Glossary of nutr 325 ch 6-9

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mammary gland
the source of milk for offspring, also commonly called the breast. the presence of the mammary glands is a characteristic of mammals
What is the 2010 goal for amount of women in the U.S. breastfeeding up to 6 months?
What is the source of milk for offspring?
mammary gland
Define: Aveolus
-functional units of the mammary gland, hollow cavities
secretory cells
responsible for secreting milk components into cells
myoepithelial cells
contract to cause milk to be secreted into cells
what is letdown?
the ejection of milk
Groups of aveoli are called?
Define: Lactiferous Sinuses
dilations behind the nipple for storage of milk, drains into the opening of the nipple
Lactogenisis is the production of ________?
What is the first stage of lactogenisis
-begins prior to birth and continues for 2-5 days after
-milk formation begins in the form of colostrum
what is the second stage of lactogenisis
begins 2-5 days after birth and its when the milk "comes in"
what is the third stage of lactogenisis?
begins ~10 days after birth and its when the milk composition is now stable
During which lactogenesis stage does milk production begin?
lactogenesis II
What does prolactin do?
produced by pituitary glands, triggers cells in alveoli to produce milk, released in response to sucking, inhibits ovulation
What does oxytocin do?
produced by pituitary, stimulates milk let down, tingling of the breast, causes uterus to contract
Why is the return to normal uterine size faster in breastfeeding women?
oxytocin causes the uterine to contract
Human milk is the only food needed by the majority of healthy infants for how long?
the first 6 months
Is colostrum or mature milk higher in protein?
colostrum (2.0g)
What proteins is colostrum high in?
secretory IgA and lactoferrin
Describe water in breast milk:
-major component
-isomatic with maternal plasma
is breast milk higher or lower than human-milk subsitute?
how many kcal per ml in breast milk?
1/2 the calories in human milk are provided by?
What is the main protein in mature human milk?
What is casein responsible for?
protein, gives milk its white color
What is the dominant CHO is human milk?
What does lactose enhance?
calcium absorption

What do the ogliosaccharides do?
stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in gut
How much more vit A is in colostrum than mature milk?
colostrum is slightly yellow due to what?
lots of beta carotene (vit a)
Women in sunny areas will produce milk with more or less vit D?
vitamin e level in milk is linked to is ______ content.
5% of breastfed infants are at risk for what?
vitamin k deficiency
Low B12 breast milk is seen in women who are __________
vegan and malnourished
Vitamin B12 and folate are bound to what in breast milk?
whey protein
Concentration of minerals in breast milk decreases over the what period of time?
the first 4 months
Most minerals in breast milk have a high what?
What is the hormonal benefit of breastfeeding?
increased oxytocin helps a quicker return to prepregnancy uterine size
What is a physical benefit of breast feeding?
delayed ovulation means longer periods of time between pregnancies
What is a pyschological benefit of breastfeeding?
increased self-confidence and bonding with the infant
What is one nutritional benefit of breast feeding?
1. nutrients match infants requirements
What is one immunological benefit to breast feeding?
imunoglobulins protect by blocking colonization of pathogens
What is the average daily production of milk?
600 ml/day during first month, 750-800 ml/day 4-5 months and will increase due to demand
How many times a day should milk be expressed?
What is latching on?
when infant takes nipple and areola in their mouth
How does an infant signal hunger?
bringing hands to mouth, sucking on them, or moving head side to side
How long does it take infants to empty their stomach?
~1.5 hours
What are signs of a malnourished infant?
sleepy, non-responsive, few wet diapers, and have a weak cry
How many wet/soiled diapers should an infant have in a day?
6 wet diapers and 3-4 soild diapers
How many calories should breastfeeding women eat?
2,400 each day
How much more money have companies who made breastfeeding support programs made?
$3 for every $1 spent
What is the most common breast feeding condition?
sore nipples
How can sore nipples be prevented?
proper latching on techniques
What is letdown failure?
when milk does not eject from the breast (very uncommon)
How can letdown failure be helped?
relaxation techniques and oxytocin nasal spray
What is hyperactive letdown?
when streams of milk flow from the breast
How is hyperactive letdown helped?
mother should express milk until milk slows, then allow infant to nurse. (otherwise baby could choke)
What is engorgment? and why does it happen?
breast are overfilled with milk because supply and demand has not yet been established
What is the best prevention of engorgment?
frequent nursing
What is plugged duct?
a painful knot forming on the breast caused by milk staying in the duct
What is mastisis?
a bacterial infection of the breast
How common is mastisis?
1-5% of breast feeding women
How is mastisis treated?
emptying of breast, antibiotics, rest and fluids
are many herbs contraindicated during breast feeding?
is alcohol okay while breast feeding?
in moderation, but make sure feeding is timed to be much after drinking has occurred
Is it more ideal to smoke and not breast feed or smoke and breast feed?
smoke and breast feed, but still not ideal
What is teh 1/2 life of nicotine?
95 minutes
What are drugs that are contraindicated during breas feeding?
amphetamines, cocaine, heroine, and phencyclidine (angel dust, PCP)
What is jaundice?
yellow coloring of skin caused by high levels of bilirubin (what breaks down heme)
How is jaundice resolved?
in most cases it is resovled on its own
What should you inform parents about jaundice?
most infants will become jaundiced, however very very few will develop further issues
What do parents of multiples need support in?
organization, feeding, stress management, individualization
Exclusive breastfeeding for more than 4 months protects against what?
What can the lactating mother consume to protect against allergies?
omega-3 fatty acids
Do near-term infants have difficulty breastfeeding?
yes, they have subtle immaturities making it harder
How can breast feeding be made easier for near-term infants?
pumping milk
waking them up every 2-4 hours for feeding
Can HIV be transmitted through breastfeeding?
yes, transmission rates are 5-40%
What is the leading cause of infant death?
low-birth weight (
What is the 2010 goal in terms of infant deaths?
What is the average weight of full-term infants?
5.5 lbs to 8.5 lbs
appropriate weight for gestational age
small for gestational age (
disproportionately small for gestational age (malnutrition in 3rd tri, low weight but normal length and head circumference)
proportionately small for gestational age (long term malnourishment, fewer problems than dSGA)
large for gestational age (>90th percentile)
what are common newborn behaviors?
hear and move in response to a familiar voice, CNA is immature resulting in inconsistent cues for hunger and satiety, strong reflexes
How long until newborns double their birth weight?
4-6 months
When do newborns triple their birth weight?
by 1 year
How is the height (length) of infants measured?
recumbent-length measurement board
How many calories does an 8 month old need?
98 kcal per kg per day
How many calories per day does a 6 month old need?
108 kcal/kg/day
Prior to 6 months how many grams of protein are necessary?
9.1 grams per day
After 6 months how many grams of protein are necessary?
11 grams per day
How many grams of fat do babies need?
30g 0-6 months and 31 grams 7-12 months
What do infants need cholesterol for?
gonad and brain development
Why is breast milk easy for infants to digest?
it contains mainly short and medium chain fatty acids
When do infants start to purposefully signal wants and needs?
4-6 weeks
When are infants ready for solid foods?
4-6 months when they begin moving their tongue from side to side
At what point does a child verbalize hunger?
~3 years old
How should solid food be introduced?
at 6 months, offer small portions of semi-soft food on a spoon twice each day
When can infants each soft-mashed foods?
not until 8-10 months
What should the 1st foods be?
iron-fortified baby cereal mixed with breast milk
How often should new "solid" foods be introduced?
every 2-3 days
When should iron be supplemented?
if the mother was anemic during pregnancy
When should Vitamin D be supplemented?
if there is low sun exposure
When should Vitamin B12 be supplemented?
when the mother is vegan
Low birth weight (LBW)
Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW)
Extremely low birth weight (elbw)
neonatal death
occurring in the 1st 28 days of life
perinatal death
death occurring after 20 weeks gestation until 28 days after birth
What are infants energy and nutrient needs based off of?

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