Glossary of mcat biology chapter 9 circulation
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- what 2 systems deal w fluids in the body?
- cardiovasc system
- right side of h pumps ____________ bl into the lungs
- right side of heart pumps deoxy bl into lungs via?
- pulmonary arteries
- pulmonary veins carry ___________ bl
- oxygen bl is carried from lungs to heart by?
- pulmonary veins
left ventr leads to?
- left ventr-- aorta--?
- left ventr---aorta-- arteries--?
- left ventr--- aorta--arteries---arterioles---?
- blood returning from the body returns via?
- infer vena cava
jugular vein-- superior vena cava
- oxgenated bl is suppl to heart by?
- coronary arter
- __________ return deoxygen bl to right side of heart
- coronary veins and coronary sinus
- the first bl vess branching off the aorta is?
- coronary arteries
- what are the 3 portal systems?
- liver hepatic portal circul
brain- hypophyseal portal circul
- liver portal system is called?
- hepatic portal circul
- portal syst in brain is called?
- hypophyseal portal circul
- myocardial ishchemia is
- when heart does not get en O, nutr
- when the heart does not get en O or nutr it is called?
- myocardial ischemia
- most common sysmpt of myocardial ischemia is?
- angina is?
- chest pain
- myocardial infaction is when?
- irrev dam of heart
- most oommon cause of decr coronary heart flow?
- plaque on artery is mostly?
- fibrofatty plaque made of mostly cholesterol
- heart consists of ________ pumps
- heat upper chambers are?
- heart lower chambers are?
- ___________ are thin walled, ventricles are muscular
- ___________ valves are located betw atria and ventr
- valve betw atria and ventr on the right side is called?
- tricuspid valve
- tricuspid valve is located?
- betw right atria and right ventr
- tricuspid valve has how many cusp?
- valve on left side of heart is called?
- mitral valve
- mitral valve has ________ cusps?
- what are the 2 valves in the heart?
- tricuspid and mitral valve
- semilunar valves are located?
- 1. left ventr and aorta
2. right ventr and pulmonary artery
- lub dub
first sound is called?
- lub dub
lub is when?
- av valves close to prev backflow into atria
- lub dub
dub is when?
- 2 semilunar valves close at concl of systole
- s2 is the ____________ sound
- heartbeat is made up of?
- systole is when?
- ventr contract
- diastole is when?
- cardiac muscle relaxes
- cardiac output is =
- total vol of bl left ventr pumps out per minute
- T or F
cardiac output=hr X stroke vol
- hr X str vol=?
- cardiac output
- stroke volume is?
- vol of bl pumped out of the left ventr per contract
- vol of bl pumped out of the left ventr per contract is?
- stroke volume
- SA node is locat?
- in wall of the right atrium
- SA node--- atria---- av node---- bundle of his (av bundle)---- ?
- purkinje fibers
- sa node--- atria--- ? --- bundle of his --- ??
- atria-- av node ---- bundle of his (av bundle) --- purkinje fibers
- the av node conducts
quickly or slowly?
p wave occurs immed bef?
- the atria contract
qrs compl occurs just bef?
- the ventr contract
T wave represents?
- ventric repolarizat
- the _________________ system modif the rate of heart contract
- auton nerv syst
- parasympath innerv the heart via?
- vagus nerve
- parasympth nerv syst thr vagus nerve causes a?
- decr hr
- sympath nerv systm innerv the heart via?
- cervical and upper thoracic ganglia
- the cerv and upper thoracic ganglia are part of the ?
- sympath system
- sympath nerv systm innerv the heart and causes?
- an incr in hr
- nerve impulses trav thr vagus nerve will __________ hr
- nerve impulses travel thr cerv and upper thoracic ganglia will ___________ hr
- adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine which ____________ hr
- adrenal medulla secretes _____________ which incre hr
- 3 types of bl vess?
- _____________ are thick walled, musc, elastic vess
- t or f
all veins carry deoxyg bl
except pulm veins
- which artery carries deoxy bl?
- pulm arteries
- bl flow in veins is driven by ?
- their compress by skel muslces
- larger veins have ________ to prev backflow
- pulmonary thromboemboli are
- bl clots
- what things can cause blood clots?
- rbc have to travel thr capillaries in ?
- single file
- bl press is the F/A the bl exerts on?
- bl vessels
- sphygmomanometer measures?
- bl press
- you measure bl press with?
- bl press is ?/?
- hum body has _________ l of blood
- bl is _______ liquid and _________ cellular compon
- 55% liq
45% cell compon
- plasma is?
- liq portio of the blood
- plasma has what in it?
- nutr, salts, resp gases, wastes, hormones, bl prot
- name 3 bl prot?
- cell compon of bl are?
- each erythr has ________ molec of hemoglobin
- 250 million
- what is the shape of erythrocytes
- biconcave, disk like shape
- the biconcave shape of erythro give them?
- incre surf area
- erythr form in ?
- stem c in bone marrow
- in bone marrow erythr lose their?
- nuclei, mitochond, membran organelles
- eryth lack?
- nuclei, mitoch, membran organ
- eryth are aerobic or anaerob
- which organs phagocy eryth?
- spleen and liver
- _____________ eryth per mm3 of bl
- five million
- leuk arise from stem c in ?
- marrow of long bones
- 5000-10000 _______________ per mm3 of bl
- 3 types of leuk are?
- granular leukocytes
- granular leukocytes are?
- which leuk play an import role in inflamm, allerg react, pus form and destr of bact?
- immune response is mediat by what c?
- where are lymphocytes made?
- lymph nodes
tonsils, spleen, appendix, thymus, bone marrow
- who makes antibodies?
- 2 types of lymph are?
- b lymph
- monocytes bec __________ when they enter the tiss
- what do monocytes do?
- phagocy foreign matter and organ
- macroph have greater phagocy ability than?
- platelets form in the?
- bone marrow
- platelets do not have?
- there are _____________ platelets per mm3 of bl
- what are the four bl groups?
- what are the 2 major gr of rbc antigens?
- ABO gr
- A bl type makes what antibodies?
- AB is the ?
- universal recipient
- O is the ?
- universal donor
- O makes antibodies to?
- anti A and anti B
- Rh- woman has to be careful during her sec preg if during her first preg?
- she had an Rh+
- erythroblastosis fetalis is devel by a woman who is?
but had a rh+ baby
- What do you give the Rh- mother to help suppress the devel of act immun
- Rh factor is a?
- antigen on surf of rbc
- rh- mom
she will endanger her?
- second rh- baby, not her first
- severe anemia in a fetus due to rh+/rh- issues is called?
- erythroblastosis fetalis
- why doesnt ABO blood type mismatches cause probl with preg women?
- bec anti ABO blood type antib cant cross the placenta
- hemoglob has _________ chains
- 4 polypeptides
- each hemoglob polypeptide chain has a
- heme group
- each hemogl molec can bind __________ oxy
- hemoglob has ____________ effects
- the allosteric effect of hemogl causes the dissociation curve to have what shape?
- Hemoglobin has a ______________ dissoiation curve
- oxyg dissoc curve is _________ static
- oxy dissoc curve can shift to?
- the left or right
- in tiss, the oxyg dissoc curve __________ shifts
- oxyg dissoc curve
a right shift means?
- for a given part press of Oxy, less Oxy will be bound to hemoglob
- what things cause a right shift in oxy dissoc curve?
- incre in partial press of CO2
decre in pH
incre in temp
- in the lungs, the oxy dissoc curve shifts?
- to the left
- why does the oxy dissoc curve shift to the left in teh lungs?
- to max Oxy loading
- fetal hemoglob oxy dissoc curve is shifted to the ?
- in erythroc
CO2 comb with?
- in erythr
CO2 + H2O --->
- carbonic acid
- carbonic acid is?
- H2CO3 dissoc into?
- HCO3 and H+
- HCO3 is
- bicarbonate ion
- bohr effect is due to?
- CO2, H+, O2
- bohr eff
increas concentr of H+ do what?
- decre hemogl O2 affinity
- increas pH and CO2 due what to hemoglobin?
- decr its affin for O2
- in the lungs _______________- reassoc to form CO2 and H2O
- HCO3 and H+
- format and dissoc of carbon acid are catalyzed by?
- carbonic anyhdrase
- carbonic hydrase does what/
- catal format and dissoc of carbonic acid
- most carbon dioxide is found?
- dissolved in plasma as HCO3
- only a small percent of CO2 is bound to?
- hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin
- aa and simple sugars are transp to liver via?
- hepatic portal vein
- fats go from sm intest to?
- lymphatic syst thr lymph capillaries
- fats enter bloodstream via?
- large veins of the neck
- fats-- small intest-- lymph vess--- ?
- large veins of neck
- hydrostatic press at arteriole end of capillaries is _________ hydrostat press of surr tissue fluids
- greater than
- why does fluid move back into the capillar at the venule end?
- bec of osmotic press
bec bl has a higher solute concentr than tissue fluid.
- exch of material in capill is influenc by?
- hydrostat press and osmotic press
- _____________ press pushes fluid out of vessels
- __________ press pulls fluid back into vessels
- osmotic press is depend on?
- number of particles dissolv in plasma
- hydrost press is depend on ?>
- bl press driven by heart
- arteriole end of capill
hydrost press is ?
oppos osmotic press is?
- 36 mm Hg
oppos osmot press is 25 mm Hg
- platel and damag tissue secrete?
- clotting factor
- calcium, vitamin K
- trhomboplastin w cofact calc and vitamin K conv _______ to its active form
- prothrombin to thrombin
- thrombin conv ____________ into ___________
- fibrinogen to fibrin
- thread of _______ coat the damaged are and trap bl c
to form a clot
- throboplastin---??? --- thrombin--- frbrinogen--- fibrin
- hemophiliacs lack
- an agent involv in clot format
- immune syst has what 2 mech?
- humoral immun
c med immun
- humoral immunit involves prod of?
- cell med immunt involves?
- cells that combat fungal and viral infect
- Igs are ?
- Igs do what?
- attract oth c
cause antig to clump tog
- causing the antigens to clump tog is?
- Igs is composed of?
- 2 heavy chains
2 light chains
- Igs the chains are held tog by?
- disulfide linkages and noncova bonds
antigen binding sites are the ________ regions
have a variable and ____________ region
- five type of const regions?
- G MADE are
- the five type of const regions
B c form in ?
- the bone marrow, different in the spleen, lymph nodes, and oth lyph org
- where do B c different?
- spleen, lymph nodes, oth lymph organs
- B C when expos to antigen bec?
- memory c, plasma c (effect c)
- in primary resp of B c?
- bec memory c
bec plasma c
- plasma c are also called?
- effector c
- second expos to antigen will cause a ___________ response
- active immun is prod of?
- Igs dur immune resp
- vacination confers?
- active immun
- passive immunity involves?
- transf of Igs made by other organ
- passive immun is __________ lasting
active immun is ________ lasting
- cell mediat immun are what c?
- t cells
- T c mature in bone marrow and mature in?
- T c act against?
- c that have fungus or virus
- T c differ into?
- cytotoxic t c
helper t c
suppressor t c
- cytotoxic t c do what?
- destroy antigens direct
- helper T c activate?
- other B and T c by secreting lymphokines
- helper T c secrete?
- lympholines are also called?
- ___________ T c decre the activ of other B and T against antigens
- suppressor T c
- autoimmune response
- body mistakes its own c as antigens
- lack of b c will lead to recurrent?
- bact infect
- DiGeorge's syndrome affects?
- T c disorder resulting in underdev or absence of thymus gland
- DiGeorge's syndrome
a person will have normal?
- DiGeorge's syndrome
children will have proble with ___________ infectinos
- viral and fungal
- non spec defenses against disease?
- skin- has sweat w enzymes
ciliated musc epithel
- inflamm resp
injured c release?
- histamine does what?
- causes bl vess to dilate, incre bl flow to damaged region
attracts granulocytes to injury
- c under viral attack make?
- interferon is made by cells when they?
- are under viral attack
- lymphatic syst is a _________ circul syst
- lymph is also called?
- interstitial fluid
- lymph vessels transport?
- lacteals are also called?
- lymph capillaries
- lymph capill collect fats by absorbing?
- chylomicrons in sm intest
- lymph vessels have ___________ to prev backflow
- lymph flow is caused by?
- mov of skel muscles
contract of lymphat vessels
- lymph nodes are?
- swellings along lymph vessels
that have phagocytic c (leukocytes)
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