Glossary of esci 61-80

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61. Most detrital sedimentary rocks are formed from quartz and clay.
a. True
b. False

62. Obsidian exhibits this type of texture.
a. aphanitic/b. glassy
c. porphyritic/d. phaneritic
e. pyroclastic

63. Rocks that contain crystals that r roughly equal in size (like granite) and can be identified with the unaided eye are generally said to exhibit this type of texture.
a. fine grained/b. glassy
c. porphyritic/d. coarse grained/ e. pyroclastic

coarse grained
64. The texture of an igneous rock ____
a. is controlled by the composition of magma
d. is caused by leaching
e. is very much dependent on the rock’s cooling time

is very much dependent on the rock’s cooling time
65. Igneous rocks are formed _____
a. by the weathering of pre-existing rocks
b. by changes in mineral composition
c. at great depth within Earth
d. by the crystallization of molten rock (magma)

by the crystallization of molten rock (magma)
66. Sedimentary rocks ___
a. may contain fossils
b. hold import clues to Earth’s history
c. are often layered
d. may be economically important
e. all of these

all of these
67. Metamorphism may result from
a. heat
b. pressure
c. chemical action
d. any or all of these
e. only heat and pressure

all of these
68. Many metamorphic rock __
a. are extremely fossiliferous
b. have a linear orientation of minerals
c. are unaltered sedimentary rocks
d. all of these
e. none of these

have a linear orientation of minerals
69. Which of the following materials below is considered a very good aquitard?
a. coarse sand/b. fine sand
c. soil/d. clay
e. none of the above.

70. When certain mineral crystals recrystallize w/orientation..the rock is said to exhibit ___
a. striations/b. foliation
c. aurole/d. all of these
e. none of these

71. The common rock produced by the metamorphism of shale is
a. marble/b. mica schist
c. slate/d. gneiss
e. hornfels

72. This metamorphic rock listed below is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals.
a. phyllite/b. mica schist
C. guartzite/d. gneiss
e. marble

73. Starting with the energy from the sun, what are the general stages/steps of the hydrologic cycle?
a. evapor, precip, conden, runoff/infiltration
c. evapor, conden, precip, runoff/infiltration
d. evapor,
runoff/infiltration, precip, conden

evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff/infiltration
74. Which river features are generally associated with younger streams?
a. rapids/b. waterfalls
c. v-shaped channels
d. small/narrow floodplain
e. all of the above

all of the above
75. Sidewalks and roadways are very impermeable surfaces.
a. True
b. False

76. Particle size (texture) and fragment shape (angular, rounded) are the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks
a. True
b. False

77. New igneous rock is formed at the mid-ocean ridges as magma rises and cools.
a. True
b. False

78. Metamorphism only alters sedimentary rocks.
a. True
b. False

79. All silicate minerals contain the elements
a. silicon and iron
b. silicon and magnesium
c. silicon and calcium
d. silicon and sodium
e. silicon and oxygen

silicon and oxygen
80. The tendency of minerals to break along smooth flat surfaces is called
a. streak/b. fracture
c. cleavage/d. conchoidal
e. polyhedral


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