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Glossary of nervous system - anatomy

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the nervous system has two principal divisions called the central nervous system and the ___
peripheral nervous system
the central nervous system consists of the brain and the ___
spinal cord
the peripheral nervous system has senfory receptors located in the ___
sense organs
there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of ___
cranial nerves
nerve impulses from the central nervous system are transmitted to the glands and the ___
muscles
the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the smatic division and the ___
autonomic division
sensory nerves are also known as ___
afferent
motor nerves are also known as ___
efferent
another name for a nerve cell is ___
neuron
supporting cells of the nervous system are called ___
glial cells
in the CNS, those glial cells that wrap extensions of their plasma membranes about neurons and form sheaths are called ___
oligodendrocytes
those star-shaped glial cells with cytoplasm extended into elongated processes to form the blood-brain barrier are called ___
astrocyte
glial cells that phagocytize invading microorganisms are called ___
microglia
in the PNS, the glial cells that wrap themselves around neurons are the ___
schwann cell
in the PNS, schwann cells for the ___
myelin sheath
the structural and functional unit of the nervous system is the ___
neuron
neurons with many dendrites and a single long axon are known as_____
multipolar neurons
neurons with only one dendrite and one axon are known as ___
bipolar neurons
most sensory neurons are neurons described as ___
unipolar neurons
neurons that transmit information from receptors to the CNS are called afferent neurons, or ___
sensory neurons
motor neurons relay impulses from the CNS to the glands or the ___
muscles
motor neurons are also known as ____
efferent neurons
the neurons that link sensory and motor neurons to one another are association neurons, also called ___
interneurons
the neucleus and most organelles are contained in that part of the neuron called the ___
cell body
proteins are synthesized at an organelle of the cell body known as the ___
nissl body
impulses are conductd away from the cell body by a long extension called the ___
axon
a nerve fiber is composed of bundles of ___
axons &/or dendrites
at the ends of axons are located thousands of microscopic brances called ___
axon terminals
chemical substances released at the axon terminals are referred to as ___
neurotransmitters
the covering that provides insualtion to the axons is the ___
myelin sheath
between successive schwann cells or oligodendrite extensions are gaps called the ___
nodes of ranvier
Deterioration of patches of myelin can result in a condition called ___
MS
the outer portion of schwann cells that surrounds the axon is called the ___
neurilemma
a nerve consists of several bundles of axons and/or dendrites in which each bundle is known as a ___
fascicle
the cell bodies of neurons are often grouped together in a mass referred to as a ___
ganglion
the first activity in the body's response to a stimulus is called ___
reception
a neuron that is not transmitting a nerve impuls is a ___
resting neuron
because the regions inside and outside the membrane of a resting neuron have opposite electrical charges, the resting neuron is said to be ___
polarized
the difference in electrical potential in a resting neuron is called the ___
resting potential
outisde the plasma membraneof a resting neuron there is a high concentration of ___
sodium ions
outside the plasma membrane of a resting neuron, the electrical charge is ___
positive
to maintain the sodium-potassium pump, energy must be supplied from ___
ATP
another name for the nerve impulse is the ___
action potential
once the nerve impulse has moved down the axon, the neuron membrane must ___
repolarize
in its depolarized state, the neuron is said to be ___
refractory
the same nerve impulse will develop in a neuron regardless of the strength of the stimulus; this is called the ___
all-or-none law
the junction where two neurons come together is the ___
synapse
the space within the synapse that may be filled by neurotransmitters is the ___
synaptic cleft
the neurotransmitter t hat stimulates muscles at the neuromuscular junction is ___
acetylcholin
a well-known neurotransmitter released by neurons of the sympathetic system and the brain is ___
norepinephrine
the PNS is composed of:
a)brain & cranial nverves
b)sensory receptors & nerves
c)brain & spinal cord
d)spinal cord & sensory receptors
B
the brain & spinal cord are components of the:
a) PNS
b) autonomic nervous system
c) sensory nervous system
d) CNS
D
the axon is not insulated with myelin:
a)at the cell body
b)at the nodes of ranvier
c) in the brain
d) in the autonomic nervous system
B
MS is caused by:
a)deterioration of patches of myelin
b)absence of axon terminal
c)inability to release neurotransmitters
d)absence of schwann cells
A
the perineurium & epineurium are associated with:
a)neurilemma
b)dendrites
c)nerves
d)neuroglia
C
the primary effectors of nerve activity in the body are the:
a)neurons
b)bones & glands
c)axons & dendrites
d)glands & muscles
D
the synapse is an area that occurs:
a)between the cell body & axons
b)only at the sensory receptors
c)between dendrites & cell bodies
d)between two neurons
D
in a resting neuron, the inner surface of the plasma membrane:
a)carries a positive charge
b)is uncharged
c)carries a negative chage
d)carries both a positive & negative charge
C
a resting neuron:
a)is polarized
b)has no myelin sheath
c)has axons but no dendrites
d)has not cytoplasm
A
a nerve impulse is the same thing as the:
a)nissl body
b)action potential
c)resting potential
d)synaptic potential
B
the ions that maintain the ionic imbalance in a resting neuron are:
a)sulfur & boron
b)oxygen & carbon
c)beryllium & radon
d)potassium & sodium
D
whenstimulated, the membrane of the neuron:
a)contracts
b)undergoes depolarization
c)expands
d)begins to synthesize protein
B
the neuron repolarizes after a nerve impulse passes by the influx of:
a)carbon isotopes
b)hydrogen ions
c)oxygen atoms
d)potassium ions
D
a synapse occurring between a neuron & a muscle cell is called a:
a)desmosome
b)gap junction
c)neuromuscular junction
d)synovial junction
C
all the following are possible neurotransmitters except:
a)pitressin b)norepinephrine c)acetylcholine d)dopamine
A
once acetylcholine has been utilized in a synapse, it is:
a)left in place
b)broken down
c)converted to an enzyme
d)converted to potassium ions
B
the two main divisions of the nervous system are the PNS and (inner) nervous system.
central
afferent nerves are slo called (motor) nerves
sensory
the two main types of cells in the nervous system are nerve cells and (glial) cells
true
the star-shaped (oligodendrocytes) are glial cells that have long processes and help form the blood-brain barrier.
astrocytes
neuroglia provide (support) to the nerve cells
true
neurons with a single extension functioning as both an axon and dendrite are called (bipolar) neurons
unipolar
motor neurons transmit impulses from the (peripheral) nervous system to the muscles and the glands
central
one function of the association neurons is to linksensory neurons to (afferent) neurons
motor
the nucleus of a neuron is found in the (axon)
cell body
the three neurotransmitters of the catecholamine group ar edopamine, epinephrine, and (norepinephrine)
true
nerve cell extensions that are specialized to receive nerve impulses are the (axons)
dendrites
a nerve (cord) is really a bundle of axons and/or dendrites
fiber
chemicals called (neurotransmitters) are released by the nerve cells at the synaptic knobs
true
the nodes of ranvier are places on the dendrite where there is (myelin)
no myelin
the white matter of the brain is due to the white color of the (cytooplasm) surrounding nerve cells.
myelin
a (ganglion) is a mass of cell bodies of several neurons
true
the place where an axon comes close to but does not join a dendrite is called a (synergism)
synapse
a resting neuron is (polarized) because of the difference in electrical charges on either side of its membrane
true
outside the plasma membrane of a resting neuron, the concentration of (hydrogen) ions is ten times greater than inside
sodium
energy to power the sodium-potassium pump is derived from (NAD) molecules within the cytoplasm of the neuron
ATP
to stimulate a nerve impulse, a stimulus alters the resting potential by increasing the permeability of the (nuclear membrane)
plasma membrane
an action potential, a wave of deplarization in a nerve cell, is the same as the (nerve impulse)
true
the same impulse will be generated in a nerve cell regardless of the size of the stimulus once the threshold has been reached. this is called the (threshold) law
all or none
without (neurotransmitters) such as acetylcholine, a nerve impulse could not be propagated across the synapse.
true
the process of (endocytosis)acounts for the release of neurontransmitter into the synaptic cleft
exocytosis

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