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Glossary of nutr chap 11

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Created by eatonjo

collagen
a protein that forms strong fibers in bone and connective tissue
cortical bone
compact bone, a dense bone tissue that makes up that outer surface of all bones, as well as the entirety of most small bones of the body
trabecular bone
spongy or cancellous bone, a porous bone tissue that makes up only 20% of the skeleton and is found within the ends of the long bones, inside the spinal vertebrae, inside the flat bones (breastbone, ribs, and most bones of the skull) and inside the bones of the pelvis.
bone growth
-determines bone size
-begins in the womb
-continues until early adulthood

bone modeling
-determines bone shape
-begins in the womb
-continues until early adulthood

bone remodeling
-maintains integrity of the bone
-replaces old bone with new bone to maintain mineral balance
-involves bone resorption and formation
-occurs predominantly during adulthood


bone density
the degree of compactness of bone tissue, reflecting the strength of the bones. Peak bone density is the point at which a bone is strongest.
remodeling
the two-step process by which bone tissue is recycled; includes the breakdown of existing bone and the formation of new bone.
resorption
the process by which the surface of bone is broken down by cells called osteoclasts.
osteoclasts
cells that erode the surface of bones by secreting enzymes and acids that dig grooves into the bone matrix
osteoblasts
"cell builders" cells that prompt the formation of new bone matrix by laying down the collagen-containing component of bone that is then mineralized.
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DXA or DEXA currently the most accurate tool for measuring bone density
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
a hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland when blood calcium levels fall. It is also known as parathormone, and it increases blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin d, increasing reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys, and stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone, which releases more calcium into the bloodstream.
calcitonin
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too high. Calcitonin inhibits the actions of vitamin d, preventing reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, limiting calcium absorption in the intestines, and inhibiting the osteoclasts from breaking down bone
calcium tetany
a condition in which muscles experience twitching and spasma due to inadequate blood calcium levels
calcium rigor
a failure of muscles to relax, which leads to a hardening or stiffening of the muscles; caused by high levels of blood calcium
adequate intake level for calcium
men/women(19-50 yrs)=1,000 mg per day
50yrs+=1,200 mg per day
15-18yrs=1,300 mg per day

UL for calcium
2,500 mg for all age groups
bioavailability
the degree to which our bodies can absorb and utilze any give nutrient
food sources of calcium
-plain yogurt with skim milk
-collard greens
-low-fat fruit flavored yogurt
-part skim ricotta cheese
-sardines, canned with bones
-skim milk
-spinach







hypercalcemia
a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of calcium in the blood.
hypocalcemia
a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood.
calcitriol
the primary active form of vitamin D in the body
food sources of Vitamin D
cod liver oil
pink salmon
mackerel
skim milk
1% milk
2% milk
cheerios
total corn flakes






ergocalciferol
Vitamin D2, a form of vitamin D found exclusively in plant foods
cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3, a form of vitamin D found in animal foods and the form we synthesize from the sun
rickets
vitamind d deficiency disease in children. symptoms include deformities of the skeleton such as bowed legs and knocked knees
osteomalacia
vitamin d deficiency disease in adults, in which bones become weak and prone to fractures.
phylloquinone
the form of vitamin K found in plants
menaquinone
the form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine
osteocalcin
a vitamin k-dependent protein that is secreted by osteoblasts and is associated with bone turnover
matrix Gla protein
a vitamin K-dependent protein that is located in the protein matrix of bone and also found in cartilage, blood vessel walls and other soft tissues.
food sources of vitamin k
-kale
-spinach
-turnip greens
-lettuce
-cabbage
-soybean oil
-canola oil





AI for vitamin K
120 ug for men
90 ug for women
RDA for phosphorus
700 mg per day
food sources of phosphorus
milk, meats, eggs, also in many processed foods as an additive
RDA for magnesium
men (19-30) 400 mg per day
men (31+) 420 mg per day
women (19-30) 310 mg per day
women (31+) 320 mg per day


UL for magnesium
from pharmacological sources= 350 mg per day
food sources of magnesium
leafy green vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, seafood, beans, and some dairy products.
hypermagnesemia
a condition marked by abnormally high concentration of magnesium in the blood
hypomagnesemia
a condition marked by abnormally low concentration of magnesium in the blood
fluorohydroxyapatite
a mineral compound found in human teeth that contains fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus and is more resistan to destruction by acids and bacteria than hydroxyapatite.
AI for fluoride
4-8 yrs old= 1 mg per day
9-13 yrs old= 2 mg per day
14-18 yrs old= 3 mg per day
adult men= 4 mg per day
adult women= 3 mg per day



UL for fluoride
2.2 mg for 8 and under
10 mg for 8+
food sources of fluoride
fluoridated dental products and fluoridated water
fluorosis
a condition marked by staining and pitting of the teeth; caused by an abnormally high intake of fluoride
osteoporosis
a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility and fracture risk
nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis
older age, caucasian or asian, history of fractures as an adult, family history, female, history of amenorrhea in women with no recognizable cause
modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis
smoking, low body weight, low calcium intake, low sun exposure, alcohol abuse, estrogen deficiency, testosterone deficiency, repeated falls, sedentary lifestyle
female athlete triad
a condition characterized by the coexistence of three disorders in some athletic females: an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
antiresorptive
characterized by an ability to slow or stop bone resorption without affecting bone formation. Antiresorptive medications are used to reduce the rate of bone loss in people with osteoporosis
functions of calcium
primary component of bone and tooth structure, helps maintain optimal acid-base balance, maintains normal nerve transmission, supports muscle contraction and relaxation, regulates blood pressure, blood clotting, and various hormones and enzymes
functions of vitamin D
regulates blood calcium levels, maintains bone health, plays a role in cell differentiation
functions of vitamin K
serves as a coenzyme during production of specific proteins that assist in blood coagulation and bone metabolism
functions of phosphorus
part of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are the mineral complex of bone, assists in maintaining fluid balance, primary component of ATP, helps activate and inactivate enzymes, component of DNA and RNA, component of cell membranes and lipoproteins
functions of magnesium
an essential component of bone tissue, influences formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and bone growth, cofactor for more than 300 enzyme systems, including ATP, DNA, and protein synthesis, Vit D metabolism and action, improves insulin sensitivity, and supports muscle contraction and blood clotting
functions of fluoride
maintains health of teeth and bones, protects teeth against dental caries, stimulates new bone growth

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