Glossary of psych 101
Created by rachel123
- an awareness of external events
- internal sensations
- self as unique being
- thoughts about experiences
- Acquisition (Classical Conditioning)
- the initial stage of learning-pairing the US and NS and it becomes the CS which elicits the CR
- Acquisition (operant)
- learning of a new response formed b/c of a relationship formed between behavior and consequence.
- response that occurs that sets the stimuli for the next response. the discriminative stimuli sets the response and the response then becomes the next behavior
- Consciousness and Brain activity:
- EEG measures brain activity in the cerebral cortex and that shows that there is a physiological index of consciousness
- discrimination (operant)
- organism responds to a trained (or any stimulus) but not to another one
- discriminative stimuli (operant)
- signals the availabilty of the reinforcer
- emission of response
- response is happening
- Extinction (Classical)
if you never again pair the US and NS, the CS will lose its properties
- Extinction (operant)
- the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency b/c the response is no longer followed by the stimuli
- Habituation (classical)
- failure to respond after repeated presentation of a stimulus.
- How are brain waves measured?
- in amplitude and frequency
- How is intermittent on the schedule of reinforcement broken down?
(1) interval- time based- delivery of reinforcer's is based on time not number of responses-at end of interval it gets a reinforcer.
(2)ratio- response based on number of responses : (a) fixed- reinforcer de
- how is the schedule of reinforcement composed?
- there is extinction (complete absence of reinforcement), intermittent (broken down to interval and ratio), and continuous (gets reinforcement)
- negative reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened b/c it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimuli. there are 2 types: (1) escape-an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends an aversive stimuli (2) a
- operant behavior
- unit of behavior
- operant chamber
- learning theory -use it when teaching new behaviors
- Operant Conditioning-What is it and who came up with it?
voluntary responses comes to be controlled by their consequences. It increases the likelihood of seeing that behavior again
- Positive reinforcer
increases the chance of behavior happening again--delivery of something reinforcing.
response/behavior-pos. stimuli applied- increase the likelihood of behavior in future
- primary reinforcer
- satisfies the primary biological needs (food, water, etc..)
- always resorts in a decrease in a target behavior, assuming there is an affective punisher. the stimulus can be removed or applied, and it is the behavior to be punished not the person. (1) +ive- presentation of an aversive stimulus which
defined in terms of the behavior that comes before it
- reinforcement contingencies
- rules made by which reinforcements are delivere--it rewards good behavior right away.
- schedule of reinforcement
- specific pattern of a presentation of reinforcer's. three aspects: (1) timing (2) spacing (3) variability/consistency
- secondary reinforcer
- also called conditioned; has required reinforcing properties by being paired with a primary reinforcer.
- delivery of a reinforcer to get a desired response.
- Sigmund Freud
- said that they are variations of stream of consciousness such as anesthesia, sleeping, drugs, etc...
- Spontaneous Recovery (Classical)
- reappearence of a response after a period of extinction, and every time this happens, there will be a decreased response.
- stimulus control
- behavior is higher in the presence of a discriminative stimuli then in its absence
- Stimulus discrimination
- occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimuli does not respond in the same way to the new stimuli that are similar to the original
- Stimulus generalization
- occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. (Ex: Little Albert)
- What are Circadian Rythms?
- It is the 24 cycle in sleep/body function. It can be disrupted by light but everyone has their own circadian rhythms.
- What is the pathway for the light into the brain that affects the circadian rhythm? &
- light goes into the eye (retina)
- then it goes to the brain
- then the info is processed in the hypothalamus in the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
- affects the pineal gland which changes the secretion levels of
- light goes into the eye (retina)
- William James
- Thought of the concept of stream of consciousness.
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