cogantive about ilities range from 30-70 percent
Diathesis stress model
inherited genetic vulneraiblity is triggered by stresfull events.

short sertonin allells incrase the risk fo depression follwoing childhood maltreamtnet.

reciprocal gene model
our genetics tenedcy lead to behvoir which then triggers psychologicl diasoder.

example gentetic tendecies towards agressiveness or impulsiveness and assult realted psot traumatic stress disorder

people who are implusive tend to get themselves into problem situations therefor end up with ptsd



thalamus hypothalamu s
conveys threat information
regulates arousal, sit atop of the brian stem and voncey infrmation
amygdala
rapid activiation of HPA axis in responce to threat
may play a role in ptsd, panic and axneity
helps store emtional information into approrite cateogires, roel in axneity

Hippocampus
integrate incomign sensory cues with stored information, responscible for making sense out of sensory cues that come in.
may play a role in PTSD, hippocampus is down regulated and incoming stimulus is not integrated with past memories and they are not as capable as interpeting threat cues in the light of ther past experinces.
basal ganglia
caudate nucleas - controls motor activity
implicated in ocd- caudate nucleas is overactive and the person continues to repeat motor activites
neurotransmission
chemicals are synthesized in the cell body, transmitted down to the axon and released under certain circumsntaces
serotonin
stablizes information flow to regualte behvoir

low levels associted with sexual activity, agressiveness implussiveness,

high levels associted with widtrawl and inhibition



norepinephrine
mediates arousal - activates in brain

emtional responces panic and depression

dopamin e
moderats emtions and behvoir
high levles asocited with pleasure seeking activites
plays a key role in postive affect

GABA
inhibitor
inhibitos behvoirs and emtions
reduces arousal

gaba molecules attach themselves to neurotransmitters slowing down activity



drugs
antispychotic: thorazine, reduce symptoms of psychosis
antidepressant - reduce symptoms of depression, Prozac
Mood stablaizingers - moderate moods, lituim
antianxiety drugs - reduce syptoms valuim.


Electroshock therapy
an alternative to drug therapies in the treatment of mood disorders
a brain siezure is induced by passing electrical current throught the patients brain
helps severly depressed patients who havent responded to medication in over half of recepeints

interpersonal dynamic models
sociual development expeinces establish ongiong patternts, you are today is in part a function of how youve been treated how you learned form that, and how it effect you today
personality developes from distliations of habirtuatl interperonsl realtionships.

expectations of others

imagined of feared reactions from others, if you think people are giogn to chrisize you or treat them eifferantly tahn you assume they will bre freindly




IDM
expecations of others
imagined or feared reactions from others, if you think peopel are gionjg to chrisize you wil treat them differantly tha if you assume they wil be freindly
ACts of self
the actions we have towards sel f
idm acts of others towards self
elicits by a persons behvoir- other people reactiosn to you your behvoir exters a pull on outher people
idm acts toward self
introjection - take thier responces and have them become part of the way you expeince yourself , after a interaction you interanize how people itneract with you
interpersonal psychotherapy
depression, follows stressful life event
eating disroders, changing perception aspect of it
cognitive perspective to psychotherapy
emphasies how people make sence of thier expeirences; how they tranform enviromental cue snto inforation
cognative procsses invovle
attention
interpreation
judgmnet
memory

information is processed and organized into shecmas.






cog

selective attention

explains some of psychopatholgy, internal signs of anxiety are focused on more than waht anouthe person might be saying, therefor alternign their judgmetns about events.

anxiety - focused on threat assemsent
depression - focused on negative


memory bais
becuase people with anxiety and depression etc are selectively attending to threatening aspects of sitaution and negativly interept the situation, wha they store in memory is overtly negative.
theory ptsd
becuase of negative event you make excessive threat interpreations and interpet thigns that are not threats as such.
cognative behvoiral threatments
identifiy beleifs predictions and automatic thorughs

behvoiral experts to test belifs
through monitoring
modify attentional focus, focus attention more on postivce things
mindfulness,




assesment of psychological disorders
systematic evaltuion and measuremnt of psychological, biolgoical and social factors
goals of clinical assesment

undersatnd the indiviudal

understand indiviudal - have a broad understanding of the indivudal
case conceptualization - put together a pictur eo who the person is and what they are concerned about
gci

predict behvoir

predict if somone will respond to treatment, hav ea good prognosis, are they likely to kill themselves
gci plan treatment
cant treat somethign you dont undersatnd, bring in treatm stratgies taht will be effective
GCI evaluate treatment outcome
evaluate treatment outcome
thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure

relaiblity

consistnicy in measuremnt
test retest- the consistency across time if nothing else changes

inter rater, same ratings from differant raters


thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure

validity

is it measuirng what it is supposed to be measuring

doest test measure axneity when it is supposed to be measuring depression

ie anxous peopel can be depressed



thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure

standarization

standard and norms help ensure consistenty in the use of tecnqiue,

the test has to be given the same way every time
administration procidure , socri9ng evaltuion of data, training adn supervision,


clinical interviews
good for rapport
tailed for pateints responce, keeps moving forward

lower realiblity, becuase clinicans will end up asking different questions

example- mental status exam




mental status exam

appearrance and behvoir



what do they look liek hwo are they behaving, doe they twtich , or are they procupied, or look distressed
mental status exam

cognative processes



oreintation, whether they know who they are, waht date it is
are they coherent.
mental status exam

mood



sad dejected, mood apporpate for the siation, psotive affect when mom justi died
mental status exam

intellecutal functioning

just by takign to them you can get a rough estimation of thier fucntioonging normal blaah
semi structured clinical interview
comprehensive, all relevant questions covered
increase Inter rater agreemnt
can be ridigit,
might aliente person


clinical observational tecnqiues
self reported or clinical or freinds or fam
settings: lab, clinic ssimualed dialy life

reactivtity: people act differantly when being observed. dont know if thats how they act in real life


tests kinds
verbal, non verbal, perofmrance, normative stimulus across a range of people

unstructured, structured, they can anwer in structured or unstructure dway.

meaures
symptoms
personality
intellegnece






neuospycholigcal
series of tasks that the person performs that allows the clincial to see hwo differant areas of their brain are fucntioning

blocks test

projective tests
psychoanlytic and based ont eh idea that if you are given a neurtal sitmulu you will project your own ideas onti ti, either form subconcous or repressed

require high degree of clinicnal inferance
relaiblity and validity are suspect.


objective tests
roots in empirical tradition
require minimal clinical infernace

MMPI
Watchlers intellgence tests IQ



Neuroimaging and brain functioning
Magnetic resoncance imaging MRI, good for lookign for abnomralities
FMRI - teh brain as it works for exmaple you can show provide sitmulus see hwo it cahnges
psychological dysfunction what is it?
a typical or unusualy
behvoir that is not culturaly expected
distress or impariment in functioning

atypical
behvoir or scoring pattersn that are satisticaly deviant from the norm

problem

people migh tbe just find being otu thier, ie pamala anderson, crazy out there



not culuraly expectd
who defined what is normal in cutlure ?

distress
self reproted

people repots distress when they dont have it and dotn report it whent they do have psychological disroders ie manic states

defintion of disorder from DSM
behvoiral emtional or congnitive dysnfucntions that are unexpected in their culturall context and associted with perosnal distress and substanial impairment in funcitioning
szaz myth argument
siad that by labbeling mental illness people are acting that way, naming shoudl be abolished, mental illnuss shoudl be evaluated subjectively

ie cant use cateogires or deifnations in mental illness

psych D
clinical graude studies less emphasis on research more on clinical practice
councelling psychologist
tend to study and treat ajustents and vocational issues encountered by realtively healthy indivudals
clinical psychologists
tend treat more severly psychologoical disorders
psychiatrists
emphasize biolgocial durg treatment method
psychotic socail workers
develop a expertsie for gaining inf9orkmation about social situation relvant to the treatment of psychological disroders.
prevance
statsitical data relvant to how many people in the population posses thsi disorder
etiology
the study of orignasl and why disroders begin
treatments for possession
in this idea a person is largely responcible for hsi or her own disorder becuase this i punishment for hsi evil deeds, ie spriit possesion.

hang people over pits of poiesnous snakes, it worked

parcellus moon and stars
infleunced behvoir (psychological funcitoning , parcellus suggested , lunar, lunatic
lous pasturr germ theroy
faciliated the identification fothe bacterial microorganism called syphallus,
penicillin,
john P grey
position was that insaity has physical casues

emphasis on rest diet and proper ventalliation

resoncible for human condiitons in psychiatric hopsitals inrase hte nubmer of people



development of biological treatments

manfred sakel

insulin shock therapy, killed people too dangerous, made patients convulse but then get better



development of biological treatments

Josheph von meduna

creater of eloctroshoc treatment

noticed that epilitics dint ahve schoziphrena, lets induce a siezure

helped dangerous though



development of biological treatments

heinze lehman

benziodpatied (tranquilizers) and neueplicics (anti psychoticst)

first itme agressiona nd hallucinatory problems coudl be reduced with drug thearpy

consequence of bioloigcal tradiation
john p gray ironically illuminated the interest in treating mental patients becuaes they beleived that thier mental disroder were due to some yet undersovered mental pathology
moral therapy
emtional treatment morallll ..

treating instiutionalized patient as a human being and encourage normal soical interaciton

asylum refomrm


dorthy dix


campained endlessly for reform in the treatment of the insane, her movment became known as the mental hygene movment

lobbied, for impvoemnt of care
more people who needed it being instuationalized ie bumbs

moral thearpay turend into cuastordial care becuase of migration and immigration.






memser

Animal magnestism

problems in patients had to do with a undecatable fuild found in liivng oranisms called animal magnetism that could become blocked
Jean charcot
demonstrated that some techiques of mesmerism, were affective, ie hyponsois
Joespeh breur
patients became extremely emtional while talking about stuff in thier hyponotize state when they came out they felt much better

uncous vers concous.





catharsus
releasing unconscous tension
intro psycic conlcits
unconscou conflcits betwen super ego id and ego
Defensice mechamisms



uncocnous procsses associted with stopping confcits so ego can fucntion

denial
displacment - transference of feelings
projecting
ratioanmlization
reaction formation - gay conservative
submination - perverted artists






object realtions
is the study of how children incoporate the image and memories somtimes the values of somone very imporant ot them and whom they were emtioanlly attahed objects in this sence refers to the improatn tpeopla nd process of incoproation called introdjection.
you tend to see yoruselves thoguht the eys of those most important to you.
dominant gene
is one pair of gense that determines a particular trait
a recessive gene
must be paired with anouther recseive gene inorder be activated
quantitative genetics
patterns of infleucne across these gense are measured using this procidure
how much do gense contribute to our personality
less than half usualy
mental retardation and gense
fragile x syndom defective tip of one x chromisome
interaction genes enviroremnt
the very genetic structure of cells may change as a result of learing if the genes were inactive or dorman inteact with enviroemnt they interact with enviroment the ways that make them more active.
long verses short S allele
evdience for the diatheiss stres model.

genese gives us a stressfull situation and our genes can increase the likelyhood that they are acitivated

short S means that you have a greater tendeancy to be affected by your enviroment
ie short S allele combined with bad parenting = deprssion




reciprocal gene enviroment model
genetic endowmen may have acutaly increase the probabiliy that an indiviudal will expeirnce stresfull events

more impulsiveness leads to more injurueis leads ot more blood leads to blood injury injection phobia

kerry jang and reciprocal gene interaction model
using a lage twin study they foudnt aht whether or not genetic factors were inovled dependon the type of truama being consdierd

gentic factors contirbitied assultive chrimes

but not natural disasters and accdients (car)



non genomic influence
when children of schiziphrenic parents were raised by good parents they dint get schizophrenia

genticaly reactive rats were not reactive when raised by calm mothers.

ceng and egn

conjoined twins differant personalities.





neuron
dendrite: numerous receptors receive message in the form of chemcial impluses from outehr nerve cells. whicha re convered itno electiral implusis.
outehr kidn of is called axon which transimits these impluses to outher neruons.

synaptic cleft, is the space between teh axon and the denstrite

dendrites receive axons shoot out.




structure of the brain
brain stem
hind brain
mid brain
top brain
cortex



brains stem
most essentail automatic functioining such as breathing, sleepign and move around in a coordinated way
hind brain
contains medulla pons cerrbelluim, regualtes automatic activites such as heart rate and breathing
mid brain
coordiates movment with sensory input and contains part of ractual activign system which conirubutes the proess of arousal and tesnion weather we are awake or asleep
top brain
thalamus and hypothalamus

are invovled in regulating behvoir and emtion

fore brain
limibic system, includes hippocampus, cingualte gyrus, septum amygda, regualte emtional responces
cortex at the to of forebrain tecnicaaly part o fthe forebrain
contains the Basilia ganglia,
largets part of the forebrain, provides us with our distnicly human qualties including reason, justment planning
Hemispheric speicalization
right - creating images seeing world
left, verbal and cognative processes.

temporal - sighs and sounds, memory storage
pareital - touch
occiptal - sight






oversimplifcation of neurotransmitters
currents intersect so that of one changes many outehr currents cant say that is the one phsyical changing shti its the interaction .
agnosits
increase acitvity of a nuerostanssmiter
antagonostis
redcuign activity of neurotrasnmistter
OCD and brain aras associted
orbtial surface, singulate grus

light up when compulsions are being acted about these areas are also beleived to be rsponcible in a serotonin stream, so we dont know what is

direaclty is an issue.



social learning theory
albert bandura obsered that peopel learn jsutby observing what ahppens to somone else in a given situation. called obeservation learing

attention
retention
reprodcution
reward

children are more lilkely to reproduce behvoir if it is both rewarding and its coming form somone we respect






prepared learing
genetic endowment, infleuce the way we learn

based on the fact that we fear snakes and spider
prepared learing we have beocme highly prepared about learing certian types of ojects, caused by evotlion


Wiezenkrats blind sigh
highlights differant between concous and uncousn factors

couldnt see what it was or name it but could reach otu and grab it.

stroop colour naming pardigm
certain psycological disroders slower at naming the colour of words associted with their problem

eating disroders slowing at namign food colours

purpsoe and pysiology of fear
emtion is a fear or subjective freelign, evoltionary adaptive, peopel who expeicience fear coudl get the hell outtta their. NEED help on this one !
the phsiology and purpose of fear
emtion of fear is subjective feeling of terror a the stronger the resrponce teh more evoltionary adaptive, it is that is why we have fear becaue thees poeple were able to gett the hell otu fo dangerous situations

increase glucose to blood
concerve heat when blood vessels constrictited
reduced saliva
pressure to urinate or defiicate




mood
is a more persisent period of afect or emtionality
affect
refers to teh momenatry emtioanal tone that ccompaneis what we say or do.
componenents of emtion
made of three parts behvoir pysiology and cognition
components of emtion
behvoir physiology and cognition

emtion therostius who concentrate on behvoir think that basic patterns of emtion differ from one anouther in fundimantal anger differs from sadness not only in a behvoiral sence but also in a physiological sence

componennts of emotion

behvoir

basic patterns of emtional behvoir differ in fundimental ways, behvoir is the communication of emtion
componennts of emotion
cognitive


appraisal attribution outher processigns issues are fundiemtanl to emtional expeincising.
componennts of emotion
physiology
emotion is a brian functionin, direct connection between these areas and the areas of the emtional brain areas ?
anger and your heart
we have known for years taht negative emtions such as hostilitiliy and anger inrase a person risks of developing heart disease

ironoson

abiliity of the blood to pump blood was affected not by exersize or stress but by anger.



voodo and outher fears

fear and phobias are univerall and occuring across all cutlorues but waht we fear is sotnrly influenced by our culutral context

susto: characterized by axneity based symptoms including insomnnia irritiability phobias and marked somatic symptoms of seweating and incrased heart rate.

voodoo dealth hati, people can die, perfectly healthly becuase of social reasons




Gender
- the likelihood of your having a particualr phobia is powerfully infleunced by your gender
-
gender , cutlural social factors fo psychopathology
- the likihood of your having a particular phobia is powerfully influenced by your gender
- small animal phobias 90% becuase we accept it sociallly
- most depression is women
- it is more accepatble for woment o ackknowage fearfullnesss, so phobia developes
- women tend to ruminate hence why they expeirnce depression
- more alcholism in men, because they tend to distract themselves through a meduim when thers a problem. self medicate.
- how sexes respond to stess
tend befreind model for women
- differ from men in teh face of stress.

cutlural and social factor affecting psychopathology









social effects on health and behbvoir
-
cultural social and interperonsal factors
- the number and frequency of health on behvoir
- the number and frequency of social realtionships and contancts the longer you are likely to live.
- protect people against, high blood pressure, depression, aclholism, and progression of aids
- smaller chance of catchign a cold
- lower resting heart rate with pets



social effects on health and behvoir

why ?

- some people think that interpersonal realtiosnhips give meaning to life
- faciliatate health promotoing behvorir, like hitting the gym less alchol and drugs
- we cannot study psychopathology indepndaly of social realtionships.
- more


culutral defintions of disorders
universal disroders heppen everywhere but they also look differnt everywhere
- western model - depression reclted feelings guilt and inadequacy.
- expression of depression are often perceived as self centered and threatening to the socail srtructure in many asian curltures.

aborginals cultural context to disroders
high rates of varous psychologial disorders amoung aborignals.

the fact that more aborginals live in poverty is not the only reason

thier experincing of opression by the majoriity of culture also need to be considered a contributing factors.



social and interpersonal infleunces on the elderly.
social and interpersonal factors ont he exprssion of phsyiolgicaly disroders may differat were age.

it may be advantagous for elderly peopel to become physically ill beucas illness allows them to restablish social support wich makes live worht living

social stigma
psychological disroders continue to carry a substianal stigma in our soceity. to be anxous or depressed is to be weak
to be schiziphrenic is crazy and unporedicable.
interpersonal psychotherapy

grew from henry stack sullivan

patient and therapsits work together on idetifying life stresses that precipated the psycholal disroeders, interperonal peroblems that are either the soruce of life stress or intimately connected with it.

- marital confloict
- death of love one
- new job
- new relationship

acquiring the approarite social skills








life span apporach to psychopathology
to understand psychopathology we msut appraohce hwo experincne during differant period of devleopment

eriki erikson suggsted that we go through 8 major crisis in our lives

stage 8

generativity verses despair.

researchers have found that enviroment had differaent effect on the brains of animals depeding on their depending on thier developmental stage







principle of equifinity
inidicate that we must consider many paths to a given outcome, like a fever, a particualr disroder acan have many causes s.
diagnosis
is the processes of determining whether the particualr problem affecting the indivudal meeets all teh critera for psychological disroder
semi structured clincal interviews
semi strcutured intervies are mede up of question that have been carefully pharsed and tested to elicit usefull information in a consisent manner, so clincials can be sure they ahve inquired about hte msot imporant aspects of paricular disroders
it is applied rigidily it might prevent a pateint form volunteering ifnoramtion
MSX

appearance and behvoir

brains affect , any physical rpoblems manifestations of psychological disoders
attire, apperahce posture and expression
msx

through processes

talk really fast really slowly, , connection of ideas

ideas of referance: everythign somehow relates back to him

hallucinations
delusions of grandur or persection




msx

mood an affect

is it apporatite for the context
is he negative suicidial?
msx

intellecutal fucntioning

we usualy make som gross rough estimate of thier intellegence just aobut who whtey talk
sensoruim
general awareness of sourdnings time date where we are, who we are who i am
physical examination in a clinical setting
many biolgoical problems can mask themselves in physiological compains

addict sand panic attacks
new drugs and more deprssivens attitudes
thyriod disorders and anxeity



behvoiral assessment
using direct observation asses foramllly indiual thoughs feelign adn behvoir in speicfi contexts

target behvoirs: identifaied and observed with teh gaol fo determiing the factors the infelucne those behvoir

self injurous behvoir in ausitic.



ABC of observation
once traget behvoir is selected and defiend, an observer writes down each time it accurs along with what happens before and after with the goal of collecitng this informationt o see wheather ther are any obvous patters behind this behvoir to determine a treatments

- behvoiral reatings cales used

ancidents
behvoir
consequences.





thematic apprecation tests
developed by murrey
ambigous envirometn told a dramtic store about eh picture saying its a test o fintellgencance, supposed to reveal uncoucns,

validitya dn realiablity issues
a great deal of interpreation by therapists



minnesota multiphasis perosnality inventory
clinicans have no to little room for interpetaions
statiscal scored with devaitions fromt he mean and scales of personality dimesions

patterns of responces ie mean measured to be associted with differant scores

computor scored

valididty and relaiblity

includes self desirability and lie scale

cannot say scal e










psycopathy checklist revistsed
developed by robert hair
measured psychopaths
has instruments to assses teh charactersitsics of phscyopathy using itnervies alogn with material from instutional files

alfred binet
intellgence qouteint

initaly calcualed mental/chroniclical ages
bais scoring ie 2 yearold advtage in comaprison
easier to get highers cores when your younge r

now use standaird deviationf rom sample of equivalent age particpants





Wheschler adutl intellgence scael
1) verbal comprehension
2) perceptual organizataion
3) processing speed
4) working memory

culturla boundaries
caution agaisnt indisciminate use of iq test sores across culture sbecyaes they might not undersand the scales





neuropsychological testing
measures abilities in areas sucha s receptive and expressive langauge attentionad concetntartion memory motor skill percpetual aiblitiesa and learning and abtraction in such a wya the clinical can make educated guesses abotu the persons performance and possible existance of brain impariment
bender visual motor getstal test
a chld is given a seris of card on which are drawn varous lien and shapes. the task is for th chidl to copy what is drawn ont the card teh errors ont eh ts are compailed witht the test resutls form otuehr children oin theri age group
luria nebraska nueospycholical battery
rythm test
strenght of grip test
tactile perofrmanc tets
memory skills

usefull in detecting organic damg ean cognative deficits.

acurate in predicting alzheimers






MRI
magnetor responance imagiing

high strenght magnet feild though which radition frequency signals are transmitted.
these signasl excite brain tittuse altenrign the protosn of hydron gatmes the alternationt takes time for the protons to return to normal

darker were damage is
allows for very prcesise examination fo structure.





dimensional apporach
we note a vareity of cognitions moods and behvoir on which a pateitn present then quanity them on a sacale

several anxous moderalty depressied mildly manic sorry fo alteration

create a profiale of emtional fucntioning


problem

how man dimeison do we need








emil krepilin and categorical apporach
critiera which you have to meet to be consideredd to ahve a disroder

1) presennse of depressed mood
2) signifigant weight gain or loss
3) diminished ability to think or concentrates

notes
imporatnt for doctors, is he fluesih or is his appendix gunan bust
but for psycholgists, ther are many factors that itneract to make a psycholcal disroder to simple a model







protoypical approach
identifies certain essentail characterstiics of an entity so you and outher can classify it but also allows for certain non essential variiton taht do no necesarily chang ethe diagnosis

canditate must show enough but not necccesarily all creteria to be considered depresed or wahtever.

dsm 3 general
attempted to take a a theorteical apporach to diagnosis relaying on prices description fo disroders as they presented themslves to clinicains, rather than on psychoanlaysit cor biolgical therioes of eitology

more specific classifcations

ie neurosis had its own categories for anxiety disroders now

inter rater realtiblity for anxiety and somatoform disroders lowww

arbitary decition made condtions for disroders







dsm 3 problems
realiblity of osme diagnosis was low

somatoform personality disroders very low interrater relatilility

arbitary dectuions on 4 panik attack a week consitues a disroder what about 3

polticaly motivated resutls ie removing homsexualitity





dsm 4 general
changes made on sound sceintific data

now now discition between oranicaaly based disorders and pscyological bases disorders.

new 4 axis rating scale

* Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders
* Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
* Axis III: Acute medical conditions and physical disorders
* Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
* Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children's Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18

Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, phobias, and schizophrenia.











dsm 4 critisisms
combination of disro0eres


realiblity and the espence of valdiity

are you depressed

negative connocation of labeling

legal defintiosn laiblithy

anxiety depression caterogry might be added in dsm 5










premenstrual dysphoric disorder
stigmatized psychitic disroder

study clearly differaciatsie thsi sydrom of premesntrual sydom which has less sever and spriic symptoms
stigmatization for promotion fo reasch and actual problem

might be include in 5




diagnosis before 1980
systems lack precision often differing g subtiatly from on anouther reelyong on uproven theories not widely eccdepted.

peopel coudl coem to two very differant conlcusions based ont eh noslogy at the time.

external validity
refers to how well resutsl relate to thigns o utside your study in outehr words how well your findings generalize
it is important to phrase your hypothesis in a way that makes it testable
unfalsifaiblity
null hypothesis
the idea that yoru hypothesis might nwo show nay realtionship have to disprove it to prove a theroy
control group
people are similar to expermental group in every way execpt that member of the experimetnal group are expsoed to the indeoednat variable and those who are not

ruels out alternative explatjiosn

randomization
the processes of assigning peopel randomloy so differance ios avearged out
analogue models
create in control condition of the laboraroty asepcts that are comaprable ot the phenomon under study
statsical sigifigance
used to determine the effects of one variable on anouther ina study

statsiticaly signifacnt resutls may not have clinical signifance

social validity
invovles obtaining input form the person being treated as wella s signifiant outher arounds him to see signfiant chagnes have occured.



pateint uniformity myth
comapring means scores ignores imporant indivudal differnces lead to innacurate generalization about disroders

reducing self injurous behvori for some but incrsaing it for outher is not ogo d

case study method
intensively investigating one or more indivudal who dispartily behvoiral or physical apttersn

problem confouding varibles,
somitmes concidences occur that are irrelvant to condtion under study and may lead to mistake concluson about waht causes certain conditions or what treatment appearts to be effective.

case study on depression. guy jsut gros otu of it,




reserach by correlation
correaltion is a statical reaitontion between two caribles

schiziphrenia and ventriciies int eh brain
the result of correational studies is whtehr two varibles go together

correlation does not imply causation

correaltion coreifcient

direactionality = dont know whether a causes B or B caues A or C causes the realtionship between B and |A

3rd varibles would be the C










epidomiologicl reserach
the study of the incidience and distribution of a set of problein in one or more popuatkoion

incaidence: number o fnew cases during a given tiem period

prevelance : number of people with disroder



placebo effect
people in treatment group often exepct to to get better, when treatment is given, you have to compare treatment group to contorl group with placebo to see wahter the placebo or treatment is causing a differant ce in behvoir
single blind and double blind studies
single blind, particpants are unwaare waht condtions theya re in

doubl blind both partipant and expeirmenters are not aware what group they are in

becuase reserachers often subconcosuly try to prove their thesis called experiemtner bais, ro alligance effect



compartative treatment reseraech
in thsi deisgn resrachers given two diferatn treatmns acros gorup adn see whcih treatment helpede peopekl more
single case experimetnal desings
this method invovles a systematic study of indivudal under a variety of experiemtnal condions
single case experimtnal dsigns differ from case studies in teh varous ways they attemtp to improve interal valditity
single case experimetnal desings

repeated measures

behvoir is measured several times instead of only once to acccount for daily varaitions

it helps idenitfy how a person is diogn before and after intervention adn wether treatment accoutnered for didreant chagnes

single case experimetnal desings

withdrawal designs

first a person contions i evauatled bfore a treatment to establish a b asethen then the change in teh independant varible

remove treatment half way through see waht happens

see if they get worse

problems

no suitable when treatment cannot be removed or it is dangerus to do so







single case experimetnal desings

multiple baseline



rather than stoppign the treatments to see if it is diogn anythign the reasherch starts a treatment at differant times accorss diffearn setting

home verses school

treatment at hoem and then school thenw ork
if she improves only at one not two or not three


treatment at home ok, imrpoves just at homea nd not at work ok









genotypoe
untique genetic makeup
phenotype
physical descriptions fo gentic contirbutions observable characteristics
adoption studies
if they can identify enogh sibling pairs with the same disrodder in diffearnt families they can decide the genetic contribution
twin studies
same figure otu genetic contribution
however soem twins ahve exact same experinces, weird twins with the glasses
genetic linkage analysis
when a family disroder is studied outher inherient charactersitics are asses at the same time. thse outher acharactersiti are asseste at he same time.

gene markers

cross section design
research takes a cross ection of the population across differant age groups or chorots and then compare statsitics

12 14 17 beleifs on aclhcol abuse

the cohort effect
the confouding varible of age the experinc ei s the limiation fo cross ectional design

17 year olds had recived elss rigorous eduction on alchol related problems which

longtitduinal designs
the advatnage fo longitudianl designs is that they do not suffer from cohort effect, problems that allow the reasercehsr to asses indivudla change

constnsat

high but clindign
moderat but dlecin
slow and stay low
agression longititudianl disnes

problems

the reasherch question might beome irrelvatn by teh time thes study is odne , super expeisve and tiem consuemring










sequencial desint
cross sectional + longitiduina



research ethics
problems occur when treatment is witheld from palcebo have to use best currently available treaments

infromed consent

somtimes hard to give, keeps confoudns undercontrol, related+ children

informed consent brough on by nazi war crimes inw hcih tye conducted expeirmetn without jewish cocent









the components of emotion
behvoir, physiology and cognition. emotion theroists who concentrate on behvoir think that basic patterns fo emtionl differ form one anouther in fundimental ways for example anger amy differ from sadness not only how ti feels but also how ti manifests behvoiraly and pbysiolgoicalloy.

also people viewed emtion as a priarmly brain fuciton. research in this tradition suggests tha taras of the brain assocted with emtionall experssion are generally more acneint and primiative that ars associted with cogantive processings, direct connections between areas of the limibic sytem and nervous sytem bypassing the brain

larzars gave an opposate determiation that our emtion is a fucntion of our cognative appraisal combined ewith limbic system theirfor as lazarus states you cannot seperate emtion cognative and emtional ssytem becuase they overalp



ego psychology
the ego slowly developes tenecies to to deal with reality testing and defences

a psycholgical disorder arises from when the ego is deffieicnt in regulating such functioing as a delying and controlling impluses or in marshalling approapriate normal defences to strong internal conflicst.

self instructional trainin g
undersatnding our implicits explcations of consquences of our behvoir

modyfing these ideas about the consquences of our behvoir in a more psotive way. from maldamive

early biological treatments
rest, coolventilation diet, exersize



psychosocial influences on brain structure
one study did cogntiative behvoiraly therapy known as exposure and responce therapy
acutaly normalized the brain circuitry

anouther study cognative behvoiural thearpy affects recovery from depression by modulating the functioing of the limbic and cortical brain regions


psychosocail infleunces on braiin cirtcuitry again...
ocd therapy exposure responce therapy, and normalzied brains circiturity

beck cogantive behvoural therapy , fixed limbic fucntiojing in brain scans

palcebo and mediaction in the ues of pain treatment both affected Anterior cingulate cortex in overlapping areas but not idential ones.



interactions between psychosical factors and brain structure
significant interactiosn between psychosocial factors and brains structure

rich enviroment lead to increase number of brain cells

monkeys that were gien a sence of control in tehri lives, had less behved differantly when a inversr agonists (gaba inverse) was used causing extreme bursts in axneity
panic verses angery and axnous.

so social factors determien how we experss our brain structure adn functionign






self instructional training
what the cleints say about themselves and what they beleive to be the conseuqences of their behvoir
cognitive restructing
to uncover negtaive thoguhts adn baisses and change them to more postive interpreations
function of behvoir in emtion
behvoiral manifestations of emtion, are adaptaive via communication
physiologogy of emtion
fear can circumvent, high brain regions, ie uncocsnous factors of fear. inclduign thalamus and hpohtalamus

ptsd knwo its irrational to fear rain but do anwyay.

cogntive process of emtion
lazaras cannot seperate emtion and cognition

beucase congition detemrines our understand of emtion, its the cognative preceptiont aht is fundiemntal.

losseness of assocition
coherent thought patte3rn relating to mental status exam, through processes.
underyling theory behind projctive tests
they project psychological unconcsou conflcits into the tests by measuign thigns they are not concously aware of
bender visual motor gestalt test
cognitive damage or definceiies

luria nubraska neuospycholigcal battery
rythm test
grip appature
tacticel performance

predicted alziemers.



eeg
eletrocephalogram

alpha waves, many types of stres redcution treatments attempt ot incrase frequency of alpha waves, (type of waves you have when ure awake, also relax you)

delta waves: the most relaxed part of sleep.



social and cultural considerations in the dsm 4
by emphasizing the levels of stress int he enviroment the dsm 3 and dsm 4 faciliattite a more complete picture of a indvudal

dm 4 goes as tep further by itnegracitn the social adn cutlrualo contexts fo the diagnosis.

therotical apporach as an opposition to dsm realability at the extent of validity
these people argue that oru ssytem of noslogy shoudl bcoem more theoricial for exmaple depressionca n have a number of difernt causes. one dinvidual might be derpssed becuas a lovedone died.

thsi therotetical apporach of why it occurs ratha tahn just the fact aht it exitss.

nomenclature, descroibes the names or labels of disrodser tha make up noslogyu
nomaclature is subcatoriges of of nosology

nosology is callsification system .

in teh categorial appraoch by emil kreplin we belive that each every daignosis has a clear psychologiacl cause
this si caused by this thsi s

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