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Glossary of psych 105 exam 2

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Created by meganowensxo

What are the four different levels of consciousness?
waking consciousness
self consciousness
wandering mind
altered states


waking consciousness
aware and alert
what is the hormone involved in sleep?
Melatonin
sleeps that only last a few seconds
microsleeps
2 theories of sleep
adaptive-production of evolution
restorative - necessary to physical health of the body
when do dreams occur
rem
what does rem stand for
rapid eye movement
what sleep disorders occur in rem
nightmares
what sleep disorders occur in stage 4
night terrors, narcolepsy which is where you fall immediately into rem during the day without warning
what is freud\'s dream theory
dreams symbolized repressed thoughts and memories
what is manifest content
actual dream
what is latent content
hidden true meaning
activation-synthesis
dreams are product of random signals sent to cortex
what are amphetamines
speed
adderal
crystal meth

cocaine
\"natural\" derived from coca plant
what are the types of depressants
barbituates
benzodiazeines
alcohol

what are barbituates
they are the major tranquilizers.
ex sleeping pils
what are benzodiazepines
they are the minor tranquilizers
ex valium, xanax, roofies


what do narcotics do
suppress pain by mimicking endorphins
ex opium, heroin
hallucinongens
alter perception of reality
ex lsd, pcp, shrooms, extasy


learning is ________
adaptive
what is behaviorism
observable experiences
who was the first to study
ivan pavlov
what are reflexes
involuntary movement
what are the four parts of classical conditioning
unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus
conditioned response


what is unconditioned stimulus
naturally occuring stimulus that leads to reflex
what is unconditioned response
involuntary response to a UCS
conditioned stimulus
stimulus that causes a learned reflex
conditioned response
reflex response to a cs
rules of classical conditioning
1 cs must come before us
2 short delay between cs and us
3 several pairings
4 cs is distinctive


what is stimulus generalization
similar but untrained conditioned stimuli elicit response
what is stimulus discrimination
distinguishing between stimuli
what is extinction
weaking of a learned CR when CS is repedetly present without US
what is the law of effect
responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated
primary reinforcer
satisfies basic needs

secondary reinforcer
value is learned
continuous reinforcment
each response is reincfced
partial reinforcement
some but not all responses are
fixed ratio
specific number of responses
variable ratio
the number required is different each time
fixed interval
specific amount of time must pass before a reinforcer is available
variable interval
amount of time before receiving reinforcer is unpredictable
learned helplessness
seligman
discriminative stimulus
any stimulus that provides a cue for making a certain response
what is latent learnign
learning that remains hidden until application becomes useful
what is insight
when animals act like humans
what are the ways to process memory
encoding, storing, retreive
what are the 3 types of memory
sensory, long term, short term
sensory memory enters through the _____
senses
how is sensory transfered to short term
through attention
what do we do when we exceed capacity and need help storing
chunking
duration is
12-30 seconds without rehersal

what is maintenece rehersal
repeating info in order to maintain it in short term memory
what is the capacity for long term memory
it is unlimited
what is duration of long term memory
relatively permanent
elaborate rehersal
short term to long term by making the information meaningful
declarative memory
things we know
affected by anterograde amnesia
non-declarative (procedural) memory
the things we do (skills, habits)
what is state dependent learning
memories formed during a particular state will be easier to recall while in a similar state
what is recall
info must be \"puled\" from memory with cues
automatic encoding
certain info enters long term memor with little effort
what is flashbulb memory
very visual
processes easier due to emotion
forgetting interference
memories are stored but no always accesible because other info interferes
proactive interferenc
old info interferes with new learning
retroactive interference
new info interferes with retrieval
what part of the brain is responsible for formation of new long-term memories
the hippocampus
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory before memory
anterograde amnesia
inability to form new memories
infantile amnesia
inability to retrieve memores from much before 3
what does rem behavior disorder result from
failure to block signals to muscles which allows movement during REM
which theory says sleep patterns are a product of evolution
adaptive theory
What theory says that dreams are a product of random signals sent to the cortex?

activation synthesis hypotsis
Learning involving the effects of consequences on behavior is known as ________________.



operants
A conditioned response spontaneously reappearing when the original CS returns although the response is usually weak and short lived is called?

spontaneous recovery
What is Antabuse and Chantix used for?

to quit smoking

What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?


classical involves reflexes and is involuntary while operant is voluntary
The belief that one could/should have predicted the outcome of a past event is called?

hindsight bias
Old information interfering with new learning is called ____________ interference.

proactive
In order to write the answer to an essay question, what kind of retrieval do we use?

recall
Which approach to memory says that human memory is analogous to a computer and that there are three types of memory systems?

information processing model
what are the sings of sleep deprivation
irritability, need alarm clock to wake up, fall asleep within 5 minutes of laying down, fall asleep while watching tv

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