Glossary of psy 202 midterm 2

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Created by eatonjo

science of individual differences. describes and explains.
trait perspective
fully focuses on only descriptive personality, not explanation
Who is allport?
he sought out fundamental traits, looked to dictionary. important because focused on language.
How many central traits are there?
6-12 central traits.
Who is Eysenk?
Empirically tested trait perspective using factor analysis. Used language to come up with important factors.
What 3 dimensions did Eysenk come up with?
1) introversion/extroversion
2) neuroticism (stable vs unstable)
3) psychoticism (connection to reality)

What are the Big 5
Openness to experience


What personality theory is associated with Freud?
Psychoanalytic theory
How is the psychoanalytic theory accessed?
through the unconscious, dream analysis
What is the ID? and what theory is it involved with?
The pleasure principle, involved in psychoanalytic theory
What is the Ego? And what theory is it involved with?
Reality principle, balance between the Id and Superego. Psychoanalytic theory
What is the superego and what theory is it involved in?
It is the norms, rules and expectations of society. And its part of the psychoanalytic theory
Defense mechanisms happen because of distortions by what?
the ego (trying to regulate id and superego)
Conflicts between the id and superego cause what?
What are 4 types of defense mechanisms?
repression, regression, reaction formation, and projection
what is repression?
banishing something from consciousness
what is regression?
enacting earlier coping strategies
what is reaction formation?
transforming undesirable impulse into its opposite
what is a common example of reaction formation?
homophobia (commonly most homophobic men are actually slightly homosexual)
what is projection?
put impulse onto someone else
what is an example of projection?
What is psychosexual development?
libido=life instinct
What is the oral stage of psychosexual development?
0-18 months, comfort and pleasure is found in mouth
What is the anal stage?
2-3 years, potty training ad control. pleasure being able to control themselves
What is the phallic stage?
3-5 years, orientation around genitals, but symbollic, not sexually. acquire ideas about gender
What is the latency stage?
5-13 years, school years. cognitive and social. nothing really happens
What is the genital stage?
puberty onward, sex oriented.
What is a result of fixation in the anal stage?
the person becomes anal retentive
What is a result of fixation in the phallic stage?
oedipus complex, attracted to people who are similar to opposite sex parent.
the level of consciousness containing all drives, urges, and instincts that are outside awareness but nonetheless motivate most behavior.
defense mechanisms
unconscious strategies that mind uses to protect itself from anxiety by denying and distorting reality in some way
a defense mechanism in whish a socially unacceptable impulse is expressed in a socially acceptable way
striving for superiority
according to Adler, the major drive behind all behavior, whereby humans naturally strive to overcome their physical and psychological deficiencies.
a defense mechanism whereby a person continues to be concerned and even preoccupied with earlier stages of development
inferiority complex
an unhealthy need to dominate or upstage others as a way of compensating for feelings of deficiency
collective unconscious
according to Jung, the shared experiences of our ancestors that have been passed down from generation to generation
personal unconscious
according to Jung, all our repressed and hidden thoughts, feelings, and motives.
ancient or archaic images that result from common ancestral experiences.
according to JUng, the female part of the personality
according to JJung, the male part of the female personality
unconditional positive regard
acceptance of another person regardless of his or her behavior
basic tendencies
the essence of personality: the Big five personality dimensions plus talents, aptitudes, and cognitive abilities
cortical arousal
level of activation of the brain
social norms
rules about acceptable behavior imposed by the cultural context in which one lives
the tendency of people to adjust their behavior to what others are doing or to adhere to the norms of their culture
informational social influence
conformity to the behavior of others because one views them as a source of knowledge about what one is supposed to do
normative social influence
conformity to the behavior of others in order to be accepted by them
situation in which the thinking of the group takes over, so much that group members forgo logic or critical analysis in the service of reaching a decision
a type of conformity in which a person yields to the will of another person
shcemas of how people are likely to behave based simply on groups to which they belong
out-group homogeneity
the tendency to see all members of an out-group as the same
in-group/out-group bias
tendency to show positive feelings toward people who belong to the same group as we do, and negative feelings toward those in other groups
a biased attitude toward a group of people or an individual member of a group based on unfair generalizations about what members of that group are like.
preferential treatment of certain people, usually driven by prejudicial attitudes
the act of attempting to change the opinions, beliefs, or choices or others by explanation or argument
violent behavior that is intended to cause psychological or physical harm, or both, to another being.
prosocial behavior
action that is beneficial to others
bystander effect
phenomenon in which the greater the number of bystander who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
selfless attitudes and behavior toward others
kin selection
the evolutionary favoring of genes that prompts individuals to help their relatives or kin
reciprocal altruism
the act of helping others in the hope that they will help us in the future
social exchange theory
the idea that we help others when we understand that the benefits to ourselves are likely to outweigh the costs
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the idea that people help others selflessly only when they feel empathy for them
the ability to share the feelings of others and understand their situations
sexual strategies theory
the idea that men and women face different problems when they seek out mates, and so they often approach relationships in very different ways

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