Glossary of normal sleep pattern

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Describe the normal sleep pattern.
cyclic, not a valley on unconsciousness, but ups and downs through light into deep and back to light.
What are the 3 ways to measure sleep?
What does the EEG measure?
electroencephalogram measures brain wave patterns by two electrodes behind the ears.
What does the EOG measure?
electrooculogram measures eye movement. Two electrodes attached to each side of the head. The EOG measures changes in voltage between the two electrodes as the eyes move.
What does the EMG measure?
the electromyogram measures tonic muscle activity through two electrodes under the chin. (submental muscles)
Who were the Stages of Sleep developed by?
Rechtschaffen and Kales. They are determined by EEG,EOG and EMG.
What are the NonREM stages of sleep?
0=quiet wakefulness
1=light sleep
2=intermediate sleep
3=deep sleep
4=deepest sleep
What is the other NON -rem stage?
paradoxical sleep or REM sleep.
Describe quiet wakefulness in regards to EEG, EMG and EOG measures
EEG = alpha waves 10hz (active thinking)
EMG = moderately high levels of muscle activity
EOG = shows occasional eye movements, quick ones.
When do alpha waves occur?
no visual stimuli even if eyes open in the dark. Still awake and able to respond quickly to stimuli
Describe stage 1 sleep in terms of eeg, EMG and EOG
EEG = alpha waves are less than 50% and are replaced by theta (4-7hz) and beta waves (20-30hz)
EOG= show slow rolling eye movements
EMG= overall tonic activity has decreased.
Describe stage 2 sleep in terms of eeg, EMG and EOG
EEG = start to see sleep spindles (sigma waves 12-14hz) K complexes may also occur. the presence of K complexes and sleep spindles define stage 2.
EMG =still low
EOG=no eye movements.
Describe stage 3 sleep in terms of eeg, EMG and EOG
EEG = Begins when delta waves are apparent 20-50% of time in a 30 sec epoch.
EMG= low tonic activity
EOG =no eye movements
Describe stage 4 sleep in terms of eeg, EMG and EOG
EEG = When delta waves are more than 50%
EOG =no eye movements
EMG= low tonic activity
Describe REM sleep in terms of eeg, EMG and EOG
EEG = high frequency, low amplitude waves with frequent ssaw tooth shapes
EOG = quick rapid flickers
EMG = no movement, as though paralysed
How long is a sleep cycle?
90 minutes
What are the approximate percentages of the stages that make up the sleep period?
stage 1=5%
stage 2= 50%
stage 3/4=25%
In non-rem sleep when is there no movement at all?
delta wave sleep
When does most turning over occur?
when coming out of deep sleep into lighter sleep the body will adjust after sensing discomfort
Is REM longer or shorter at the end of the night?
REm is longer at the end of the night.
When is Delta wave sleep most apparent/
at the start of the sleep cycle. Stage 3/4 get shorter as the night goes on and REM gets longer.
What is Kleitman's BRAC?
Basic rest activity cycle. Kleitman thought that a 90 min cycle occurred during the day as well in regards to reaction time and visual discrimination.
When might someone not experience much early REm is their sleep period?
alchohol inhibits REM
sleep deprivation will inhibit REM and substitute more delta wave sleep instead.
What is the REM sleep propensity circadian rhythm?
Max REm sleep propensity seems to be around 8-10am.
What illustrates this REM propensity rhythm?
How sleep deprived shift workers, when trying to go to sleep at 9am will often go straight into REM. This might not happen at another time of the day.
Of all the sleep stages, which one has the greatest cortical arousal?
the least = delta wave sleep

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