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Glossary of music appreciation exam 2

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Created by britneyzurovetz

struggled to find individual musical expression...

burnt manuscripts of his music; in fear that others would go back and scrutinize it

johannes brahms
to over come the challenge of scrutinization, it takes elements from music of the past and incorporate it into
a new composition
full of digital "samples" that "borrow" the sounds of earlier songs
rap music
piece of music used rather than the whole song, in a different piece of music
sample
a remake of an older/ previous song
cover
original written form of a piece of music
manuscrips
the return to emotional expression associated with 19th century romanticism
new romanticism
combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution
dissonance
an unprecedented expansion in the way an instrument (including voice) is treated by composers and performers
extended techniques
parody of another work or works, presenting them in a new style or guise
musical quotations
her harmonies and melodies are reminiscent of music from the romantic period
joan touer
sounds divorced from the past; his harmonies are much more dissonant and creates very challenging vocal parts that many singers are unable to perform
george crumb
-to pay tribute to a famous composer
-composer might like the meaning behind the music
-composer thinks the music is pretty or emotionally stirring

musical borrowings
in musical borrowings composers are no
plagiarizing
insiders view of the past/music

-absorbed in the past, and every not stands as a testament of her interpretation

inside
outsiders view of the past/music

-marked, set apart, and clearly identified in the score.

outside
characteristic manner of presentation of musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, form, etc.)
style
-focus on value
-essential
-exchange

cover songs
a continuation of philosophical reflection upon music of the kind that began with the ancient greeks
aesthetic
a bittersweet longing for the past
nostalgic
term for an opera or musical consisting of individual sections or "numbers" that can readily be detached from the whole, as distinct from an opera consisting of continuous music
number
had to physically manipulate the tape rather than a computer
magnetic tape
recording sounds more "nature", including honking horns, slamming doors, and other sounds that were not traditionally considered to be musical instruments (paris, france)
musique-concrete
group of composers who were producing music entirely within the studio, using equipment called OSCILLATORS and other noise generators
cologne, germany (musique-concrete?)
many of these new composers were just curious individuals who just wanted to
learn about new software
at times, a live musician would play along with the tame during a concert, replacing
traditional accompanimental instruments
composed 4'33" (four and thirty three seconds)
john cage
a pianist walks to a piano, opens the lid, and never plays a single note for four minutes and thirty-three seconds.
what was the idea behind this?
the audience became the performance
combines musique-concrete and electronische musik
williams mix (1952)
who composed williams mix?
john cage
in the 1960s and 1970s --- were popular
synthesizers
allows a computer to respond to a live performer
gestural controller
senses the hand gestures of the performer, sent to a computer which translates these movements into sounds
gestural glove
who developed the gestural glove
tod machover
the performer is able to interact with the technology in a live performance
interactive
when a song is --- it is recorded and then incorporated into a musical composition
sampled
how many ways are there to sample? what are they?
two

analog, digital

completely on the computer-
digital sampling
technology has which value?
both essential and exchange
the interweaving of horizontal and vertical elements in the musical fabric
texture
music without extra instruments
acoustic
who wrote not just more idle chatter (1988)
paul lansky
exaggerated, grotesque, overdone, bizzare
baroque
development of instrumental genres
-the birth of opera
baroque music
-sonata
-opera
-concerto

instrumental genres
key board began to develop as a solo instrument
concerto
-first appeared in 1682 in rome
-multiple movement
-music of contrasts'
-the expression of emotions or images without words?


concerto
began to develop as a solo instrument
keyboard
multiple movements are usually how many?
3
-famous and profilic violinist and teacher
-music teacher at orphanage and school
-composed over 500 concertos
-four seasons (1725)


antonio vivaldi (1678-1741)
-solo concerto
-group of four "programmatic" concertos
-each has 3 movements
-each based on italian sonnet to issustrate imagery season


four seasons-antonio vivaldi
what were the four programmatic concertos that made up vivaldi's four seasons?
spring
summer
autumn
winter


all together
tutti
one
solo
opening melody (---) returns in different keys after each deatiled scene(---)
tutti
solo
suggests certain hierarchical combination of harmonies (functional harmonies)
key (major and minor)
a central pitch/harmony (home)
tonic
a secondary pitch/harmony (confirms a tonic)
dominant
moving one key to another
modulation
means of organizing concerto movements
ritornello
means return
ritornello
ritornello appears in tutti sections generally before and after solo section
ritornello
-it returns either completely or partially
-with different keys
-solo episodes as modulation

ritornello
map of ritornello:

box:
line:
a and b:



-ritornello (tutti)
-episode (solo/tutti)
-melodic ideas

designed to persuade or move an audience with organized and expressive ideas
rhetoric
the basic structure:
beginning.
middle.
end.

introduction (opnening ritornello)
beginning
development (modified ritornello)
middle
restatement (final ritornello)
end
also functions to reinforce the main ideas of the music
repetition
in the conclusion of vivaldi's "spring", ritornello form acts as a --- --- of baroque rhetoric
sound realization
main idea
ritornello (tutti)
display of performance virtuousity
episode (solo)
contrasting --- --- with the repetition of main idea (ritornello)
musical argument
the conclusion iof vivaldi's "spring" is a reflection of
baroque society
-western european and american music is based on a limited numer of pitches that are then combined in almost limitless ways
musical alphabet
how many basic notes are in the alphabet?
7
the second a is an --- --- than the first
octave higher
-comes from the word "eight", just like the words "octopus" and "octagon"
-the two a sounds will sound consonant
octave
--- offer a good way to visualize the musical alphabet
pianos
lowest white key
a
highest white key
c
flat and sharp
black keys
between a and b is a pitch called both
a sharp and b flat
any set of pitches that ascends in order from the lowest pitch to the highest pitch
scale
c d e f g a b c
major scale
c d e flat f g a flat b flat c
minor scale
c d f g a c
pentatonic scale
main scales are made up of:
intervals
kips over one pitch
whole steps
one pitch to the very next pitch
half steps
both the major scale and minor scale are made up of --- and ---
whole steps
half steps
half steps occur between scale degrees 3-4 and 7-8
major scale
half steps occur between scale degrees 2-3 and 6-7
minor scale
uses every single pitch
-all intervals are half steps
the chromatic scale
is based on a musical organization system called tonality
key
emphasizes certain pitches over others
toncility
the most important pitch is called the
tonic pitch
the focal or "home" pitch around which all other pitches circulate
tonic
sounds brighter
major key
sounds darker
minor key
minor key sounds darker because of the
third scale degree
keys don't only refer to individual ---, but also encompass ---
pitches
harmonies
in addition to a tonic pitch, there is also a
tonic triad
a chord that has three notes
triad
first not of the triad chord is ---, then ---, then ---
rood
third
fifth

c e g
c major triad
c e flat g
c minor triad
built on the fifth scale degree
dominant triad
tonic and dominant is important because these two chords are often used for
cadenses
--- is said to resolve to the tonic because the ear hears this progression as a strong motion that logically proceeds to the tonic
dominant
serves a dramatic function (moving plot forward) that is less meaningful if performed in part, rather than in entirety
recitative
are relatively brief and have a clear beginning and end
arias
recitative is more like
spoken language
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a distinct vocal style; found in opera, cantata and cratorio
recitative
text or script of an opera prepared by a liberettist
libretto
often play an important part in opera
vocal ensembles
types of vocal ensembles
duet
trio
quartet

used on stange bands sometimes rather than the orchestra in the pit
verdi, 19th century composer
allow a prima donna or pimo uomo
arias
maria callas was a
prima donna
famous instrumental solos are
occasional
in the entr'acte between acts 2 and 3 of bizet's carmen
flute solo
the castrato was a --- singer
male
retained a high vocal range in adulthood due to a childhood surgical operation
castrato
male heroes were usually set in the --- voice range
castrato
cario broschi was known as
farinelli
if a famous singer was passing through a city that was producing an opera, the original composer was expected to write a showy aria to
suit the skills of the singer
the composer must write on even if it was originally ...
not part of the opera
a substitute aria could have been used having no connection or not even make sense in
the plot
italian opera reigned
supreme
the da capo aria was
standard structure
a sentimental type of aria that allowed a character to express her suffering
aria cantabile
a flashy aria type that was full of passionate displays of emotion
aria di bravura
no single character could have
two arias in a row
less significant character would have
less arias
singers usually ------- after an aria
exited the stage
lyric song in ternary form commonly found in operas, contatas, and oratorios. (form:aba)
da capo aria
de capo means --- --- --- referring to a return of the first section of the aria
of the head
the most common form for arias during the baroque era was the
da capo aria
da capo aria is based on the principle of --- and ---
variation and repetition
extraordinary ability of performance technique
argued that the music's function was to support the text and drama
--- remind us that opera is about a sung drama not just text and music
scholars
--- and --- defies convention due to its performers and intended audience
dido and aeneas
--- and --- created a work that combined music, text, acting and dance into a drama based on mythological subject matter
purcell and nahm tate (librettists)
a short, melodic rhythm or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
ostinato
-fame was mostly limited to his region of germany
-dedicated to keyboard players
johan sebastian bach
-born in germany but moved to london to compose italian operas
-turned to oratorio (cheaper to perform)
-messiah is still played in many towns today

george ferdinand handel
---- --- were based on religious stories from both the old and new testaments
handels oratorios
within handels oratorio, --- were performed
concertos
large scale dramatic genre originating in the baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra
oratorio
vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instruments, based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative; generally consists of several movements including recitative, arias and ensemble numbers
cantata
-english
-dramatic/theatre
-in acts
-performed in concert halls
-choral/solo numbers
-freely composed




oratorio
-german
-nondramatic
-no acts
-performed in church services
-choral/solo numbers
-overall settings and freely composed




cantata
both oratorio and cantata use
religious texts
baroque congregational hymn of the german lutheran church
chorale
both handel and back wrote
secular choral music
non religious
secular
imitation of a melodic statement in a polyphonic texture
-featured in both handel's messiah and bach's cantata no. 80 feature this
imitative polyphony
imitative polyphony was a common --- used during the baroque era
texture
interweaving of horizontal and vertical elements in the musical fabric
texture
polyphonic form popular in the baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counter-point
fogue
a fogue written for a chorus; usually as a part of a larger work, especially common in bach's cantatas
choral fogue
texture with principle melody and accompanying harmony
homophonic
--- has an excerpt that is da capo aira
messiah
performed bach's st. matthew passion in 1829
felix mendelssohn
published a major biographical sutyd of bach in 1802
johann frankel
later expanded the biography between 1873 and 1880
phillip spitta
have recorded many bach pieces; often swinging the beat to make it jazzy sounding
swing swingers
was created in 1815 as a chorus
handel and hadn society of bostan
purpose is to educate the public about religious choral music
handel and haydn society of boston
a stock of musical materials for a particular use
repertoire
johann sebastian bach is a mastery of a type of composition called the
fuge
a polyphonic piece in which the different melodic lines are put together according to specific rules
fuge
texture of multi-voice with two or more melodic lines
polyphonic
one that features multiple independent melodic lines or voices sounding simultaneously
polyphonic piece
you might find it easier to think of a fuge as more of a --- or --- rather than a form
process
proceedure
an event that is in a continual state of development
process
used fugal techniques in the last movement of his very last symphony
used fugal techniques in the last movement of his very last symphony
mozart
the procedures from creating fagues evolved out of methods used to compose --- --; especially --- ---, throughout the late 15th and 16th centuries
polyphonic music
church music
the composers of fague developed fairly strict conventions for creating
counter point
combining multiple --- --- into a polyphonic composition with smooth, constant, pleasing harmonies
melodic lines
subject:
tonic
answer:
dominant
is distringuished by its use of a primary melodic idea called a subject as the basis of itself
fague
one of the melodic lines or voices is likely using a version of this ---, or its ---
subject
answer
at the beginning of a fugue, the subject is clearly --- (usually by itself), then it is --- in another voice (typically at the dominant pitch level)
introduced
answered
the contrast between subject and answer is based on the
pitch level
the opening will sound like a conversation between two people which is called
exposition
after the exposition, the subject may appear --- in any of the voices (until the very end) when the subject gets back to ---
freely
tonic
passages within the fugue in which the subject does not appear
episodes
all contrapuntal music and especially fugues can be quite...
difficult to create
require knowledge of musical theory, including scales, harmony and complex notation methods
fugues
a visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers
notation
fuges were held in high regards as products of --- --- and fugal procedures were often referred to at the time as the --- ---
musical learning
learned style
a well crafted fugue was a --- of a composers --- of music and his skin in applying this knowledge
demonstration
knowledge
had a special talent for writing contrapuntal music, and he was particularly skilled at creating complicated fugues and fugal music
bach
in his last years, bachs music was regarded as outdated and very ---
complex
fugues in the late 17th and early 18th centuries were typically written for the
keyboard
produced several collections of fugues
johann sebastian bach
bach's two volumes of the well tempered ---, each which contained a prelude and fugue of all twelve major keys and all twelve minor keys
clavier
fagues and fugal passages were often included in compositions for --- --- or in --- ---
instrumental ensembles
larger vocal works
the prefix --- implies that the prelude is --- before another composition
pre
first
the term preluding was used to describe what organists did when they improvised before the choir began to sing
preluding
bach's preludes from the well tempered clavier are mostly not --- in the fashion of the fugues
imitative
the prelude that precedes the fugue is in
c minor
-ornate and complex
-depiction of specific affects in a direct manner
1600-1750
-formal and restrained
-depiction of a larger, overarching story
1750-1825
emphasized reason and individualism over tradition
european intellectual movement
-industrial
-scientific advancement
-greater equality and freedom
-emphasized humanistic pursuits


age of revolution
-rational and balanced
-developed orchestral-new games
-rise in public concert
-educated middle class


"classical period" 1750-1825
-ab
-aba
-genre: concerto
-ritornello form


baroque film
ab
binary
aba
ternary
contrast
-repetition
-group>solo>group>solo>group

ritornello
-also use of binary and ternary forms
-genre:symphony
-sonata form

classical form
-contrast
-return
-exposition>development>recapitulation

sonata form
how are the main musical elements used?
-melody
-rhythm
-texture
-harmony
-form
-dynamics




three clearly-defined sections of sonata form as classical rhetoric
-exposition
-development
-recapitulation

sonata form as classical rhetoric is a means to express music ideas to the ...
audience clearly
longer, more complex
-characteristics in everyday life
-familiar subject
-central characters




the novel
introduction of themes
exposition
-first theme
-second theme
-third theme

exposition
first and second themes are manipulated
development
-harmonic modulation
-fragments of themes from exposition
development
restate main ideas
recapitulation
-themes return "uncathed"
-main themes return (in tonic key)
recapitulation
the symphony
new genre
new symphony:
1. allegro
2.slow movement
3.minuet
4.allegro




(in sonata form)
(free form)
(in minuet form)
(in sonata form)



eline kleine nachtmusik
a little night music
wolf gang
-1787
-genre: ---
-chamber orchestra/ensemble
-1st movement --- is in sonata form



eline kleine nachtmusik
serenade
allegro

-1756-1791
-patronage
-famous for operas, symphonies, string quartets, piano sonatas, plano concerts, etc

wolfgang amadeous mozart
eline kleine nachtmusik: 1st movement

theme 1=
theme 2=
transition between themes=
ausing material




exposition


excited, pumctuated
flowing, torid
move to next key




exposition is
repeated
eline kleine nachtmusik: first movement

-uses themes of the exposition
-modulation (various key areas/instability)
retransition (back to tonic key)



development
eline kleine nachtmusik: first musik

-theme 1
-theme 2
-closing theme



recapitulation
closing section
coda
keyboard instrument where the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers
harpsichord
italian for continuous bass
basso continuo
short, recurring instrumental passage in both aria and baroque concerto
riternello
lyric song, for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion
aria
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style
recitative
text or script of an opera
libertto
large-scale dramatic genre originating in the baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo, chorus or orchestra
oratorio
lyrical song in ternary or aba form commonly in operas, cantatas, and oratorios
de capo aria
tragic italian opera
opera seria
instrumental work preceding a larger work
prelude
polyphonic form popular in the baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counter point
fugue
main idea or theme of a work
subject
in a fogue, a secondary them heard against the subject; a counter theme
counter subject
interlude or intermediate section in the baroque fugue that serves as an era of relaxation between statements of the subject
episode
viruosic solo passage in the manner of an improvisation; near the end of an aria
cadenza
italian comic opera
opera buffa
a represents a minuet in any ab form
minuet
composition in aba form; usually in triple meter
scherzo
-italian comic opera
-opera buffa
-written in 1786
-lorenzo da ponte libertto
-mozart reached his peak



the marriage of figaro; mozart
-exposition
development
reconvitalation

sections of sonata
opening section of a sonata
exposition
reshaping section of a sonata
development
the section of a sonata where exposition is restated
reconvitalation
creates challenging vocal parts; harmonies are much more disonant; sounds divorced from the past
george crumb
recording sounds from nature (honking horns, slamming doors, etc)
music concrete (paris, france)
not just more idle chatter (1988)
paul lansky
two chords often used as cadences; built on the fifth scale degree
tonic and dominant
lyric song in ternary form commonly used in opera, cantata or oratia
da capo aria
used an oratoria genre
handel
tonic and dominant
parts of a fugue
smooth constant movements
texture of a fugue
based on pitch level; starts out with a subject
subject and answer
industrial revolution; growth of capitalism with patronage system
growth of middle class
patronage system
system that funded composers
a music historical style period that spanned from 1750-1825
classical era
elaboration of themes
development
resolution of themes
recapitulation

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