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Glossary of ling quiz 2

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Created by mhenry

morpheme
minimal unit of language with meaning

dogs - "s" is a morpheme, means plural

clear -> clarity
prohibit -> prohibition (loss of 't' sound)
allomorphy
isolating language
little morphology
1:1 correspondence between meanings and words
agglutinative languages
many morphemes in a word
jap - hatarak-ase-are-ta-ra


polysynthetic
many morphemes
meskwaki -
kikenowkisikenowemak



english / german
fusional languages, inbetween isolating and agglutinative
inflection


vs

derivation




specific ideas
often syntactic
sing/sings

general, vague ideas
verbs -> nouns > adjectives
-ive, -tion, -able





brain
-average weighs 3 pounds
-intelligence relative to body weight
-25% water, fattest organ in body
-when awake generates 25W power






brain cells/neurons
~10 million neurons in the brain
when does brain stop developing

does learning 2 lang change brain structure (childhood)





18

yes

structure of brain
3 major parts
brain stem

cerebellum

cerebrum / cerebral cortex




brain stem
earliest evolved and smallest

"reptilian" basic, instinctual life functions and atavistic responses
heart rate, respiration, digestion, elimination, BP, temp, anger, fight/flight


cerebellum
controls motor functions
balance, coordination
library of acquired physical skills (riding bike, throwing)

cerebrum
most recently evolved
largest (2/3 of brain surface)
"higher" brain function
top layer called cortex, deeply wrinkled to maximize SA
high parts: gyri
low parts: sulcus pl sulci
troughs: fissures





brain hemispheres
left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa
language
hemispheres connected by corpus callosum
each hemisphere has two sections






frontal lobe
executive function
reasoning, planning, judgement, problem solving, some emotions, movement, parts of speech
parietal lobe
movement, shape recognition, orientation, perception of sensory input
occipital lobe
visual processing, reading
temporal lobe
auditory processing, speech, memory, music, fear
phrenology
early attempts to link areas of brain to certain functions
broca's aphasia
in broca's area in frontal lobe( left side )
non fluent aphasia
stammering, stumbling, omits function words and inflections
can't process syntax
motor impairment, weakness on right side
caused by strokes, accident, disease




wernickes aphasia
left temporal lobe
fluent aphasia
talk easily but it's nonsense
making up words
can't understand other's words
can't read
no motor impairment
strokes or accidents








cat scan



computerized axial tomography
looks inside living brain, static image only






PEI scan
positron emission tomography
can see dynamic (working) brain, traces injected solution of positron emitting isotopes, shows high activity areas
FMRI
functional magnetic resonance imagery
non invasive, uses magnetism to trace iron in blood, shows where blood flow is highest
dyslexia
bad word disease
most common LD, 80% of LD
many degrees of severity
5-20% of children affected
permanent condition
affects sounds of language, not int
larger right hemisphere than normal




3 areas in brain associated w/ reading (all left hemisphere)
broca's - production
parietal-temporal (incl. angular gyrus) - word analysis
occipital-temporal - word form

(dyslexics have less white matter in areas associated w/ reading, less grey matter in left parietal-temporal [grey matter can increase like muscle])



dyslexia symptoms
problems w/ reading
don't make link between symbols of reading and sounds (phonemes) of spoken language
children may say words that contain a phoneme that sounds similar confession v concession
disastrous spelling


holophrasitc stage
1 word stage, but word has much meaning
weak syllable deletion
banana - nana
telephone - tefone
final consonant deletion

ca for calf
ho for home
cluster simplification
pider for spider
voicing assimilation
pig > big
car > gar
velar fronting
says div instead of giv
tiss instead of kiss
palatal fronting
fis instead of fish
simple manner
dus for juice

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