Glossary of martm006

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

Created by martm006

Epithelial tissue consists of:
tightly packed cells forming a continuous layer.
This tissue covers:

class of organic compound tat tends to soluble only in non-polar solvents, such as alcohol; includes fats and oils.

- which have a polar phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid, are the primary constituent of the plasma membrane bilayer. The non-polar tails face one another and the polar ends face the external environment.
-molecule that forms the bilayer of th
A proton is
the atomic number of an atom.
A puncture of the thoracic wall causes?
32.collapse of the lung.
Axon is
9. the portion neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body.
Connective tissue:
type of tissue that binds structure together, provides support and protection, fills space, stores fat, and forms blood cells, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone and blood are types of connective tissue.
110.movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration; it requires no energy and stops when the distribution is equal.
136.finger printing.
Golgi apparatus organelle, consisting of
111. saccules and vesicles, the processes, packages, and distributes molecules about or from the cell.
Ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding
During an ionic reaction, certain atoms give
up and others receive electrons to achieve a
stable outer shell that contains eight
electrons. The resulting oppositely charged
ions (charged particles) are attracted to each
other forming a

Single helix is
117.the overall shape of the RNA.
Subcutaneous layer:
tissue layer that lies just beneath the skin and contains adipose tissue.
The urinary system helps Regulate?
water, blood, and pH.
Thoracic cavity contains
4. the right and left lungs and the heart.
177. group of similar cells that perform a common function.
Urinary system:
21. the kidney and urinary bladder; rids the body of nitrogenous wastes and helps regulate the water salt balance of the blood.
(ER) Endoplasmic Reticulum:
114. system of membranous saccules and channels in the cytoplasm, often with attached ribosome.
(n) Describe
138. the end of meiosis.
. Alcohol prevents
ADH from working.
. Testosterone is
21 the secondary sex characteristic in the male.
. The normal chromosome 2(n) of human is?
1. Dorsal cavity has
the cranial cavity and the brain or skull; the vertebral canal, formed by the vertebrae, contains the spinal cord.
11. Squamous
type of epithelium that contains flat cells.
14. Epidermis
: region of skin that lies above the dermis.
15. Dermis:
region of skin that lies beneath the epidermis.
2. Which cell type functions to transmit impulses between part of the nervous system?
3. Cranial cavity contains
the brain.
45. Blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries is
lower than in other capillary beds, higher than in other capillary beds is responsible on maintaining filtration increasing by smaller arteriole leaving.
5. Ventral cavity contains
the spinal cord.
55. Amino acid is
55. Amino acid is the sub-units that make up proteins.
57. Matter
takes up space.
60% 70% of total body weight is most?
67. organisms is water.
7.4 blood is
80. slightly basic.
70. Neon, which has the atomic number of 10 has and electron configuration for skull number one and two of 2,8.
70. Neon, which has the atomic number of 10 has and electron configuration for skull number one and two of 2,8.
8. Homeostasis
is the integumentary intestines and stomach.
90% of human body is composing of?
71. just three elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
A cell in hypertonic
loses water.
A compound is
two or more different atom.
A vesicle is
102. the small membranous sac in cells used for storage and transport.
abdominal cavity.
2. The stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestines are in the upper portion of the
Acetylcholine (Ach)
11. functions as a neurotransmitter.
molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solutin and to lower its pH numerically.

acidic and basic solution
when water molecules dissociate(break up), they realiaze and equal number of hydrogen (ions H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).
acidic solution
acids release hydrogen ions. compare to water acidic solutions have more hydrogen ions that hydroxide ions.
Active transport
occurs when a molecule is moving against a concentration
gradient (from lower to higher) with the input of energy and a protein carrier.
-Used of a plasme membrane carrier protein and energy to move a substance into or out of a cell from a lower to high

Active transport cell uses energy to?
104. move molecules from low to high concentration.
Adams apple is part of:
31. the larynx.
Adenine is
121. always equal in DNA in the amount of thyminic.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Nucleodtide with three phosphate groups. the breakdown of ATP into ADP makes energy available for energy requiring processes in cells.
Is the energy currency of cells.
All carbohydrates have
72. simple sugar.
All cells come
92. only from a preexisting cell.
All living things are make of
91. one or more cells.
Amino Acid

Organic molecule having an amino group an acid group, which covalently bond to produce peptide molecules.
Amino acid DNA codes for?
126. single.
An atom is
62. the smallest unit of an element.
An element can be
61. easily identified in the periodic table.
An ionic bond is
59. the transfer of electrons from an atom to another.
And anticodon is
128. the three nitrogen bases on a tRNA.
Aorta is
The largest artery.
Major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricle.
Carry blood away from the heart.
vessel that takes blood away from the heart to arterioles.
atomic Number
is equal to the number of protons and therefore the number of electrons in a electrically neutral atom.

Number of protons within the nucleus of an atom.

atomic weight
weight of atom to the number of protons plus number of neutrons within the nucleus.
smalles particle of an element that display the property of the element.
ATP is
energy currency of cells.
ATP, DNA human is like
other living thing in our chemical.
molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise pH numerically.
135. term that encompasses genetic engineering and other techniques that make use of natural biological systems to create a product of achieve a particular result desired by humans.
blood vessels
carry the blood
are mechanism that help pH withing normal limits by taking up excess hydrogen ion of hydroxide ion.
Maintaining pH within narrom range is important to health.

Canaliculus is
48. the bone cells inside compact bone connect to each other through.
Where nutrient and gas exchange occur.
Microscopic vessel connecting arterioles to venules; exchange of substances between blood and tissue fluid occurs across their thin walls.

class of orgnic compunds that include monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide.
Carbohydrates will be
63. glucose and starch.
Cardiac muscle tissue is
53. a short branded cell.
162. heterozygous individual who has no apparent abnormality but can pass on an allele of a recessively inherited genetic disorder.
Cell body contains
8. the nucleus and most of the intracellular structures.
Cell size
• Regardless of a cell’s size or shape it must carry on the life functions.
• Cells are small so they can exchange materials with their surroundings.
• The bigger a cell is, the less surface area there is per unit volume.
• Above a certain size, materi

Cell theory
• A cell is the basic unit of life; all living things are made of one or more cells; new cells arise only from preexisting cells.
-all organisms are made up of cells and cells come only from preexisting cells.

Cellular respiration produces?
94. ATP.
-a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls is commonly called fiber. The linkages joining these glucose units cannot be digested and therefore passes through our digestive tract as roughage.
-polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plan
Centromere chromatids within a replicated chromosome are
152. held together.
16. responds to taste and smell.
106. the long thin threads of DNA in a cell nucleus.
Chromosome would be made up?
118. chromatids.
Cleavage furrow is
153. the indentation or pinching of the cell membrane around the circumference of the cell during the end of mitosis.
Codon is
125. the DNA strand.
Columnar epithelium
– type of epithelial tissue with cylindrical cells (Column-shaped Rectangular)
Columnar epithelium:
type of epithelial tissue with cylindrical cells.
If the two or more atoms come from different
elements, the molecule is a compound.
-substance having two or more different elements united chemically in a fixed ratio.

Coronary arteries
-artery that supplies blood to the wall of the heart.
-supply the heart muscle with
oxygen and nutrients.

Corpus luteum
30. Corpus luteum. Yellow body that forms in the ovary forms a follicle that has discharged its secondary oocyte; it secretes progesterone and some estrogen.
Correct order is of phase are?
140. interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, Telophase, and cytokinesis.
Covalent bond
Following a covalent reaction, atoms share electrons within a covalent bond in order stable outer shell. These electrons spend
time in the outer shell of each atom; therefore, counted as belonging to both. Double and
are also possible in some molecules.

cranial cavity
7. Brain: enlarged superior portion of the central nervous system located in the cranial cavity of the skull.
Crossing over:
155. exchanges of segments between nonsiter chromatids of a tetrad during meiosis.
cuboidal epithelium
–type of epithelial tissue with cube-shaped cells.
Cuboidal epithelium:
180. type of epithelial tissue with cube shaped cells.
Cytokinesis is
150. the division of the cellular cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm is
the internal medium of a cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane.
contents of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane that contains the organelles.
Cytoskeleton is
88. the network of interconnected protein filaments and microtubules within the cell are collectively.
Dendrite is
10. the portion of neuron that contacts impulses toward the cell body.
17. are sensory receptor specialized nerve.
6. Separate from the abdominal cavity by a horizontal muscle called the diaphragm.
-is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration
to an area of lower concentration until they are equally distributed.
-Movement of molecuales or ions form a regions of higher to lower concentraion; it requires no energy and sto

Digestive system:
organ system including the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, that receive food and digests it in to nutrient molecule. Also ha associated organ: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Two sugar molecules.
Sugar that contains two units of monosaccharides (Maltose).
DNA serves as?
123. a template for the synthesis of one DNA.
Dominant is
158. assigned a uppercase (capital letter)
Dorsal cavity
(back) divided into two parts. Cranial cavity and vertebral cavity.
negative subatomic particle moving about in a energy level around the nucleus of an atom.
Electron has
58. smallest mass.
Electrons and protons
75. an electrically neutral atom will have equaled number.
subtance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties composed of only one type of atom.
Emulsification is
64. the process of breaking lipids into smaller molecules.
-Emulsifiers cause fat droplets to disperse in water because a non-polar end project into a fat droplet, and a polar end projects outward to interact with water.
-Emulsifier breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or
Endocrine System:
organ system involves in the coordination of body activities; uses hormones as chemical signals secreted into the bloodstream.
(inside, cell process) occurs when a portion of the plasma membrane surrounds a substance and the pinches off to from an intracellular vacuole or vesicle.
Endoplasmic reticulum is
the complicated system of membranous channel within the cytoplasm.
Epithelial tissue:
type of tissue that lies hollow organs and cover surfaces, also called epithelium.
(outside, cell process) occurs when a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane as secretion occurs.
Organic molecule that contains glycerol and fatty acids; found in adipose tissue.
Fats and oils

Solid fats of animal origin and liquid oils of plant origin are both composed of glycerol bonded to three fatty acids. Fats and oils are a long-term energy source for organisms.

Fatty acids:
Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain end ends with an acid group.
Is another simple sugar.
Function of the plasma membrane is to?
96. determine which substances enter and leave the cell.
Gas exchange between?
34. alveoli and pulmonary capillary.
Gene DNA codes for?
127. protein.
163. genes of an individual for a particular trait of traits; often designated by letters, for example, BB or Aa.
Is a common simple sugar and provide a ready source of energy for cells.
Six carbon sugar those organisms degrade as a soure of energy during cellular respiration.
storage polysaccharide that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches.
Half the normal number is
151. the number of chromosomes in sex cell compared to body cells.
Haploid gametes
149. number of chromosome.
Pumps blood
is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity shose rhymic contractions maintain blood circulation.
169. possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait.
High levels of radiation

High levels of radiation can be harmful to human health damaging cells, DNA, and causing
cancer. It has been used to sterilize medical and dental products for years. It is also used to kill
cancer cells.

Homeostas is the relative constancy of?
the body’s internal environment. It is a state of balance in the body.
Homeostasis is
• the relative constancy of the body’s internal environment. It is a state of balance in the body.
Homeostasis is one
• of the most remarkable and most typical properties of complex organ systems. Complex systems must have homeostasis to maintain stability and to survive.
1. maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulation mechanisms.
Homozygous Dominant:
159. possessing two identical allele, such as AA, for a particular trait.
Homozygous Recessive:
160. possessing two identical allele, such as aa, for a particular trait.
Hyoid bone
49. does not connect to the other bone.
– Solution outside of the cell has a lower concentration of water. Result: Cells lose water.
Hypothalamus produces
20. the gonadotropic hormones.
Hypotonic – Solution outside of the cell with a higher concentration of water. Result: Cells gain water.
In hypotonic solution
108. a cell gain water.
Inspiration involves?
35. flattening of the diagram expansion of the rib.
Integumentary system:
organ system consisting of skin and various organs, such as hair, that are found in skin.
Internal respiration is
37. respiration in which gases are exchanged between the blood and the body tissues.
Interneuron functions as
6. a connection between neurons.
Interphase stage is
142. the only stage that would have chromatin.
Interphase takes 90% of?
146. the cell cycle.
– Solution outside of the cell is equal in concentration of water. Result: Cells neither gain nor lose
74. of an element differ from each other in number of neutrons.

are atoms that have the same atomic number
Most isotopes are stable but some emit radiation.
-One or two atoms with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass due to number of neutrons.

LH is
24. responsible for stimulating the development of the corpus luteum.
LH stimulates
19. the intestinal cells of the testes to secrete testosterone.
Do not dissolve in water. They function in the storage of energy. Glycerol and fatty acids are the sub-units of lipids.
Lipids are
69. the class of organic compound that is insoluble in water.
class of organic compounds that tend to be solubel only in non-polar solvent such as alcohol, includes fats and oils.
Lymphatic system
one way system of vessels that returns tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system.
-transport lymph and lipids, and aids the immune system.
Lymphatic System:
organ system consisting of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs that transports lymph and lipids, and aids the immune system.
Lysosome contains
89. digestive enzymes for intracellular digestion.
Large organic molecules formed when many sub units join together.
is anything that has mass and take up space. All matter is composes of element, 92 of which occur naturaly.

90% of the human body is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

15. responds to touch and feel.
Meiosis is
148. the process for the formation of sex cells.
154. type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combination.
Messenger RNA:
122. DNA serves as a template for synthesis.
13. reflex center for visual, auditory and tactile.
Mitochondria are
90. organelles responsible for supplying the chemical energy used in cell.
Mitosis process used for division of?
147. body cells for growth and repair.
139. division of the nucleus.
molecule is
a two or more atom that combines.
Atoms bond with each other to f
form molecules.
-Union of two or more atoms of the same element, also, the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.

Molecules form due to
73. transfer or sharing of electrons.
monosaccharide are:
One sugar molecule.
simple sugar, a carbohydrate that cannot be descomposed by hydrolysis (glucose)
Motor neuron conducts
5. information away from the central nervous system.
mRNA is a type of?
120. RNA formed front a DNA template that bears coded information for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
Multiple allele:
175. inheritance pattern in which there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; each individual has only two of all possible alleles.
174. having both a dominant and a recessive allele for a trait.
Muscular tissue
type of tissue composed of fibers that can shorten and thicken.
-Cardiac muscle in the wall of the heart.
-The heart muscle forms the myocardium, with tightly
interconnected cells of cardiac muscle tissue.

Nerve fiber relative to
4. support and protection.
Nervous tissue:
that contains nerve cells (neurons), which conduct impulses, and neuroglia, which support, protect, and provide nutrients to neurons.
Neuron function to
3. transmit impulses between parts of the nervous system.
neutral subatomic particle, located in the nucleus and having a weight of approximately atomic mass per unit.
Nucleic Acids

DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids.
-The sub-units of nucleic acids are nucleotides.
- A nucleotide contains phosphate, a 5- carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
-The bases in DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. In R

Nucleo-plasm is
112. the think fluid within a cell nucleus.
Nucleolus produces
103. ribosome.
-is a monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of 5-carbon sugar bonded to nitrogen containing base and a phosphate group.
Nucleus is
101. the control center of the cell.
membrane bounded organelle that contains chromosomes and controls the structure and function of the cell.
Number of protons, number of neutrons are used to determine?
the atomic weight of an atom.
substance, usually of plant origin and liquid at room temperature, formed when glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acids molecule.
165. production of an egg in females by the process of meiosis and maturation.

small membranous structure in the cytoplasm having a specific structure and function.

-is the diffusion of water across a plasma membrane.
-Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Osmosis is
115. diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
22. Rupture of a mature ovulation involves follicle and release of an ovum.
type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids.
A polypeptide is a single chain of amino acids.
-is the outer membranous sac with
lubricating fluid.
-Protective serous membrane that surrounds the heart.

pH scale

Indicates the acidity or basicity of a solution.
Mesurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration.
Membrane pushes out to engulf a particle and form a vacuole.
164. visible expressions of a genotype for example, brown eyes or attached earlobes.
Membrane invaginates inward forming a vesicle around a droplet.
Plasma Membrane - Function

• The plasma membrane keeps the cell intact.
• The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell cytoplasm.
• The plasma membrane is said to be selectively permeable.

Plasma Membrane - Structure

• The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, which is a liquid at body temperature.
• The bilayer is embedded with proteins, which are able to change position.
• This structure is called the fluid-mosaic model.

Plasma Membrane functions

Plasma membrane is selectively permeable and regulates the movement of molecules
and ions across the cell membrane.
Plasma membrane is
93. a Phospholipids bilayer that surrounds a cell.
Plasma Membrane:
membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a Phospholipids bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from the cell.
Polyribosomes are
131. several ribosome working together.
Polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
Polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen are readily stored forms of?
glucose in plants and animals.
Prophase is
145. Prophase is the nuclear membrane breaks down
143. spindle fibers are first made and are pulled across the cell.
molecules cosisting of one or more polypeptides.
-contain one to several polypeptides, each is made of sub-units called amino acids.
-There are twenty different amino.
-perform many functions in cells and within the body.

positive subatomic particle, located in the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons are
65. the nucleus of an atom.
Pulmonary circuit
it pump blood to heart to lungs and back.
-Takes O2 poor blood from the heart to the lungs and O2 rich blood from the lungs to the heart.
Punnett square
167. Possible genes
Punnett square:
171. Grid like device used to calculate the expected results of simple genetic crosses.
170. allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygous; its expression is masked by a dominant allele.
Renal efferent
43. carries blood into the glomerular capsule and out of the glomerular capsule.
Salivary gland
18. associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
51. Sarcomere contractile unit of a muscle fiber. One of may units, arranged linearly within a myofibril, whose contraction produces muscle contraction.
Saturated fatty acids:
-have no double bonds and unsaturated fatty acids do have double bonds between carbon atoms.

fatty acid molecule that lacks double bond between the atoms of carbon chain.

Selectively permeability
109. the cell is impermeable to some substances and allows others to pass through at varying rates.
Selectively permeable
-having degrees of permeability, the cell is impermeable to some substances and allows others to pass through at varying rates.
Sensory neuron conduct
1. information from receptors to the central nervous system.
Several layer of fibrous connective tissue covers
fascia muscle.
Simple epithelium
one layer
Soluble particles
which dissolve witting solution.
Solvent is
the liquid part of a solution.
161. male gamete having a haploid number of chromosomes and the ability to fertilize an egg, the female gamete.
Squamous epithelium
type of epithelial tissue that contains flat and irregular cells.
Squamous epithelium:
179. type of epithelial tissue that contains flat cells.
storage polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linea fashion with few side chains.
Storage polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains.

-molecules have a backbone of four fused carbon rings that different according to their functional groups. Cholesterol and the sex hormones are steroids.

- type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbons rings; examples re cholesterol, progeste

Steroids, cholesterol are examples of?
stratified epithelium
two or more layers
Stretch sensors in the urinary bladder send signal to:
40. the brain when it fills certain fullness.
Synapse is
14. the small gag between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite.
Synthesis of proteins requires?
130. initiation, elongation, and termination.
systemic circuit
Take blood from the heart to the rest of the body and back.
-Blood vessels that transport blood from the left ventricle and back to the right atrium of the heart.
144. cytokinesis occurs at the same time as which of the set stages.
The balance is maintained
• through feedback mechanisms.
The brain has four?
12. ventricles, interconnecting chamber that produce and serve as a reservoir for cerebrospinal.
The capsule
end of nephron filters material form blood.
The heart is, and its location?
cone-shaped, muscular organ located between the lungs behind the sternum.
The inherit organism get
168. their trait genes.
The inner shell of any atom can contain
60. only up to two electrons.
The nasal passages
33. join with the oral passage to form pharynx.
The plasma membrane is composed
113. of glucose and protein.
The ribosome is
124. the site of protein synthesis.
The scapula is
46. part of the appendicular skeleton while the sternum is a part of the axial skeleton.
the step of mitosis.
141. Metaphase, prophase, anaphase, Telophase
To produce progesterone is
23. the primary function of the corpus luteum.
osmolarity of a solution compare with taht of a cell. if the solution is isontonic to the cell, there in no net movement of water, if the solution is hypotonic, the cell gains water, and if the solution is hypertonic, the cell loses water.
Transcription takes place in?
132. the nucleus.
Translation is
129. the synthesis of a protein under the direction of the mRNA.
tRNA brings
119. the amino acids in the process of translation.
Tubular secretion
movement of certain molecules form blood into the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron so that they are addend to urine. .
fatty acids: fatty acid molecule that has one or more double bond between the atoms of its carbon chain.
examines to find sphincter.
Uterine and ovarian are
29. Uterine and ovarian are regulated by female hormone.
Membranous extension of a vessel of the heart wall that opens and closes, ensuring one way flow.
Vas deferens:
28. tube that leads from the Epididymis to the urethra in males.
Veins (and venules)
– carry blood toward the
Vessel that takes blood to the heart form venules

Veins often have?
-valves that prevent the
backward flow of blood when closed.
Veins carry about 70% of the body’s blood and act as a reservoir during hemorrhage.

Ventral cavity
(belly) divide into two parts. Thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity.
Water is
68. a liquid at room temperature.
What are carbohydrates mocromolecules call?
What are mocromelecules refers to?
proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipis, and complexes of these.
What are the cells three main areas?
The plasma membrane, nucleus, and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains various organelles (small specialized structures)

what are the four categories of Macromelecules?
carbohydates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid.
What are the functio fo the cardiovascular?
Pump and move blood throught the body.
Regulate blood flow according to body needs.
Exchange substances between the blood and body tissues.

What does carbohydrates serve for?
serve as an energy source for cells. The subunits of carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides.
what Homeostasisdo?
maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulation mechanisms.
Whole skeletal muscles
52. working antagonistic pair.
Yellow bone marrow is found
47. in the shaft cavity of the long bone.
• Homeostasis is one of the most remarkable and most typical properties of?
• Homeostasis is one of the most remarkable and most typical properties of complex organ systems. Complex systems must have homeostasis to maintain stability and to survive.

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards