Glossary of intro to cognitive psych

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cognitive psych
study of mental processes by which humans learn about and interact with the world
According to Plato, we are born with all possible knowledge, and learning is a matter of discovering what we already know by means of logical analysis.
empirical observation
According to Aristotle, we gain knowledge by observing the world.
(ca. 384-322 B.C.) believed that the objects in the world are the only reality

(ca. 428-348 B.C.) believed that objects in the world were a pale reflection of abstract “forms”

René Descartes
(1596-1650) argued that we can be fooled by our senses and must rely on pure logic as the basis for knowledge (I think; therefore I am)

Continental Rationalism
René Descartes argued that we must use pure logic as the basis for knowledge

John Locke-British Empiricism
(1632-1704) argued that our minds begin as a tabula rasa (blank slate) and that we learn simply by forming associations between primitive sensory inputs

Immanuel Kant
(1724-1804) created a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism. He argued that neither pure empiricism nor pure rationalism is sufficient

pure concepts of the understanding
Kant argued that we need some basic rules so that we can organize our experiences into knowledge
In the late 19th Century, Wilhelm Wundt advocated introspection as a means of discovering the basic structures of the mind

Problem: Lack of replication

William James
summarized the field of psychology in his 1890 book, Principles of Psychology, which described many experimental studies of cognition.

Hermann von Ebbinghaus took a more rigorous approach of self-experimentation with serious analyses of behavior and memory.

Karl Popper
believed that if a theory doesn’t make predictions, it isn’t good science
-Scientific theories must be testable

classical conditioning
When a US automatically evokes a UR, a stimulus that consistently precedes the unconditioned stimulus (CS) will eventually evoked an anticipatory response (CR)

instrumental conditioning
Behaviors that are rewarded increase in frequency

John Watson
radical behaviorism

Thinking is just subvocalization

B.F. Skinner
-continues the push for “radical behaviorism”
-No mental processes, just S-R relations
-All behavior (even language) is the result of classical and instrumental/operant conditioning

Edward C. Tolman
internal representations very useful for explaining behavior
-Cognitive maps

Noam Chomsky
refutes Skinner’s attempts to explain language in “Verbal Behavior”
Lack of overt reinforcement in language learning
We can easily generate novel, rule-based sentences

Alan Turing
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, developed the “Turing machine,” a simple computer design that permits formal proofs to be made. In 1950, Turing proposed a simple test (now know as the “Turing Test”): An examiner communicates with a computer or a person through a keyboard and monitor, and tries to guess whether it is a person or a computer by asking various questions

David Marr
proposes three interacting levels of explanation for cognitive processes:

up and down
front and back
top and bottom
front and back
Horizontal/Axial slice
seperating superior from inferior
Sagital slice
seperating right from left
Coronal slice
seperating anterior form posterior
deep depressions
Cortical regions
-visual cortext
-auditory cortext
-association areas
-somatosensory cortext
-motor cortext
-frontal cortext
-corpus callosum

visual cortex
occipital lobe - visual processing
association areas

pre occipital lobe- produces a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking
Somatosensory cortex
[postcentral gyrus] right hemisphere toward the back – detects sensory info from the body
Motor Cortex
just before the central sulcus
-impulses from the nerve centers to the muscles
Prefrontal cortex
very front of the brain -responsible for the executive functions, which include mediating conflicting thoughts, making choices, predicting future events, and governing social control
Subcortical regions
Limbic system
Basal ganglia

relay station -at the top of the brainstem
regulation of the body -below the thalamus and posterior to the optic chiasma
Brain stem
(vital functions, communication with body)

motor control and cognition
Limbic system
memory and emotional processing

Basal ganglia
motor control and cognition -ear shaped deep within the cerebral hemispheres

Contralateral Organization
The left side of the brain receives inputs from the right side of space and controls the muscles of the right side of the body
The right side of the brain receives inputs from the left side of space and controls the muscles of the left side of the body

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