Glossary of psych 300 god psych is gay
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- professional diagnosis cons
- lot of professionals who make decitions about psycholgical diosrders are not well trained in the subject docotrs and judges, and even psychitcirs and psychologists have biases. psycholoogists often dotn agree
- legal defintiion of disoder
- a distrubance of the mind that result in the need for protection of a indiviudal or society
- the assignment is a social act which invovles
- a set of behvoir
social cutlural context
- three models
- spiritual - larger forces
biological - phsyiology
psychological - learnign experinces that shape you .
- spirutal models of psychological disorders soul loss
- explanation of symptoms related to depression
- evil spirits take over the persons body or soul, agitation adn threatening behvoir
- magical insertion
- some powerfull foce has placed somthign inside the indivudal that is controlling or poienitng them
- spititual offences
- tribal soceities and orthodox soceities, the person isnt diong waht the ancestors want and thsi can lead to depression, psychosis, anxiety, nightmares
- spiritual model treatment
- sri lanka, healing dance for psychotic people lasting 24 hours and resulting in the psirits remove the curse from the individual.
- spiritual models insanity in the middle ages
- insanity due to satanic possession gods punishment (person must be bade or they must warrent being possesed by satan)
- witch pricking
- prickign a witch until they no longer yeld and then they were considered a which for nto feeling pain.
- first instituations
- started by monks, first goverment ones were impliment in 1200 they imprisoned people for protection from soceity. these patients were not treated very well adn were treated liek animals, with no food or clothing to give them.
- contemporary spiritual theories
- rick warren, global golitahs, spirtual empitness, depression, not fulliing gods purpsoe
- described and clasffied many disroders we study today )rather of modern medicine
- four humours
black bile (spleen)
treatments/ bleeding out purging
- 19th century biological theories
- german and french school
- 19th centuary german school
- gresinger, korsakov, wernicke,
- 19th century
- charcot, jent, bernheim.
- emil kreplin
- coined psychosis
- german school
- exongenous psychosis due to poisonous infection
- gschol demential precox
- gschool nerusois
- anxiety disroders
- weak neaves and weak psyche
- german shcool 19th centuary intervention
- physical managemnt
rest deit ventiatlion
cutodial hospitlaization, except no tratment for deterionation of brain, still looking for the poison
- german school 19th c
- rest cure, exhausted irritated nerves would regenerate if the indivu
- g 19th surgical excevations neurosis
- some people beleived anxiety is cuaesd by infection leading to removal of teeth, hysterocimes, teeth.
- warehousing 20th centuary biological persepctives
- custodial care warehousing
- 20th centuary Electroshcok therapy
- van meduna, epilepsy, no siezures, sure, lets do it, induse seizures acutaly works for depression , people died though, needed safer way
- cerlettti and bini ECT
- a way to relaibly produce a siezure but ended
- moniz lobodimies early 20th
- inventor, severing conneciton betwen frontal lobes and rest of brain was suppsoed to help schizophrena, found greystone found that it dint acutaly help, surugies continued till 60;s
- 19th centuary moral treatment
- moral= emtional treatment, ie focused raising morall.
- moral treatment phillipe pinneal
- father of moral treamtent, beleived that mental ill were people and desrived good treatmnts no cages or cahins.
- moral treatment underlieing phyilisophy
- cause of insanity is psycholical, stress dissapointment= morall causes
psychological proceses can be used to treat mentally ill
goal of treatment; reidecutly to the mind to postive thoughts and pstoive actions
- treatment moral therapy
- an integrated lifestyle
small supprive residentail units wells taffed
supportive respectful interperosnal enviroment
stastics and evealtions kept for each pateint
- decline in moral treatment
- treatment of all
emphasis on protection
incrase in instituional size
patient doctor rate, immigrants, migration, too many people not enough space nor doctor
- decline of moral therapya nd biologoical model
- had to find a cure so no point in trying to do anthing but warehouding till then
- wandering womb, the person would become very emtional was prone to fainting dizzines physical complaing, but would develop unusual physical conditioning only women suffered
- charctor hypnosis 20th
- hypnosis to treat hysteria, people who look liek they have neurlogical disoders who can be treated by hypotnizing them.
- Jenet 20th
- respression and the unconcous, if somethign is emtionally upsetting it can be repressed and pushed intot eunconcosu part of the mind where it would still infeuce if the person even if they were not aware of it.
- 20th bruer
- talking cure, beleied taht cathatrsus, would releive the pain of somone
- structure of mind frued
- id ego superego
- psychosexual development
- oral, anal, phallic latency
primary motivation is discharged biolgical impulsues, most notably seuxal and agressive impulsues
- defence mechanisms
- sublimination, projection,
reaction formation (gay consverative)
helps the ego deal with the id and super ego
- goal and technique of pyschoanalysis
- bring unconcous to the concous
ambiguous situation - therapsits occuational engage in interpeation, evneatly conflcits come otu and are projected onto the therapists
interptation of dreams
transfernace to therapsits
preoccupations in natural speech.
- ego psychology 1950
- interpersonal treatment in depression and is very effective, patterns suggest that for most of use the way we realted to otheres directly relfets our early experinces in development. early experinces shapes your views and expections
- joseph wolpe
- psychotherapy by reciprocal inhiibtion
interested in phobias an anxiety disorders, counter coundinging, parining somehting the person has a phobia about with somthing that is realixing
- graduated exposure
- fear of somthing, have them relax and pciture the feared object to no illicit fear anymore then get closer and closer to acutaly confronting that fear.
- exposure and responce prevention
- used for ocd, expose the peopel from touchign something they think will continmeinem themand then prevent themselves from washign thems remove the fear of containing them
- aversion therapy
- over smoking over drinking, drugs that incues vometing when alchol is driknen, well moreso.
- go right to the top of the heirachy and make them go straight to their fear and face it.
- thorndike law of effect
- orgnaisms are more likley to repeat behvoir is it is rewarded and less likey if it is punishemnt
- BF skinner
- reinfrocemnt scheudles
suggesetedd that humasn fallow these rats our perosnality is based on reinfrocement scheudels
- problems of interests for behvoiral modification using operant conditioning
- oppositional defiant disroder
- opposiitonal defiant disroder BM
- a kid wont follow requests gets defaint angry temper tanrum, parents seem to reinfroce tantrum and defiatn bevhoir
reinfroced gets what he wants, want to uncondiitoning, reinfroicng parents behavoir
- conduct disorder BM
- antisocial behvoir, criminal behvoir, kids have engaged in delinquent behvoir adn get attention from their peeprs
peers responce reinfroces bad behvoir
- depression bm
- becaue they havnt learend behvoirs that lead to rienfrocemnt adn therfor arnt gettaany.
about reinfrocemnt from enviroment
- soical phobia
- havent learned effective social behvoir or have learned innefective socail behvoir
- maritial disrcord
- havent learned how to communicate effectively unable to engage in behvoir that brings about good realtionships
- behvoir modification operant condiitojning treatment
- social skill training, bring about postive reinfrocement
behvoiral activation, get them to engage in behvoir that will keep reinfrocemnt coming and keep it postitive
contignency managment tecnqiues - if somone is controlled setting you can systematically reinfroce or punish their behvoir. alcholics, punish drinking reward not drinking
- Bandura main points
- complex behvoir
vacarous controlling - we can pick up behvoirs from outher people indirect classical conditioning chidlren observing their mother beign afraid of a thunderstorm wil vicarously learn fear as well.
- modelling and bm
- using observational learning, therapsits models approapraite skills behvoir leads to vicarous counter conditioning
problems of interest
oppositional defiant disorder
- 1960's cognative therories and therapies
rational emotive therapy
- not an event or situation that causes fear anger or emtional state, it is your personal interpreation of the event that determines if somethign produces negative emtions which infleunces the enviroment influences feedback then infelucnes your perception
- 1960s cognative therapies \
cognatative therapy BEck
- cognitive therapy for depression, trained spychaonalsits deceided depression wasnt a mood disroder it was a though disrode. because of thigns that happens people they develop baisses (schemas) ways of thinking and theses situations bias our interpeations and perceptions of envorment leading us to be unhappy or unscessfull the key to cognative therapy si to manipualte these schemas intill they invovle health perceptions.
- contemporary models of psychopathology
- biological processes attempts weave together how biology and psychopathology interact to produce these effects
psychological learning processes
socail development proceses, interpersonal cultural
- supportive evidence of contemporary models of psychopathology
- enriched enviroments prevent expression of genetically medaited memory deficiency in rats
parenting styles affect genetic expression
traumatic early life experinces have been known to alter neurchemcial activity
- SE enriched enviroments
- enriched enviroments prevent the expression of genetically medaited disorders
geneically identically rats raisd in diffearnt labs performed stadardized tests very small difernces lead to great differances in performance .
- Evidence parenting sytles affect genetic expression of emtion
- easily stressed rat pups raised by calm mothers grew up calm
geneticaly reactive mothers reared by calm mother sgrew up coalm adn rasied the ofsprin int eh same way
chidlren of schizophrenic parents rasaised by a functional family did not develope the disroder
- traumatic early life experinces
- early stresfulll sit causes deficits in serotonin in genetically suceptible primates.
adult suriviors of childhood exual abuse display change sin hippocapus.
- sequence of dna molecules
- series of gense, 46 chromisomes arranged in 23 pairs
- heritability of psychological disorders
- enviromenatl infleunes switch on gesne
genetic contributions to personality traits and cogantive about ilities range from 30-70 percent
- Diathesis stress model
- inherited genetic vulneraiblity is triggered by stresfull events.
short sertonin allells incrase the risk fo depression follwoing childhood maltreamtnet.
- reciprocal gene model
- our genetics tenedcy lead to behvoir which then triggers psychologicl diasoder.
example gentetic tendecies towards agressiveness or impulsiveness and assult realted psot traumatic stress disorder
people who are implusive tend to get themselves into problem situations therefor end up with ptsd
- thalamus hypothalamu s
- conveys threat information
regulates arousal, sit atop of the brian stem and voncey infrmation
- rapid activiation of HPA axis in responce to threat
may play a role in ptsd, panic and axneity
helps store emtional information into approrite cateogires, roel in axneity
- integrate incomign sensory cues with stored information, responscible for making sense out of sensory cues that come in.
may play a role in PTSD, hippocampus is down regulated and incoming stimulus is not integrated with past memories and they are not as capable as interpeting threat cues in the light of ther past experinces.
- basal ganglia
- caudate nucleas - controls motor activity
implicated in ocd- caudate nucleas is overactive and the person continues to repeat motor activites
- chemicals are synthesized in the cell body, transmitted down to the axon and released under certain circumsntaces
- stablizes information flow to regualte behvoir
low levels associted with sexual activity, agressiveness implussiveness,
high levels associted with widtrawl and inhibition
- mediates arousal - activates in brain
emtional responces panic and depression
- dopamin e
- moderats emtions and behvoir
high levles asocited with pleasure seeking activites
plays a key role in postive affect
inhibitos behvoirs and emtions
gaba molecules attach themselves to neurotransmitters slowing down activity
- antispychotic: thorazine, reduce symptoms of psychosis
antidepressant - reduce symptoms of depression, Prozac
Mood stablaizingers - moderate moods, lituim
antianxiety drugs - reduce syptoms valuim.
- Electroshock therapy
- an alternative to drug therapies in the treatment of mood disorders
a brain siezure is induced by passing electrical current throught the patients brain
helps severly depressed patients who havent responded to medication in over half of recepeints
- interpersonal dynamic models
- sociual development expeinces establish ongiong patternts, you are today is in part a function of how youve been treated how you learned form that, and how it effect you today
personality developes from distliations of habirtuatl interperonsl realtionships.
expectations of others
imagined of feared reactions from others, if you think people are giogn to chrisize you or treat them eifferantly tahn you assume they will bre freindly
expecations of others
- imagined or feared reactions from others, if you think peopel are gionjg to chrisize you wil treat them differantly tha if you assume they wil be freindly
- ACts of self
- the actions we have towards sel f
- idm acts of others towards self
- elicits by a persons behvoir- other people reactiosn to you your behvoir exters a pull on outher people
- idm acts toward self
- introjection - take thier responces and have them become part of the way you expeince yourself , after a interaction you interanize how people itneract with you
- interpersonal psychotherapy
- depression, follows stressful life event
eating disroders, changing perception aspect of it
- cognitive perspective to psychotherapy
- emphasies how people make sence of thier expeirences; how they tranform enviromental cue snto inforation
cognative procsses invovle
information is processed and organized into shecmas.
- explains some of psychopatholgy, internal signs of anxiety are focused on more than waht anouthe person might be saying, therefor alternign their judgmetns about events.
anxiety - focused on threat assemsent
depression - focused on negative
- memory bais
- becuase people with anxiety and depression etc are selectively attending to threatening aspects of sitaution and negativly interept the situation, wha they store in memory is overtly negative.
- theory ptsd
- becuase of negative event you make excessive threat interpreations and interpet thigns that are not threats as such.
- cognative behvoiral threatments
- identifiy beleifs predictions and automatic thorughs
behvoiral experts to test belifs
modify attentional focus, focus attention more on postivce things
- assesment of psychological disorders
- systematic evaltuion and measuremnt of psychological, biolgoical and social factors
- goals of clinical assesment
undersatnd the indiviudal
- understand indiviudal - have a broad understanding of the indivudal
case conceptualization - put together a pictur eo who the person is and what they are concerned about
- predict if somone will respond to treatment, hav ea good prognosis, are they likely to kill themselves
- gci plan treatment
- cant treat somethign you dont undersatnd, bring in treatm stratgies taht will be effective
- GCI evaluate treatment outcome
- evaluate treatment outcome
- thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure
- consistnicy in measuremnt
test retest- the consistency across time if nothing else changes
inter rater, same ratings from differant raters
- thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure
- is it measuirng what it is supposed to be measuring
doest test measure axneity when it is supposed to be measuring depression
ie anxous peopel can be depressed
- thrree assesments that determine the evluation of a assemstnet procedure
- standard and norms help ensure consistenty in the use of tecnqiue,
the test has to be given the same way every time
administration procidure , socri9ng evaltuion of data, training adn supervision,
- clinical interviews
- good for rapport
tailed for pateints responce, keeps moving forward
lower realiblity, becuase clinicans will end up asking different questions
example- mental status exam
- mental status exam
appearrance and behvoir
- what do they look liek hwo are they behaving, doe they twtich , or are they procupied, or look distressed
- mental status exam
- oreintation, whether they know who they are, waht date it is
are they coherent.
- mental status exam
- sad dejected, mood apporpate for the siation, psotive affect when mom justi died
- mental status exam
- just by takign to them you can get a rough estimation of thier fucntioonging normal blaah
- semi structured clinical interview
- comprehensive, all relevant questions covered
increase Inter rater agreemnt
can be ridigit,
might aliente person
- clinical observational tecnqiues
- self reported or clinical or freinds or fam
settings: lab, clinic ssimualed dialy life
reactivtity: people act differantly when being observed. dont know if thats how they act in real life
- tests kinds
- verbal, non verbal, perofmrance, normative stimulus across a range of people
unstructured, structured, they can anwer in structured or unstructure dway.
- series of tasks that the person performs that allows the clincial to see hwo differant areas of their brain are fucntioning
- projective tests
- psychoanlytic and based ont eh idea that if you are given a neurtal sitmulu you will project your own ideas onti ti, either form subconcous or repressed
require high degree of clinicnal inferance
relaiblity and validity are suspect.
- objective tests
- roots in empirical tradition
require minimal clinical infernace
Watchlers intellgence tests IQ
- Neuroimaging and brain functioning
- Magnetic resoncance imaging MRI, good for lookign for abnomralities
FMRI - teh brain as it works for exmaple you can show provide sitmulus see hwo it cahnges
- psychological dysfunction what is it?
- a typical or unusualy
behvoir that is not culturaly expected
distress or impariment in functioning
- behvoir or scoring pattersn that are satisticaly deviant from the norm
people migh tbe just find being otu thier, ie pamala anderson, crazy out there
- not culuraly expectd
- who defined what is normal in cutlure ?
- self reproted
people repots distress when they dont have it and dotn report it whent they do have psychological disroders ie manic states
- defintion of disorder from DSM
- behvoiral emtional or congnitive dysnfucntions that are unexpected in their culturall context and associted with perosnal distress and substanial impairment in funcitioning
- szaz myth argument
- siad that by labbeling mental illness people are acting that way, naming shoudl be abolished, mental illnuss shoudl be evaluated subjectively
ie cant use cateogires or deifnations in mental illness
- psych D
- clinical graude studies less emphasis on research more on clinical practice
- councelling psychologist
- tend to study and treat ajustents and vocational issues encountered by realtively healthy indivudals
- clinical psychologists
- tend treat more severly psychologoical disorders
- emphasize biolgocial durg treatment method
- psychotic socail workers
- develop a expertsie for gaining inf9orkmation about social situation relvant to the treatment of psychological disroders.
- statsitical data relvant to how many people in the population posses thsi disorder
- the study of orignasl and why disroders begin
- treatments for possession
- in this idea a person is largely responcible for hsi or her own disorder becuase this i punishment for hsi evil deeds, ie spriit possesion.
hang people over pits of poiesnous snakes, it worked
- parcellus moon and stars
- infleunced behvoir (psychological funcitoning , parcellus suggested , lunar, lunatic
- lous pasturr germ theroy
- faciliated the identification fothe bacterial microorganism called syphallus,
- john P grey
- position was that insaity has physical casues
emphasis on rest diet and proper ventalliation
resoncible for human condiitons in psychiatric hopsitals inrase hte nubmer of people
- development of biological treatments
- insulin shock therapy, killed people too dangerous, made patients convulse but then get better
- development of biological treatments
Josheph von meduna
- creater of eloctroshoc treatment
noticed that epilitics dint ahve schoziphrena, lets induce a siezure
helped dangerous though
- development of biological treatments
- benziodpatied (tranquilizers) and neueplicics (anti psychoticst)
first itme agressiona nd hallucinatory problems coudl be reduced with drug thearpy
- consequence of bioloigcal tradiation
- john p gray ironically illuminated the interest in treating mental patients becuaes they beleived that thier mental disroder were due to some yet undersovered mental pathology
- moral therapy
- emtional treatment morallll ..
treating instiutionalized patient as a human being and encourage normal soical interaciton
- asylum refomrm
- campained endlessly for reform in the treatment of the insane, her movment became known as the mental hygene movment
lobbied, for impvoemnt of care
more people who needed it being instuationalized ie bumbs
moral thearpay turend into cuastordial care becuase of migration and immigration.
- problems in patients had to do with a undecatable fuild found in liivng oranisms called animal magnetism that could become blocked
- Jean charcot
- demonstrated that some techiques of mesmerism, were affective, ie hyponsois
- Joespeh breur
- patients became extremely emtional while talking about stuff in thier hyponotize state when they came out they felt much better
uncous vers concous.
- releasing unconscous tension
- intro psycic conlcits
- unconscou conflcits betwen super ego id and ego
- Defensice mechamisms
- uncocnous procsses associted with stopping confcits so ego can fucntion
displacment - transference of feelings
reaction formation - gay conservative
submination - perverted artists
- object realtions
- is the study of how children incoporate the image and memories somtimes the values of somone very imporant ot them and whom they were emtioanlly attahed objects in this sence refers to the improatn tpeopla nd process of incoproation called introdjection.
you tend to see yoruselves thoguht the eys of those most important to you.
- dominant gene
- is one pair of gense that determines a particular trait
- a recessive gene
- must be paired with anouther recseive gene inorder be activated
- quantitative genetics
- patterns of infleucne across these gense are measured using this procidure
- how much do gense contribute to our personality
- less than half usualy
- mental retardation and gense
- fragile x syndom defective tip of one x chromisome
- interaction genes enviroremnt
- the very genetic structure of cells may change as a result of learing if the genes were inactive or dorman inteact with enviroemnt they interact with enviroment the ways that make them more active.
- long verses short S allele
- evdience for the diatheiss stres model.
genese gives us a stressfull situation and our genes can increase the likelyhood that they are acitivated
short S means that you have a greater tendeancy to be affected by your enviroment
ie short S allele combined with bad parenting = deprssion
- reciprocal gene enviroment model
- genetic endowmen may have acutaly increase the probabiliy that an indiviudal will expeirnce stresfull events
more impulsiveness leads to more injurueis leads ot more blood leads to blood injury injection phobia
- kerry jang and reciprocal gene interaction model
- using a lage twin study they foudnt aht whether or not genetic factors were inovled dependon the type of truama being consdierd
gentic factors contirbitied assultive chrimes
but not natural disasters and accdients (car)
- non genomic influence
- when children of schiziphrenic parents were raised by good parents they dint get schizophrenia
genticaly reactive rats were not reactive when raised by calm mothers.
ceng and egn
conjoined twins differant personalities.
- dendrite: numerous receptors receive message in the form of chemcial impluses from outehr nerve cells. whicha re convered itno electiral implusis.
outehr kidn of is called axon which transimits these impluses to outher neruons.
synaptic cleft, is the space between teh axon and the denstrite
dendrites receive axons shoot out.
- structure of the brain
- brain stem
- brains stem
- most essentail automatic functioining such as breathing, sleepign and move around in a coordinated way
- hind brain
- contains medulla pons cerrbelluim, regualtes automatic activites such as heart rate and breathing
- mid brain
- coordiates movment with sensory input and contains part of ractual activign system which conirubutes the proess of arousal and tesnion weather we are awake or asleep
- top brain
- thalamus and hypothalamus
are invovled in regulating behvoir and emtion
- fore brain
- limibic system, includes hippocampus, cingualte gyrus, septum amygda, regualte emtional responces
- cortex at the to of forebrain tecnicaaly part o fthe forebrain
- contains the Basilia ganglia,
largets part of the forebrain, provides us with our distnicly human qualties including reason, justment planning
- Hemispheric speicalization
- right - creating images seeing world
left, verbal and cognative processes.
temporal - sighs and sounds, memory storage
pareital - touch
occiptal - sight
- oversimplifcation of neurotransmitters
- currents intersect so that of one changes many outehr currents cant say that is the one phsyical changing shti its the interaction .
- increase acitvity of a nuerostanssmiter
- redcuign activity of neurotrasnmistter
- OCD and brain aras associted
- orbtial surface, singulate grus
light up when compulsions are being acted about these areas are also beleived to be rsponcible in a serotonin stream, so we dont know what is
direaclty is an issue.
- social learning theory
- albert bandura obsered that peopel learn jsutby observing what ahppens to somone else in a given situation. called obeservation learing
children are more lilkely to reproduce behvoir if it is both rewarding and its coming form somone we respect
- prepared learing
- genetic endowment, infleuce the way we learn
based on the fact that we fear snakes and spider
prepared learing we have beocme highly prepared about learing certian types of ojects, caused by evotlion
- Wiezenkrats blind sigh
- highlights differant between concous and uncousn factors
couldnt see what it was or name it but could reach otu and grab it.
- stroop colour naming pardigm
- certain psycological disroders slower at naming the colour of words associted with their problem
eating disroders slowing at namign food colours
- purpsoe and pysiology of fear
- emtion is a fear or subjective freelign, evoltionary adaptive, peopel who expeicience fear coudl get the hell outtta their. NEED help on this one !
- the phsiology and purpose of fear
- emtion of fear is subjective feeling of terror a the stronger the resrponce teh more evoltionary adaptive, it is that is why we have fear becaue thees poeple were able to gett the hell otu fo dangerous situations
increase glucose to blood
concerve heat when blood vessels constrictited
pressure to urinate or defiicate
- is a more persisent period of afect or emtionality
- refers to teh momenatry emtioanal tone that ccompaneis what we say or do.
- componenents of emtion
- made of three parts behvoir pysiology and cognition
- components of emtion
- behvoir physiology and cognition
emtion therostius who concentrate on behvoir think that basic patterns of emtion differ from one anouther in fundimantal anger differs from sadness not only in a behvoiral sence but also in a physiological sence
- componennts of emotion
- basic patterns of emtional behvoir differ in fundimental ways, behvoir is the communication of emtion
- componennts of emotion
- appraisal attribution outher processigns issues are fundiemtanl to emtional expeincising.
- componennts of emotion
- emotion is a brian functionin, direct connection between these areas and the areas of the emtional brain areas ?
- anger and your heart
- we have known for years taht negative emtions such as hostilitiliy and anger inrase a person risks of developing heart disease
abiliity of the blood to pump blood was affected not by exersize or stress but by anger.
- voodo and outher fears
fear and phobias are univerall and occuring across all cutlorues but waht we fear is sotnrly influenced by our culutral context
susto: characterized by axneity based symptoms including insomnnia irritiability phobias and marked somatic symptoms of seweating and incrased heart rate.
voodoo dealth hati, people can die, perfectly healthly becuase of social reasons
- - the likelihood of your having a particualr phobia is powerfully infleunced by your gender
- gender , cutlural social factors fo psychopathology
- - the likihood of your having a particular phobia is powerfully influenced by your gender
- small animal phobias 90% becuase we accept it sociallly
- most depression is women
- it is more accepatble for woment o ackknowage fearfullnesss, so phobia developes
- women tend to ruminate hence why they expeirnce depression
- more alcholism in men, because they tend to distract themselves through a meduim when thers a problem. self medicate.
- how sexes respond to stess
tend befreind model for women
- differ from men in teh face of stress.
cutlural and social factor affecting psychopathology
- social effects on health and behbvoir
- cultural social and interperonsal factors
- - the number and frequency of health on behvoir
- the number and frequency of social realtionships and contancts the longer you are likely to live.
- protect people against, high blood pressure, depression, aclholism, and progression of aids
- smaller chance of catchign a cold
- lower resting heart rate with pets
- social effects on health and behvoir
- - some people think that interpersonal realtiosnhips give meaning to life
- faciliatate health promotoing behvorir, like hitting the gym less alchol and drugs
- we cannot study psychopathology indepndaly of social realtionships.
- culutral defintions of disorders
- universal disroders heppen everywhere but they also look differnt everywhere
- western model - depression reclted feelings guilt and inadequacy.
- expression of depression are often perceived as self centered and threatening to the socail srtructure in many asian curltures.
- aborginals cultural context to disroders
- high rates of varous psychologial disorders amoung aborignals.
the fact that more aborginals live in poverty is not the only reason
thier experincing of opression by the majoriity of culture also need to be considered a contributing factors.
- social and interpersonal infleunces on the elderly.
- social and interpersonal factors ont he exprssion of phsyiolgicaly disroders may differat were age.
it may be advantagous for elderly peopel to become physically ill beucas illness allows them to restablish social support wich makes live worht living
- social stigma
- psychological disroders continue to carry a substianal stigma in our soceity. to be anxous or depressed is to be weak
to be schiziphrenic is crazy and unporedicable.
- interpersonal psychotherapy
- grew from henry stack sullivan
patient and therapsits work together on idetifying life stresses that precipated the psycholal disroeders, interperonal peroblems that are either the soruce of life stress or intimately connected with it.
- marital confloict
- death of love one
- new job
- new relationship
acquiring the approarite social skills
- life span apporach to psychopathology
- to understand psychopathology we msut appraohce hwo experincne during differant period of devleopment
eriki erikson suggsted that we go through 8 major crisis in our lives
generativity verses despair.
researchers have found that enviroment had differaent effect on the brains of animals depeding on their depending on thier developmental stage
- principle of equifinity
- inidicate that we must consider many paths to a given outcome, like a fever, a particualr disroder acan have many causes s.
- is the processes of determining whether the particualr problem affecting the indivudal meeets all teh critera for psychological disroder
- semi structured clincal interviews
- semi strcutured intervies are mede up of question that have been carefully pharsed and tested to elicit usefull information in a consisent manner, so clincials can be sure they ahve inquired about hte msot imporant aspects of paricular disroders
it is applied rigidily it might prevent a pateint form volunteering ifnoramtion
appearance and behvoir
- brains affect , any physical rpoblems manifestations of psychological disoders
attire, apperahce posture and expression
- talk really fast really slowly, , connection of ideas
ideas of referance: everythign somehow relates back to him
delusions of grandur or persection
mood an affect
- is it apporatite for the context
is he negative suicidial?
- we usualy make som gross rough estimate of thier intellegence just aobut who whtey talk
- general awareness of sourdnings time date where we are, who we are who i am
- physical examination in a clinical setting
- many biolgoical problems can mask themselves in physiological compains
addict sand panic attacks
new drugs and more deprssivens attitudes
thyriod disorders and anxeity
- behvoiral assessment
- using direct observation asses foramllly indiual thoughs feelign adn behvoir in speicfi contexts
target behvoirs: identifaied and observed with teh gaol fo determiing the factors the infelucne those behvoir
self injurous behvoir in ausitic.
- ABC of observation
- once traget behvoir is selected and defiend, an observer writes down each time it accurs along with what happens before and after with the goal of collecitng this informationt o see wheather ther are any obvous patters behind this behvoir to determine a treatments
- behvoiral reatings cales used
- thematic apprecation tests
- developed by murrey
ambigous envirometn told a dramtic store about eh picture saying its a test o fintellgencance, supposed to reveal uncoucns,
validitya dn realiablity issues
a great deal of interpreation by therapists
- minnesota multiphasis perosnality inventory
- clinicans have no to little room for interpetaions
statiscal scored with devaitions fromt he mean and scales of personality dimesions
patterns of responces ie mean measured to be associted with differant scores
valididty and relaiblity
includes self desirability and lie scale
cannot say scal e
- psycopathy checklist revistsed
- developed by robert hair
has instruments to assses teh charactersitsics of phscyopathy using itnervies alogn with material from instutional files
- alfred binet
- intellgence qouteint
initaly calcualed mental/chroniclical ages
bais scoring ie 2 yearold advtage in comaprison
easier to get highers cores when your younge r
now use standaird deviationf rom sample of equivalent age particpants
- Wheschler adutl intellgence scael
- 1) verbal comprehension
2) perceptual organizataion
3) processing speed
4) working memory
caution agaisnt indisciminate use of iq test sores across culture sbecyaes they might not undersand the scales
- neuropsychological testing
- measures abilities in areas sucha s receptive and expressive langauge attentionad concetntartion memory motor skill percpetual aiblitiesa and learning and abtraction in such a wya the clinical can make educated guesses abotu the persons performance and possible existance of brain impariment
- bender visual motor getstal test
- a chld is given a seris of card on which are drawn varous lien and shapes. the task is for th chidl to copy what is drawn ont the card teh errors ont eh ts are compailed witht the test resutls form otuehr children oin theri age group
- luria nebraska nueospycholical battery
- rythm test
strenght of grip test
tactile perofrmanc tets
usefull in detecting organic damg ean cognative deficits.
acurate in predicting alzheimers
- magnetor responance imagiing
high strenght magnet feild though which radition frequency signals are transmitted.
these signasl excite brain tittuse altenrign the protosn of hydron gatmes the alternationt takes time for the protons to return to normal
darker were damage is
allows for very prcesise examination fo structure.
- dimensional apporach
- we note a vareity of cognitions moods and behvoir on which a pateitn present then quanity them on a sacale
several anxous moderalty depressied mildly manic sorry fo alteration
create a profiale of emtional fucntioning
how man dimeison do we need
- emil krepilin and categorical apporach
- critiera which you have to meet to be consideredd to ahve a disroder
1) presennse of depressed mood
2) signifigant weight gain or loss
3) diminished ability to think or concentrates
imporatnt for doctors, is he fluesih or is his appendix gunan bust
but for psycholgists, ther are many factors that itneract to make a psycholcal disroder to simple a model
- protoypical approach
- identifies certain essentail characterstiics of an entity so you and outher can classify it but also allows for certain non essential variiton taht do no necesarily chang ethe diagnosis
canditate must show enough but not necccesarily all creteria to be considered depresed or wahtever.
- dsm 3 general
- attempted to take a a theorteical apporach to diagnosis relaying on prices description fo disroders as they presented themslves to clinicains, rather than on psychoanlaysit cor biolgical therioes of eitology
more specific classifcations
ie neurosis had its own categories for anxiety disroders now
inter rater realtiblity for anxiety and somatoform disroders lowww
arbitary decition made condtions for disroders
- dsm 3 problems
- realiblity of osme diagnosis was low
somatoform personality disroders very low interrater relatilility
arbitary dectuions on 4 panik attack a week consitues a disroder what about 3
polticaly motivated resutls ie removing homsexualitity
- dsm 4 general
- changes made on sound sceintific data
now now discition between oranicaaly based disorders and pscyological bases disorders.
new 4 axis rating scale
* Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders
* Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
* Axis III: Acute medical conditions and physical disorders
* Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
* Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children's Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18
Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, phobias, and schizophrenia.
- dsm 4 critisisms
- combination of disro0eres
realiblity and the espence of valdiity
are you depressed
negative connocation of labeling
legal defintiosn laiblithy
anxiety depression caterogry might be added in dsm 5
- premenstrual dysphoric disorder
- stigmatized psychitic disroder
study clearly differaciatsie thsi sydrom of premesntrual sydom which has less sever and spriic symptoms
stigmatization for promotion fo reasch and actual problem
might be include in 5
- diagnosis before 1980
- systems lack precision often differing g subtiatly from on anouther reelyong on uproven theories not widely eccdepted.
peopel coudl coem to two very differant conlcusions based ont eh noslogy at the time.
- external validity
- refers to how well resutsl relate to thigns o utside your study in outehr words how well your findings generalize
- it is important to phrase your hypothesis in a way that makes it testable
- null hypothesis
- the idea that yoru hypothesis might nwo show nay realtionship have to disprove it to prove a theroy
- control group
- people are similar to expermental group in every way execpt that member of the experimetnal group are expsoed to the indeoednat variable and those who are not
ruels out alternative explatjiosn
- the processes of assigning peopel randomloy so differance ios avearged out
- analogue models
- create in control condition of the laboraroty asepcts that are comaprable ot the phenomon under study
- statsical sigifigance
- used to determine the effects of one variable on anouther ina study
statsiticaly signifacnt resutls may not have clinical signifance
- social validity
- invovles obtaining input form the person being treated as wella s signifiant outher arounds him to see signfiant chagnes have occured.
- pateint uniformity myth
- comapring means scores ignores imporant indivudal differnces lead to innacurate generalization about disroders
reducing self injurous behvori for some but incrsaing it for outher is not ogo d
- case study method
- intensively investigating one or more indivudal who dispartily behvoiral or physical apttersn
problem confouding varibles,
somitmes concidences occur that are irrelvant to condtion under study and may lead to mistake concluson about waht causes certain conditions or what treatment appearts to be effective.
case study on depression. guy jsut gros otu of it,
- reserach by correlation
- correaltion is a statical reaitontion between two caribles
schiziphrenia and ventriciies int eh brain
the result of correational studies is whtehr two varibles go together
correlation does not imply causation
direactionality = dont know whether a causes B or B caues A or C causes the realtionship between B and |A
3rd varibles would be the C
- epidomiologicl reserach
- the study of the incidience and distribution of a set of problein in one or more popuatkoion
incaidence: number o fnew cases during a given tiem period
prevelance : number of people with disroder
- placebo effect
- people in treatment group often exepct to to get better, when treatment is given, you have to compare treatment group to contorl group with placebo to see wahter the placebo or treatment is causing a differant ce in behvoir
- single blind and double blind studies
- single blind, particpants are unwaare waht condtions theya re in
doubl blind both partipant and expeirmenters are not aware what group they are in
becuase reserachers often subconcosuly try to prove their thesis called experiemtner bais, ro alligance effect
- compartative treatment reseraech
- in thsi deisgn resrachers given two diferatn treatmns acros gorup adn see whcih treatment helpede peopekl more
- single case experimetnal desings
- this method invovles a systematic study of indivudal under a variety of experiemtnal condions
single case experimtnal dsigns differ from case studies in teh varous ways they attemtp to improve interal valditity
- single case experimetnal desings
- behvoir is measured several times instead of only once to acccount for daily varaitions
it helps idenitfy how a person is diogn before and after intervention adn wether treatment accoutnered for didreant chagnes
- single case experimetnal desings
- first a person contions i evauatled bfore a treatment to establish a b asethen then the change in teh independant varible
remove treatment half way through see waht happens
see if they get worse
no suitable when treatment cannot be removed or it is dangerus to do so
- single case experimetnal desings
- rather than stoppign the treatments to see if it is diogn anythign the reasherch starts a treatment at differant times accorss diffearn setting
home verses school
treatment at hoem and then school thenw ork
if she improves only at one not two or not three
treatment at home ok, imrpoves just at homea nd not at work ok
- untique genetic makeup
- physical descriptions fo gentic contirbutions observable characteristics
- adoption studies
- if they can identify enogh sibling pairs with the same disrodder in diffearnt families they can decide the genetic contribution
- twin studies
- same figure otu genetic contribution
however soem twins ahve exact same experinces, weird twins with the glasses
- genetic linkage analysis
- when a family disroder is studied outher inherient charactersitics are asses at the same time. thse outher acharactersiti are asseste at he same time.
- cross section design
- research takes a cross ection of the population across differant age groups or chorots and then compare statsitics
12 14 17 beleifs on aclhcol abuse
- the cohort effect
- the confouding varible of age the experinc ei s the limiation fo cross ectional design
17 year olds had recived elss rigorous eduction on alchol related problems which
- longtitduinal designs
- the advatnage fo longitudianl designs is that they do not suffer from cohort effect, problems that allow the reasercehsr to asses indivudla change
high but clindign
moderat but dlecin
slow and stay low
agression longititudianl disnes
the reasherch question might beome irrelvatn by teh time thes study is odne , super expeisve and tiem consuemring
- sequencial desint
- cross sectional + longitiduina
- research ethics
- problems occur when treatment is witheld from palcebo have to use best currently available treaments
somtimes hard to give, keeps confoudns undercontrol, related+ children
informed consent brough on by nazi war crimes inw hcih tye conducted expeirmetn without jewish cocent
- the components of emotion
- behvoir, physiology and cognition. emotion theroists who concentrate on behvoir think that basic patterns fo emtionl differ form one anouther in fundimental ways for example anger amy differ from sadness not only how ti feels but also how ti manifests behvoiraly and pbysiolgoicalloy.
also people viewed emtion as a priarmly brain fuciton. research in this tradition suggests tha taras of the brain assocted with emtionall experssion are generally more acneint and primiative that ars associted with cogantive processings, direct connections between areas of the limibic sytem and nervous sytem bypassing the brain
larzars gave an opposate determiation that our emtion is a fucntion of our cognative appraisal combined ewith limbic system theirfor as lazarus states you cannot seperate emtion cognative and emtional ssytem becuase they overalp
- ego psychology
- the ego slowly developes tenecies to to deal with reality testing and defences
a psycholgical disorder arises from when the ego is deffieicnt in regulating such functioing as a delying and controlling impluses or in marshalling approapriate normal defences to strong internal conflicst.
- self instructional trainin g
- undersatnding our implicits explcations of consquences of our behvoir
modyfing these ideas about the consquences of our behvoir in a more psotive way. from maldamive
- early biological treatments
- rest, coolventilation diet, exersize
- psychosocial influences on brain structure
- one study did cogntiative behvoiraly therapy known as exposure and responce therapy
acutaly normalized the brain circuitry
anouther study cognative behvoiural thearpy affects recovery from depression by modulating the functioing of the limbic and cortical brain regions
- psychosocail infleunces on braiin cirtcuitry again...
- ocd therapy exposure responce therapy, and normalzied brains circiturity
beck cogantive behvoural therapy , fixed limbic fucntiojing in brain scans
palcebo and mediaction in the ues of pain treatment both affected Anterior cingulate cortex in overlapping areas but not idential ones.
- interactions between psychosical factors and brain structure
- significant interactiosn between psychosocial factors and brains structure
rich enviroment lead to increase number of brain cells
monkeys that were gien a sence of control in tehri lives, had less behved differantly when a inversr agonists (gaba inverse) was used causing extreme bursts in axneity
panic verses angery and axnous.
so social factors determien how we experss our brain structure adn functionign
- self instructional training
- what the cleints say about themselves and what they beleive to be the conseuqences of their behvoir
- cognitive restructing
- to uncover negtaive thoguhts adn baisses and change them to more postive interpreations
- function of behvoir in emtion
- behvoiral manifestations of emtion, are adaptaive via communication
- physiologogy of emtion
- fear can circumvent, high brain regions, ie uncocsnous factors of fear. inclduign thalamus and hpohtalamus
ptsd knwo its irrational to fear rain but do anwyay.
- cogntive process of emtion
- lazaras cannot seperate emtion and cognition
beucase congition detemrines our understand of emtion, its the cognative preceptiont aht is fundiemntal.
- losseness of assocition
- coherent thought patte3rn relating to mental status exam, through processes.
- underyling theory behind projctive tests
- they project psychological unconcsou conflcits into the tests by measuign thigns they are not concously aware of
- bender visual motor gestalt test
- cognitive damage or definceiies
- luria nubraska neuospycholigcal battery
- rythm test
alpha waves, many types of stres redcution treatments attempt ot incrase frequency of alpha waves, (type of waves you have when ure awake, also relax you)
delta waves: the most relaxed part of sleep.
- social and cultural considerations in the dsm 4
- by emphasizing the levels of stress int he enviroment the dsm 3 and dsm 4 faciliattite a more complete picture of a indvudal
dm 4 goes as tep further by itnegracitn the social adn cutlrualo contexts fo the diagnosis.
- therotical apporach as an opposition to dsm realability at the extent of validity
- these people argue that oru ssytem of noslogy shoudl bcoem more theoricial for exmaple depressionca n have a number of difernt causes. one dinvidual might be derpssed becuas a lovedone died.
thsi therotetical apporach of why it occurs ratha tahn just the fact aht it exitss.
- nomenclature, descroibes the names or labels of disrodser tha make up noslogyu
- nomaclature is subcatoriges of of nosology
nosology is callsification system .
- in teh categorial appraoch by emil kreplin we belive that each every daignosis has a clear psychologiacl cause
- this si caused by this thsi s
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