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Glossary of med ethics

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Comparative Justice
application of laws and rules with distribution of burdens and benefits
Distributive justice
distribution of social benefits
similar cases ought to be treated in similar ways
Principle of equality
all burdens and benefits are to be distributed equally
everyone is to be treated the same in all respects
Principle of need
everyone is to be given enough to meet their basic needs - everyone on equal levels no matter where they started from
principle of contribution
everyone should get back that proportion of social goods that is the result of their labor
principle of effort
everyone should get back in proportion to the effort they make - incentive to try
Socialist Principle of Distributive Justice
From each according to her ability,
to each according to her need.


Laissez-Faire Principle of Distributive Justice:
From each according to her choice (given her assets),
to each according to her contribution.


Dwyer - health care and illegal immigrants
providing health care is a matter of social responsibility - must provide fair working conditions for the powerless used by society to perform the worst jobs
Dwyer - 2 arguments/answers to providing health care
1. The “nationalist” answer: If you have no right to be in a country, you have no right to health benefits there.
2. The “humanist” answer: Health care is a basic human right


Social Responsibility
Dwyer - A society need not bear full causal responsibility in order to assume social responsibility
Emanuel and Wertheimer
Rather than thinking only about saving the
most lives when considering vaccine rationing
strategies, a better approach would be to
maximize individuals’ life span and
opportunity to reach life goals.



Rule of Rescue
price of one human life versus many - ex. spend tons of money to save one person instead of distributing to help many
Discounting for probabilities
An idealized rational agent values a 10% chance of 10 life years at 1 life year. (10 x .10 = 1)
Discounting for quality of life:
An idealized rational agent values 10 life years at 50% quality at 5 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). (10 x .50 = 5)

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