Glossary of psy 209
Created by vako269
- What\'s the hypothesis on homo floresiensis and body and brain and EQ?
- Hypothesized that dwarfing of brain and body due to limited resources on island of Flores.
Hypothesized EQ not consistent with tool use.
Hypothesized they lived contemparously with other hominids, uncluding homo sapiens.
- What are glial cells?
- Support neurons
- How many pairs of chromosomes are in the human cell?
- 23 pairs
- What are the functions of the cell membrane? (2)
- - control amount of water in cell
- regulate concentration of salts on both sides of membrane
- What is the purpose of the Golgi apparatus?
- Wraps proteins and ships them in cell to proper location
- What do lysosomes do?
- Get rid of cell waste
- What is dualism? And what structure was thought to influence body?
- Dualism- body and mind control behavior
Pineal body influences body by directing fluids from ventricles to muscles
- Afferent to efferent as ___ is to ____
- as (IN) is to (OUT)
- Who are the two researchers that recorded from an axon of a squid?
- Hodgkin and Huxley
- What was Penfield credited for doing in the brain?
- Mapping the human cortex
- Why do fruit eating primates have a larger brain?
- They forage more than vegetation eaters
- What is it when two impulses are closer together on the membrane?
- Spatial Summation
- What combination of systems does the brain have?
- The brain appears to have a combination of serial and parallel systems
- What is the Radiator Theory?
- The brain cools by blood flow
- What type of cells process sensory information and send motor information?
- How are transgenic animals produced?
- Adding a gene to the genome
- What receives exhibitory and inhibitory input in cells?
- The Law of Bell and Magendie states that in the spinal cord, dorsal fibers are ______ and ventral are _______.
- Dorsal fibers- sensory
Ventral fibers- motor
- A brief change in polarity of a membrane is called ______.
- Action potential
- What is hyperpolarization?
- change in resting potential from -70mV to -73 mV
- How many directions do action potentials travel in an axon? Why?
- Action potential goes only in one direction in an axon because refractory periods force impulse to go in one direction
- Are calcium and potassium ions involved in producing resting potential?
- Calcium ions are not involved in producing a resting potential
- What is the absolute refractory period?
- Action potentials can\'t be produced
- In which system is there an increase in heart rate and inhibition in digestion?
- Sympathetic system
- In Damasio\'s gambling card game, what did people with frontal lobe damage do?
- Frontal lobe damage showed inability to anticipate outcomes
- What can be a result of fixed behavior and adaptive behavior in a crossbill bird, who has a beak designed to eat pinecones?
- Fixed behavior- trim the beak, behavior disappears
Adaptive behavior- learn to grab a stone to break seed
- What does the neocortex consist of?
- six layers of gray matter on top of layer of white matter
- What are ventricles?
- large cavities in brain with CSF
- MRI study of Christopher Reeve\'s revealed that larger areas were activated in his brain when asked to perform _____ movement compared to _____
- hand or tongue movement compared to normal control
- Superior colliculus-_______
- superior- visual
- What does the basal ganglia consist of?
- Caudate nucleus and putamen
- Sodium Potassium pump exchanges _______ intracellular ___ ions for ___ extracellular ___ ions.
- 3 intracellular Na+ ions for 2 extracellular K+ ions
- What is salutatory conduction?
- Action potentials jumping from one node to the next
- Which is bigger: hippocampus or amygdala?
- What do activated metabotropic receptors do?
- Activated receptors indirectly produce changes in nearby ion channels or in cell\'s metabolic activity thru series of steps
- What is the importance of ionotropic receptors?
- Binding site for neurotransmitter and pore/channel. No G protein
- Where are precursor chemicals from?
- absorbed from blood
- What are the types of neurotransmitters?
- Where are neurotransmitters produced?
- Cell body
- Where are calcium channels found?
- Presynaptic membrane
- What does the second messenger bind to and what does it affect?
- Binds to membrane channel causing change in structure and altering ion flow.
- After the second messenger binds to membrane channel, what happens? (3)
- Action causes protein molecules in cell to be incorporated into membrane
Forms new ion channels
Instructs cell\'s DNA to initiate production of new protein
- What are the functions of Acetylcholine? (4)
- - role in EEG
-movement of skeletal muscles
- control internal organs
- Type I
- excitatory, round synaptic vesicles
- What are synaptic vesicles?
- Contain neurotransmitters
- Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?
- In terminal or soma
- By what are neurotransmitters secreted into blood?
- What are the (4) different ways neurotransmitters can be inactivated?
-Reuptake into presynaptic terminal
-Taken by neighboring cells
- Enzyme degradation
- Voltage gated calcium ion channels that function in neurotransmission are primarily found ______.
- on the presynaptic membrane
- Can neurotransmitters be removed from the synaptic cleft by diffusion, uptake by surrounding blood vessels, and enzymatic degradation?
- Yes- diffusion, enzymatic degradation
No- uptake by surrounding blood vessels
- Vesicles store _____
- Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter found in (parasympathetic/sympathetic) (pre-/post) ganglionic cells
- norepinephrine- sympathetic postganglionic cells
- In humans, ability of developing brain to compensate from injury is better if injury occurs at which time period?
1 year old
- 1 year old
- What is preformation?
- embryo is a miniature adult
- What\'s the stages of brain development in order? (check book to make sure)
- What stage begins around 6 weeks, and complete by 20 weeks after conception?
- When does neural migration occur and when is it largely complete?
- occurs in development from about 8 weeks and is largely complete by 29 weeks of gestation (development)
- What are the periods of neural migration, neural maturation, cell differentiation?
- Neural migration/cell differentiation- begins at about 8 weeks and complete by about 29 weeks
Neural maturation- starts at about 20 weeks and continues til well after birth
- In sequence of brain development, what stage occurs last and is not complete until adulthood?
- What is mylenation? And, when is it complete?
mylenation of cortex continues in young adults; occurs later in life
frontal lobe continues up to 18+ year
Not complete until adulthood
- Cell differentiation occurs after what stages?
- How do cells migrate to appropriate location?
- Radial glial cells
- What are growth cones?
What do they respond to?
- What is apoptosis?
- cell genetically programmed to die
- What is Neural Darwinism?
- Synaptic pruning
Competition for sites/connections
Lack/limited availability of resources
- Piaget\'s stages:
- sensorimotor, pre-operational/symbolic, concrete operational, formal operational
- What brain area is involved for:
Non matching to sample task,
- Non-matching to sample task- temporal lobes
Displacement task- temporal lobes/basal ganglia
Concurrent discrimination- basal ganglia
- Where do progenitor cells come from?
- stem cells
- What lines the ventricular zone of an adult brain?
- neural stem cells
- What\'s long-term potential/enhancement?
- change in excitatory postsynaptic potential that lasts for hours to days
- What is the hierachial effect?
- Hiearachial effect- (p 68) when top structure communicates to second structure, second to others, etc....
- What is the organizational hypothesis?
- actions of hormones during development alter tissue differentiation
- Male rats, when castrated on their first day of life, do not show male sex behavior during adulthood even when given testosterone injections. (castration- take testes out, when testosterone gets to brain surge of estrogen is what turns it into male brain)
- organizational effect
- What neurotransmitters are released from sympathetic preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic cells?
- Ions are ______ charged molecules located _____ the axon.
- negatively ....
- An axon is polarized when:
- the inside of the axon is electrically negative with respect to the outside
- During depolarization, _____ molecules rush into the axon; during repolarization, _____ molecules rush out of the axon.
- sodium; potassium
- Synaptic trasnmission is the process by which a single neuron _____
- relays messages to other neurons.
- In the process of communication between neurons, neurotransmitter molecules are released into the gap between neurons by the:
- synaptic vesicles
- The left hemisphere of a split brain patient receives visual input only from the _(left/right)___ visual field of (right eye/left eye/both)
- right; both right and left eyes
- Right handed split brain patients are able to:
a. name unseen objects placed in their right hands but not objects placed in their left hands
b. name unseen objects placed in their left hands but not objects placed in their right hands
c. name unseen
- a. name unseen objects placed in their right hands but not objects placed in their left hands
- (Right/left) hemisphere is especially effective at processing language
- Left hemisphere- effective at processing language
- Because left hemisphere is more effective at processing language, split brain patients are able to:
a. repeat words more quickly when they are whispered into their left rather than their right ear
b. name an inseen object more rapidly when placed in lef
- c. read words more easily when they are flashed briefly in their right rather than their left visual fireld
- Normal people who have been blindfolded can name an object placed in their left hand because information about the object is transferred across the corpus callosum to the (right/left) hemisphere of the brain.
- left hemisphere
- The (right/left) hemisphere of the brain excels at spatial tasks.
- right hemisphere excels at spatial tasks
- Right handed split brain patient can effectively assemble a puzzle with the ________ hand because the _____ hemisphere of the brain excels at spatial tasks.
- left; right
- What are the functions of the cerebellum?
- coordinate balance and movement
- The hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are all part of the:
- limbic system
- The limbic system structure that influences agression and fear is the:
- The part of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movements is the:
- motor cortex
- If someone has difficulty understanding spoken language, he or she may have damage to the:
- Wernicke\'s area
- In humans and monkeys, the premotor cortex is involved in:
- planning movements
- Mirror neurons that are found in the premotor cortex of monkeys:
- fire excitedly when the monkey watches a movement just as they did when the monkey performed the same movement
- In humans, mirror neurons might enable:
- observational learning
- The area in the human brain that corresponds to the F5 area in the monkey\'s brain is:
- Broca\'s area
- Evolutionary psychologists believe mirror nuerons may have playd an important role in:
- sensory adaptation
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