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Glossary of phmq developmental bio exam

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Sexual Reproduction
fusion of gametes (sperm and egg)
Asexual reproduction
no fusion of gametes
Types of asexual reproduction
fission, budding, regeneration, Parthenogenesis
fission
organism splits
budding
outgrowths from an organism
regeneration
fragments break off and regenerate missing structures

ex: hydra, starfish, planarians

parthenogenesis
egg develops w/o being fertilized
example of budding, regeneration, and fission
budding=hydra
regeneration=starfish
fission= amoeba

advantages of asexual reproduction
daughters are genetically identical So;
1.) Progeny(offspring) will do equally well in the current environment
2.) DO NOT need to go far to find a mate

advantage of sexual reproduction
daughters are NOT identical SO;
more genetic variation allows for ability to better adapt to changes in environment
How do animals that cannot move around reproduce?
hermaphroditism
hermaphroditism
when both MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS are present.
-any 2 individuals can mate
-capable of self-fertilization

MITOSIS=
identical daughter cells
MEIOSIS=
different daughter cells
what can be INTERNAL or EXTERNAL?
fertilization
-MOIST environment
-more eggs produced than will survive
-lesss protective

EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION
-environment doesnt matter as much
-less eggs produced
-more protective

internal environment
gonads (male and female)
testes and ovaries
these produce gametes;
and produce sex hormones:
testosterone
progestoerone
estrogen



gonads
contain tubules where sperm is formed; reside is slightly cooler scrotum
testis
where sperm matures and is stored
epididymis
during ejaculation, what duct does the sperm move thru?
vas deferens
what dodes the vas deferens fuse with??
urethra
contains whipping tail to propel it forward and alot of MITOCHONDRIA
sperm
what contains a follicle and produces eggs
ovaries
what contains an egg and supportive cells
follicle
what matures, and then the egg matures and release after?
follicle
process of releasing egg out of follice
ovulation.

1 egg per menustral cycle

egg enters the oviduct OR_____ and this is where feritilization takes place
fallopian tube
if fertilization occurs, embryo will plant iself within the uterine wall aka
endometrium
development of embryo takes place in the uterus
true
can expand to support pregnancy and contains many blood vessels
uterus
opening of vagina which dilates during birth
cervix
the tieing off of oviducts to precent an egg from entering the uterus
tubule ligation
_________ production is continuous
sperm
hypothalamus tells pituitary to release
FSH and LH
FSH and LH are then recieved by testes and ovaries.
true
in response to fsh and lh, the testes produce
testosterone
-controls developement of male reproductive anatomy,
during puberty
-voice deepens
-facial,pubic hair develops
-muscle growth
-increased sex drive




testosterone
2 things must happen for females to develop and grow
1. egg must mature and be released
2. endometrium must be prepped
hypothalamus tells pituitary to send fsh and lh to ovaries which in turn produce
progesterone and estrogen
-controls development of femlae reproductive anatomy
during puberty:
-breasts grow
-pubic hair
-fat disposotion in breast and hips



progesterone and estrogen
egg developement is
NOT continuous
mother starts producing egg when she is an embryo thru
Meiosis. but it doesnt finish, it just stops
only if ____________ occurs does meiosis ever finish
fertilization
after egg leaves______-. the ___________grows into the ________
follicle;corpus leuteum
secretes estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy
corpus leuteum
1.estrogen levels rise sharply
2. estrogen stimulates more fsh and lh release by the pituitary
3.this stimulates ovulation (follicle ruptures and egg is pushed into oviduct)
4. CORPUS LUETEUM then secretes progesterone and estrogen which inhibits


5. corpus leteum disnegrates causing estrogen and progesterone to drop
endometrium thickens for
preparation of possible pregnancy
estrogen and progestrone from the corpus leuteum thicken
the endometerium
when corpus letuem disintegrates, _________ sloughs off. this is called____
endometerium, menstraul flow
if feritlization takes place, embryo secretes
hcg Human Chlorionic Gonadotropin
keeps corpus leuteum intact as well as endometrium
HCG
hCG
indicator of pregnancy found in urine
condition of carrying embryos in uterus
pregnancy.gestation
many pregnancies self terminate due to
chromosomal number errors and developmental effects
when egg implantation occurs in oviduct, can cause rupturing or internal bleeding
ectopicpregnancy
embryo invades uterine lining to form the
placenta
disk shaped organ that contains maternal and fetal blood vessels
placenta
fetus develops in amniotic fluid for about
38 weeks
birth steps
1.dilation of cervix
2. birth of infant
3. birth of placenta
4.


when needle is used to smaple fetal cells within the fluid surrounding the fetus
amniocentisis
(genetic testing of diseases)
down syndrome
trisomy 21 (3rd chromosome error)
Treating Infertility
1.hormone treatment to induce sperm and egg production
2. In Vitro feritlization
(mix sperm and egg in dish)
or (directly inject sperm into egg)


first embryologist
aristotle
development stages
1. fertilization
2.cleavage
3. gastrulation
4.organogenesis


fusion os sperm and egg nuclei to form zygote
fertilization
Egg is covered in jelly, and 3 membrane layers. outer-inner
Jelly
Vitteline
Plasma

contains enzymes that degragde jelly and allow sperm to get to egg
acrosome
1. sperm reaches egg
2. jelly induces acrosome to release enzymes
3.sperm shoots out a rigid process that binds to the egg receptors
4. contents of sperm cell spill into egg
5. vessicles of stuff underneath membrane spill their contents



STEPS OF FERTILIZATION
HOW DOES EGG MAKE SURE ONLY 1 SPERM GETS THRU?
the outer vitelline membrane seperates from the inner plasma membrane and a 2nd sperm cannot enter.
what causes the seperation of the membranes and blocks the 2nd sperm?
a wave of calcium that rushes across egg after sperm entry.
period of rapid cell divisions where zygote gets divided into smaller cells. Usually isnt much growwing in this phase
cleavage
hollow ball of cells with cavity inside
blastula
each cell that makes up the hollow ball of cells
blastomere
humans and mice develop_______ mom
inside. therefore mom supplies nutrients.
frogs fish and birds develop__________ mom
outside. therefore nutrients are taken from yolk
depends on amount of yolk and how it is organized
Pattern of Cleavage
chicken egg has very ____cytoplasm
little
cytoplasm becomes
embryo
The mother places ________ and ____ into the egg before fertilization
PROTEINS AND RNAS
SEA URCHINE EXPERIMENT REVEALED:
you dont need nucleus to continue development
the mother puts important "stuff" into egg before fertilization. theyre___
cytoplasmic determinants
can end up in
only a subset of cells during
cleavage.

cytoplasmic determinants
the cytoplasmic determinants make some cells different than others. They can___ eachother and induce a particular____
signal, fate
cells begin to move to form 3 layers
gastrulation
some cells on outside move inside
gastrulation
outer layer, middle layer, inner layer
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
after 3 layers are formed, cells singal to eachother to initiate changes aka begin to
mingle
sea urchin development is an example of
gastrulation
like pushing your finger into a balloon
gastrulation
each of these layers produces specific organs/tissues
ectoderm,mesoderm,endoderm
what becomes the epidermis(outer layer of skin_ AND the nervous system?
ectoderm
what will become the blood,heart,kidney, bones, muslces?
mesoderm
what will become digestive tract and associated organs?
endoderm-inner layer
1. cells signal to other cells
2.cells turn ON or OFF specific genes
3. cells change their shape

recurring events during development
rod of mesoderm underneath the ectoderm
notochord
what signals to the ectoderm?
notochord
what sends chemical signal to the adjacent ectoderm?
notochord
ectoderm begins to change:
the nueral tube begins to form
nueral tube lies under the ectoderm
true
cells must change shape in order to
bind together
cells change shape by
1.changing the type of protein on their cell surfaces
2. changing structural proteins on inside
3. modifying internal proteins to move or migrate

establishment of form is called
Morphogenesis
cells change ____________ in order to bind together
cellsurface proteins
cells modify _____________ to move/migrate
internal proteins
nueral tube is above the
notochord
what forms the brain and spinal cord?
neural tube
blocks of mesoderm next to neural tube
somites
becomes muscles and vertebral/rib bones
somites
how are somites formed?
thru quick gene expression and cell shape changes
different parts of a somite will become different types of _______ based on the signal that part recieves
cells
common embryonic theme
once a tissue is induced, it can induce something else
endoderm forms
digestive tract and asscoaited organs; then 2 more tubes are formed
how is everything made?
protein gradients
Different levels of a protein
will induce different genes
and therefore different
fates.


protein gradients
how is polarity established?
protein gradients
in order to complete these complex events tissues must
work together
what controls fate from head to tail?
HOX genes
these are conserved thru evolution
HOX genes
a process cells undergo where unspecialized cells become specialized as specific cell type
Differentitation
why are twins possible?
embryo splits before differentitation occurs, the cells in the early human havent specialized yet.
polarity example
transplant a small piece into the other side of the developing limb ; the small piece tells the tissue to produce the posterior side of the arm
review:
Cells signal to each other
Genes get turned on/off
Differentiation occurs
Cells move
Cells change shape
Polarity and pattern is
established





organogenesis
each layer will produce specific organs/tissues

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