Glossary of psych 101

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  • an awareness of external events
  • internal sensations
  • self as unique being
  • thoughts about experiences
  • Acquisition (Classical Conditioning)    
    the initial stage of learning-pairing the US and NS and it becomes the CS which elicits the CR
    Acquisition (operant)
    learning of a new response formed b/c of a relationship formed between behavior and consequence.
    response that occurs that sets the stimuli for the next response. the discriminative stimuli sets the response and the response then becomes the next behavior 
    Consciousness and Brain activity:
    EEG measures brain activity in the cerebral cortex and that shows that there is a physiological index of consciousness 
    discrimination (operant)
    organism responds to a trained (or any stimulus) but not to another one
    discriminative stimuli (operant)
    signals the availabilty of the reinforcer 
    emission of response
    response is happening
    Extinction (Classical)

    if you never again pair the US and NS, the CS will lose its properties


    Extinction (operant)
    the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency b/c the response is no longer followed by the stimuli
    Habituation (classical)
    failure to respond after repeated presentation of a stimulus.
    How are brain waves measured?
    in amplitude and frequency  
    How is intermittent on the schedule of reinforcement broken down?

    (1) interval- time based- delivery of reinforcer's is based on time not number of responses-at end of interval it gets a reinforcer.

    (2)ratio- response based on number of responses : (a) fixed- reinforcer de

    how is the schedule of reinforcement composed?
    there is extinction (complete absence of reinforcement), intermittent (broken down to interval and ratio), and continuous (gets reinforcement)
    negative reinforcement

    occurs when a response is strengthened  b/c it is followed by  the removal of an unpleasant stimuli. there are 2 types: (1) escape-an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends an aversive stimuli  (2) a

    operant behavior
    unit of behavior
    operant chamber
    learning theory -use it when teaching new behaviors
    Operant Conditioning-What is it and who came up with it?

    voluntary responses comes to be controlled by their consequences. It increases the likelihood of seeing that behavior again


    Positive reinforcer

    increases the  chance of behavior  happening again--delivery of something reinforcing. 

    response/behavior-pos. stimuli applied- increase the likelihood of behavior in future  

    primary reinforcer
    satisfies the primary biological needs (food, water, etc..)
    always resorts in a decrease in a target behavior, assuming there is an affective punisher. the stimulus can be removed or applied, and it is the behavior to be punished not the person. (1) +ive- presentation of an aversive stimulus which

    defined in terms of the behavior that comes before it


    reinforcement contingencies
    rules made by which reinforcements are delivere--it rewards good behavior right away.
    schedule of reinforcement
    specific pattern of a presentation of reinforcer's. three aspects: (1) timing (2) spacing (3) variability/consistency 
    secondary reinforcer
    also called conditioned; has required reinforcing properties by being paired with a primary reinforcer.
    delivery of a reinforcer to get a desired response.
    Sigmund Freud
    said that they are variations of stream of consciousness such as anesthesia, sleeping, drugs, etc...
    Spontaneous Recovery (Classical)
    reappearence of a response after a period of extinction, and every time this happens, there will be a decreased response.
    stimulus control
    behavior is higher in the presence of a discriminative stimuli then in its absence 
    Stimulus discrimination
    occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimuli does not respond in the same way to the new stimuli that are similar  to the original
    Stimulus generalization
    occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. (Ex: Little Albert)
    What are Circadian Rythms?
    It is the 24 cycle in sleep/body function. It can be disrupted by light  but everyone has their own circadian rhythms.
    What is the pathway for the light into the brain that affects the circadian rhythm?                                    &
  • light goes into the eye (retina)
  • then it goes to the brain
  • then the info is processed in the hypothalamus in the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
  • affects the pineal gland which changes the secretion levels of
  • William James        
    Thought of the concept of stream of consciousness.

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