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Glossary of gssm.apush

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Created by littledrummerboy

Jamestown Colony
Virginia, 1607. John Smith & John Rolfe. Major grant from king. Commercial, but did not find any gold in Virginia.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1620, religious purposes. W. Bradford & W. Brewster. Created by Puritans who wanted religious reform instead of separation.
Separatists
Went to the Netherlands, hated it, and got a ship called the "Mayflower." (Pilgrims)
Mayflower Compact
1st document establishing something in America. Separatists wanted to be cut off from church.
Thomas Paine
Wrote "Common Sense," a pamphlet: "Why should little ole England control us big America?"
John Rolfe
Jamestown. Credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco. Married Pocahontas.
Great Puritan Migration
Winthrop helps Massachusetts be a good colony. Puritans wanted to reform, not separate. Blended with Pilgrims.
Puritan Ethic
Mindset derived from theology of Puritans. Believed in predestination. Puritan Ethic impacts America even today.
Roger Williams
Rhode Island- Religion- Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams
Favors separation of church and state which was not the norm
Saratoga
Turning point of war
Soldiers beat Burgoyne (really big British general)
Leads to French alliance
They donate money and troops




Proclamation Act
proclamation line of 1763
Did not want new settlements in west until it was safe from Indians
Colonialists felt like land was being taken away

Continental Association
response to Intolerable Acts, Continental association formed
Favors:
-Non-import
-Nonexport
-Non consumption of british goods



James Otis
In response to the Stamp Act (internal taxes, stamp; external taxes, trade)
"No taxation without representation."
Montcalm
French general in the Battle of Quebec in the French and Indian War. (7 Years War in Europe)
Battle of Quebec
Quebec supposed to be amazingly defendable
However, British Gen. Wolfe conquers city defended by Gen. Montcalm, the French general
This is a critical battle and the victory leads to rules that cause American Revolution
French lose land to British


Wolfe
British general in the Battle of Quebec. Defeated Montcalm.
Thomas Hooker
1636 leads a hundred settlers to make Connecticut because of congregation overflow from Massachusetts. (Puritans)
Predestination
Concept that God knows already whether you are saved or not. Sense that God loves the rich, not the poor.
Anne Hutchinsons
Put on trial for heresy (contradicting the church, saying women are equal) banished, so goes into exile in Rhode Island with Roger Williams.
Gaspee
British Customs ship, tries to catch smugglers, ran aground on the sandbar. Colonists dressed up as Indians and burned up Gaspee. Nobody killed, but still a violent response.
Lord North
Prime Minister. Friend of the King. (Gaspee Affair)
Tea Act
Coercive Acts
Quebec Act


Tea Act
tax on tea
Boston Tea Party- dress like Indians and dumped tea
Coercive Acts
1. Boston Port Act- closes Boston Port
2. Massachusetts Government Act- shuts down mass. gov
3. Administration of Justice Act- jury trial… in England
4. Quartering Act- British soldiers housed in colonists homes
Quebec Act- Quebecans may have catholic faith





Boston Port Act
Closes Boston port. Number 1 of Coercive Acts by Lord North
Massachusetts Government Act
shuts down massachusetts government. number 2 of coercive acts
Administration of Justice Act
jury trial… in England. Number 3 of Coercive Acts under Lord North
Quartering Act
British soldiers housed in colonists homes. Number 4 of Coercive Acts under Lord North.
Quebec Act
People in Quebec may have catholic faith, can allow judge trial. Wise and thoughtful effort, but intolerable to the Colonists.
1st Continental Congress
Response to the Quebec Act. Paul Revere made a ride to find people for CC.
Triangular Trade
It was a system of trade that went through New England, Africa, and the West Indies. New England sent rum to Africa, Africa sent slaves to the West Indies, and West Indies sent molasses to New England. The “middle passage” is the part from Africa to West Indies that was very difficult for the slaves and many died during the transport. European countries become appalled by the slave trade and the English place laws against slave trade.
George Rogers Clark
One of the Colonial Army generals. He is the brother of Lewis and Clark.
John Winthrop
He led the “Great Puritan Migration” to Massachusetts in 1630. He believed in Puritan Ethic which was based on John Calvin’s teachings about predestination. They worked hard to express their appreciation to God- this shaped the piety and success of American colonies.
General Cornwallis
British general that surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown located in the peninsula of Virginia in 1781. He thought the British fleet from New York would come down and help him but the French navy blockaded the bay they had to come through. America wins and this is the last battle of the revolution.
George Whitefield
Pastor that helped spread Great Awakening in America. He did not believe in predestination, but had charity for orphans and love for all. Traveled from America to England 6 times.
Jonathan Edwards
Led the Great Awakening. He “scared the hell out of people” and powerfully moved the church. Seperated Protestants into New Lights and Old Lights. New Lights shared Edwards’s beliefs, they are in the backcountry, west, mainly poor. Old Lights are content with old teachings, they are people on the coast, east, more influential.
NW Land Ordinance of 1787
The purpose was to provide governing for the people once they get the land. The territory will be divided between 3 to 5 states, we ended up with 5 (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois). In the territory there will be religious freedom, public education, and no slavery. If less than 5000 free men, the central government will provide a governor, secretary, and three judges. If 5000 free men, you get a legislator, right to veto, and can send a nonvoting delegate to congress. Once 60000 free men, women, and children, you become a state on equal basis with the original 13. This is the best example of putting into play the principles of democracy.
John Paul Jones
The only naval commander on America’s side in Revolutionary War.
Ser Edmund Andros
Made governor of the Dominion of New England by King James II. He was a former military officer. In Massachusetts, he immediately banned town meetings, advocated public worship in the Church of England, imposed new taxes and challenged all land titles granted under the original Massachusetts charter. Offered to provide new deeds only if the colonists would agree to pay an annual fee. Finally, Puritan leaders seized him and shipped him back to England after King James was exiled and his protestant daughter Mary took the throne.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Signed after French-Indian War. Spanish gave up Florida, Cuba and everything east of the Mississippi. The French give up everything they had in North America. West of Mississippi is Spanish. Canada, Florida, and everything east of the Mississippi belongs to British.
Deism
Religious belief developed during the Enlightment. Belief that God created the world but is no longer needed to interact with the world.
Powhatan
Pamunkey chief Powhatan allowed his followers to exchange their corn for English cloth and iron hatchets but treated the English as one of the dependent peoples of his chiefdom. His daughter, Pocahontas, married the Virginia leader John Rolfe.
Prince Henry of Portugal
He innovated navigational technology. Established navigation center near Lisbon.
William Byrd
One of the wealthiest men in Virginia. Wrote a personal diary that told of his life as a wealthy plantation owner in a southern colony. “I had good health, good thoughts, and good humor thanks be to almighty God.”
Daniel Shays
Shay’s rebellion. He was a former revolutionary commander. Decides to close down the courts by getting a group of men with guns together because the courts aren’t doing anything anyway.
John Locke
He wrote about the right to life, liberty, and property. This was used in the declaration of independence but Jefferson changed property to pursuit of happiness.
Middle Passage
This is the part where the slaves went from Africa to West Indies. It was a tough time, a lot of the people died.
Enumerated Articles
A list of commodities that could be sold to England only. Restricted colonial manufacturing. An example is the timer act aka the king’s tree.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Brings to an end the American Revolution. Declares that we are independent. Sets territorial boundaries. Spanish has everything west of Mississippi and Florida. British keeps Canada. United States get all land north of Florida, east of Mississippi, and beneath the great lakes. US agrees not to block the British’s collection of debt. Promised not to persecute the loyalists. Brits see economic gain on their part so they stay nice to us and we still get to trade with them. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represent America.
Old Lights
These are the people that live on the coast that have more money that want to stick to the ways of the old church. This was during the Great Awakening brought about by Jonathan Edwards where he scared the hell out of people.
Nathaniel Greene
America Army General during Revolutionary War.
Staple Crop
Easily grown, widely cultivated, something you can store for a long time on the trade voyage. Tobacco was the first staple crop; then rice and indigo.
Anthony Ashley Cooper
King Charles gave him north and south Carolina. He developed it for commercial purposes. He was one of the eight lords proprieters.
Paul Revere
In response to the Intolerable Acts, they had first continental congress. So Paul Revere rode to see if there would be people willing to protest and create the Continental Association, to not import, export, or consume British goods.
James Oglethorpe
He founded Georgia in 1732 for humanitarian purposes. He asked for a land grant to take the prisoners that were in debtor’s prison so he could take them to the new world where they could work. At first there were no slaves or alcohol allowed in Georgia. There was a bad group of Indians in florida so SC was glad to have them there as a buffer. The inhabitants soon thought it was too strict and went to other colonies.
John Burgoyne
He is the British general that surrenders at the Battle of Saratoga. This is really important because it is the first time a major British general loses and it shows France that we are the side that can win, so they form an alliance with us since they hate Britain too. They sent us financial support, military, and naval forces. They are the first country to acknowledge us as a free country.
Grenville
One of the great prime ministers. 3 purposes:
Unify colonial control, tighten up trade laws, raise money in the colonies.
Colonies should now be a greater source of revenue.

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