Glossary of final exam

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Gregorian Reform: 1050–80
Dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy
Joachim of Fiore (1135-1202)
• Timeline of different ages that he marks out
• Influenced future accusations that the Pope was the antichrist
• Based on a Trinitarian movement
• History as progress

Albert the Great (b. between 1193 and 1206)
Thomas of Aquinas’s teacher
Beings IN GOD, then separated into being/creation
Soul retained divine archetype
Can find God by looking inward, then
Self analysis
Not a matter of intellect
Contact among essences/beings

The Nuns of Helfta (1200s)
Mechtild of Madgeburg
Mechtild of Hackeborn

Albegensian Crusade /Inquisition: (1209–1229)
started because someone killed an Inquisitor
by King of France
against Cathars

Amalricians, condemned in 1210
Maintained unity of God with his creations
Taint of pantheistic anarchy
Some from university sent to be burnt by secular authorities
Deliberately spread ideas to many
Holy Spirit in them led them to prophecy, children born of them and similar women wouldn’t need baptism, etc.
Can we accept that this is what they really thought?

Spiritual Franciscans: Angelo of Clareno (b. 1247)
A Letter of Defense to the Pope concerning the False Accusations and Calumnies Made by the Franciscans
Viewed selves as the real Franciscans
Versus observant Franciscans
Internal problems: how strictly should they follow poverty?
Condemned by Pope John XXII (1317), even though a part of the spirituals had been approved by the previous pope in 1312
Not really a rebel: presents himself as continually obedient
Kind of looks like they were trying to form a new order, NOT OK

Peter John Olivi (b. 1248)
Letter to the Sons of Charles II, King of Naples
Embrace suffering and persecution to find true meaning, etc.
Francis would agree
Spirituals interested in the Apocalypse, breaking of the seals
Get ready, get fervent

Meister Eckhart (b. about 1260)
• Preaches to Beguines
• Recent attempt to rescind the condemnation, but it fell through
• Only major theologian condemned for heresy
• His response to his condemnation (1326)
- The people condemning him don’t even have jurisdiction
- Very legalistic argument
- Claims that intellect is error, but not will, so it’s not heresy
- If you show me that I’m wrong, I’ll change.
- Clarifies the charges
- Latin writings are fair game, but sermons aren’t because the transcriptions, etc., might not be correct, so that’s not fair
- Insists that the persecutors would need to fully understand him and point out the errors in order to prove anything

Occam (b. 1288)
Don’t multiply forms without necessity
Pope violated apostolic authority by demanding legal power without foundation in scripture
Said lay rulers should take the initiative and fix this

Pope moves to Avignon in 1309
John Wycliff (b. 1324)
Metaphysics, not ethics made him a dissident
Seen as detached from religious movements
Eucharist: Denied transubstantiation via intricate arguments
Benedictines brought charges against him w/Bishop of London
Recanted some, but not everything
Went from being a nominalist to being an ultra-realist

Followed Wycliff, against his will
Plague: Spring 1348-Fall 1349
1/3 died
BIG EFFECTS, including on organization of churches

John Hus (b. around 1372)
Got into trouble at the Council of Constance in 1414
Conviction and death in 1415 spurred revolt
Hus at the Council of Constance (“Here Follow the So-called Hearings, but in Truth not Hearings but Jeerings and Vilifications”)
Not very Inquisitorial: he doesn’t get to say much
More like a Senate hearing than a judicial inquiry
Very politically charged
Witch trial quality

Very connected to John Wycliff
Pan-European connectedness (more connectedness in late middle ages)
Meticulously elaborated positions of university elites
Philosophical and theological speculations of a very narrow circle
In new places: overwhelmingly in Germanic, Slavic areas, etc.
Nationally oriented churches
Most successful and most threatening heretical movement the Medieval Church ever faced
Resolved by an accord, did find its place
An independent church took shape from a national revolt against the universal church

Four factions:
1 - Hus’s own academic groupies, supporters at Prague
2 - Prague radicals in the town, more radical
3 - The Taburites: communistic group in the countryside
4 - The nobles: unhappy with the ruler, wanted more

Pope tries to go back to Rome in 1378
Curia don’t like it, elect a new Pope
Schism: 1378 – 1417
Henry of Langenstein: letter in 1381
Calls for a council to resolve the schism
Uses historical precedent and bible to support plan

Council of Constance (1414-1418)
ended the Western Schism
deposed/accepted the resignation of the remaining Papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V.
The Council also condemned and executed Jan Hus and ruled on other political issues

Heresy of the Free Spirit: Church worried about them in the mid-1400s
free sex
uninhibited by human rules
mystical supermen
expecting the end of the world
mystically authorized to live the good life

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