Glossary of equus
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- 5 Viral Respiratory Diseases of Horses
- 1. Equine Influenza
2. EHV (Rhinopneumonitis)
4. Equine Adenovirus
5. Equine Rhinovirus
- Transmission of EI
- Envelope in EI contains...
- Contains Neuroanimnase and Hemmagglutin
- Rare sequele to EI
- Why do you always have to update vaccines with EI?
- Antigenic Shift
- EI: more severe in young or old?
- Diagnosis of EI
- 1. Virus Isolation
2. FA or ELISA
3. Serology (4 fold incr.)
- common sequele to EI
- Post Viral Allergic Pneumonitis: chronic pneumonitis, COPD, bact. and guttural pouch infections, bronchitis and pneumonia
- How often do you vaccinate against EI?
- Every 3-4 months
Booster 2-4 wks before show because if only 10 days or less then could have transiet dz.
- Transmission of EHV
- Inhalation or Ingestion
- MC age for EHV
- Stain of EHV that can cause abortion and CNS signs
- EHV 1
- Dx of EHV
(note: ELISA can't disting. between EHV 1 & 4
- When to vaccinate pregnant mares against EHV?
- 5,7, 9 months gestation
- How often to vaccinate foals against EHV?
- Every 3 months
- EVA is most prevelent in this breed?
- Transmission of EVA
- Respiratory Secretions and Venereally
- Carriers of EVA
- CS are febrile, serous nasal discharge that may become purulent, leukopenia, pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia, abortions and CNS signs
- CS are acute onset of fever, coughing and nasal discharge
- CS are fever, limb edema and stiffness, palpebral edema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, papular eruptions on muc mem., abortions
- What 3 things do you worry about in an overweight horse?
- 1. Lipidosis
- What 3 things do you worry about in an underweight horse?
- 1. Not enough feed
- where do teeth get sharp on the maxilla?
on the mandible?
- buccal surface on the maxilla and lingual surface on the mandible
(on the top the teeth are sharp on the cheek side and on the bottom the teeth are sharp on the tongue side)
- EHV-1 Causes
- EHV-2 causes
- EHV-3 causes
- Coital Exanthema
- EHV-4 causes
- Respiratory probs
- Exuberant Granulation Tissue aka
- proud flesh
- cause of proud flesh?
- poor wound management
- An inflammatory response involving the DORSAL lamina of the hoof
- 4 Causes of Laminitis
- Carb overload
Excessive Work or Stress
- Stance with Laminitis
- Sawhorse Stance: rear limbs are placed under body
- With Laminitis, where is the positive hoof test at?
- The Toe
- MC place for laminitis to occur?
- Forelimbs (toe pain)
- Chronic CS of Laminitis?
- Feet Cool to the Touch
No digital pulse
Diverging Hoof Growth Lines
Rotation on P3
- Dx of Laminitis?
- Rads showing rotation of P3
Nerve Block that shows improvement
- Nerve Block to Dx Laminitis?
- Palmar Digital Nerve Block
- Tx/pain relief for acute laminitis?
- Bute, Banamin
- Frog Support used with Acute Laminitis?
Heart Bar Shoe
- Way to reduce stress on lamina with laminitis
- Wedge pad heel that reduces the pull of the DDF
- Vasodialators used with Laminitis?
- Why is heparin used to treat laminitis?
- Activates reticuloendothelial system
Decreases clotting in foot microvasculure
- Used to reduce inflammation in laminitis?
- General Treatment for Acute Laminitis?
- Pain Meds, Frog Support, Heels that reduce strain on DDF, Vasodialators, Heparin, Anti-inflammatories
- Surgical Treatment for Chronic Laminitis?
- 1. Dorsal Hoof Wall Resection
2. Full thickness hoof wall resection
3. DDF Tenotomy
4. Inferior Check Ligament Desmotomy
- Dorsal Hoof Wall Resection
- remove toe and reshape hoof parallel to P3
- Full thickness hoof wall resection
- drain necrotic debris, allows for new hoof growth
- DDF Tenotomy
- For pasture soundness only
- Inferior Check Ligament Desmotomy
- Reduces the pull of the DDF
Allows for an athletic career
- MC cause of lameness
- Subsolar Abcess
- cause of subsolar abcess
- 1. Puncture wounds at the frog
2. Puncture wounds at the white line from gravel
- where do puncture wounds at the frog drain?
- At the heel between the sensitive and insensitive frog
- where do puncture wounds at the white line drain?
- At the coronary band
- Tx of Subsolar Abcesses?
- Estab. Ventral Drainage
Maintain Drainage with Epson Salt and Ichthammol
Antibiotics in foals
- Mares repro barriers
- 1. Vulva lips
2. Vestibular Sphincter: vulvovestibular junction
- Normal Vulvar Conformation
- The dorsal commisure of the vulva should be even or tightly below the bony floor of the pelvis
- pustules or ulcerations on the labia of mares or the penis of stallions
- Equine Coital Exanthema
- safe to breed horse with Coital Exanthema when?
- 3 weeks after lesions go away
- Treat Melanoma (small nodules that can metastisize) of the vulva with?
- Treat ACC (granulomatous or plaquelike lesions, rarely metastisizes)
- MC psuedohermaphrodite?
- Male Psuedohemaphrodite: Hypoplastic testicles, elongated rudimentary vulva with penile homologue instead of clitorus, XX, male behav
- Location of Persistant Hymen?
- Vulvovestibular Junction
- Tx of Persistant Hymen?
- should be broken down to allow fluid to exit, can breed 2-3 wks later
- First Degree Perineal Laceration
- Laceration thru the dorsal vulvular commisure and mucosa of the vestibule
- Tx for Primary Perineal Laceration
- Second Degree Perineal Laceration
- Laceration thru the dorsal vulvular commisure, vestibular mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer
- Third Degree Perineal Laceration
- Laceration thru the rectal floor, vestibular ceiling, and anal sphincter
- Vericose Veins in the Mare?
- Chronic slow loss of blood from the vulva late in gestation
- Tx for vericose veins in the mare?
- Can be surgically ligated
- Cause of urine pooling?
- During estrus, the cervix relaxes and uterine tone decreases so urine pooling can occur
- Urine Pooling can cause these 3 things?
- 1. Endometritis
- Treatment for urine pooling?
- Flush large volumes of saline or antibiotics before cover, Caslicks, or surg correction with a urethral extension
- Asending infection can result in endometritis
- Uterine Infection
- Desending infection
- Benign Portions of mesonephric tubules may be a rare cause of secondary infections
- Gartner's ducts
- Dx degnerative uterine disease
- Endometrial biopsy
- Seen on endometrial biopsy with degen uterine dz
- 1. Glandular degen
2. lymphatic abnorm
3. endometrial atrophy
4. endometrial cysts
- Uterine Neoplasm (rare)
- Caused by contamination after breakdown in uterine defense mechanisms due to breeding, examination, and poor perineal conformation
- Uterine Defense Mechanisms
- 1. Uterine Contraction
2. Phagocytosis by neutrophils
3. Repro anatomy barriers (vulva, vestib sphincter, cervix)
- MC cause of endometritis
- Streptococcus zooepidemicus
- Absolute prognostic indicator of active inflammation
- Presence of neutrophils in the lumen when doing endometrial cytological eval.
- Seen on ultrasound with Endometritis
- Demonstration of uterine fluid by ultrasound (7-12 days after ovulation)
- Tx of Endometritis?
- Lavage enhanced by Oxytocin
- Reportable venereally transmitted bacterial endometritis
- Contagious Equine Metritis
- Etiology of CEM
- Taylorella equigenitalis
- Asymptomatic carrier of CEM
- Discharge with CEM
- Copious Grey Exudate for short duration
- CEM is localized in the mare where?
- the Clitorus
- Media to grow CEM
- Chocolate Agar
- Tx for CEM
- Scrub clitorus with chlorhex then pack with nitrofurazone or chlor hex ointment
- Cervix location during Diestrus
- Closed and lies in the middle of the cranial face of the vagina with a round rosette appearance
- Cervix location during Estrus
- Softens and opens, dropping toward the vaginal floor as it relaxes
- when are pregnancy losses the greatest in the mare?
- before day 35 (before the embryo enters the uterus)
- Pediculosis aka
- Sucking Louse found on the mane, tail, and distal legs
- Haematopinus asini
- Biting louse found on the dorsolateral trunk
- Damalinia equi
- Season that lice is most common?
- Dx lice
- acetate tape
- Psoroptic aka
- Body Mange
- Psorpties equi
- Otitis Externa
- Psoptes caniculi or hippotis
- Quarantine how long with psoroptic mange?
- 7-12 wks
- Tx for psoroptic mange and sarcoptic mange
- Don't use this in the horse for mange because it causes depression, ataxia, and progressive large intestinal impaction
- Rare, reportable mange in horses that has been eradicated?
- Sarcoptic mange
- Chorioptic mange aka
- Leg Mange
- Quarantine for how long with chorioptic mange
- 10 wks
- Causes pruritis, erythema, alopecia and crust formation along legs
- Chorioptic mange
- MC breed affected with Chorioptic mange: feathers in fetlock region
- Draft horses
- Chorioptic: surface mange or deeper?
- Etiology of demodex in horses?
- Demodex caballi and equi
- Rare mange associated with immunosuppressive conditions or therapies?
- Trobiculosis aka
- Free living larva that normally feed on small rodents: associated with pruitic papules and wheals on horses
- Dx Chiggers?
- Colorful larvae id in the center of a wheal or papule
- More common in cows, but seen in horses that live close to cows
- Hypodermiasis aka?
- stage of warbles that penetrate the skin and produce a breathing hole?
- CS: SQ nodules and cysts over the dorsal back
- aka for summer sores
- Etiology for Habronemiasis
- Habronema musca
- Summer sores life cycle
- Adults live in the stomach
Eggs and larva are passed in the feces
Ingested by maggots of flies
Flies deposit larva on horse mouth
CS occur when the larva are deposited in other places (prepuce)
- Summer sores may cause this reaction
- Common findings with habronemia
- Nonhealing wounds
Proud flesh (exuberant granulation tissue)
- Discharge and granules with habronemia?
- Serosanginous or hemorrhagic
- DX habronemia?
- id larva on granule exam or tissue biosy
- Onchocerca of nuchal ligament
- O. gutturosa
- Onchocerca of CT of flexor tendons and suspensory ligaments of the fetlock
- O. reticulata
- Onchocerca of the funicular portion of the nuchal ligament
- O. cervicalis
- Intermediate host for Onchocerca
- Cullucoides gnats
- Onchocerca: hypersensitivity to the microfilaria along the ...
- the *ventral midline*, face and neck
- ocular lesions with Onchocerca
- keratitis, uveitis, peripaular choroidal sclerosis
depigmentation of the bulbar conjunctiva
- Dx of Onchocerca
- Micro exam of skin biopsy with an eosinophilic granulomatous reaction to the parasite around the microfilaria
- Oxyuriasis aka
- where does pinworm adult female lay her eggs
- out of the horses anus
- CS of pinworms
- Rubbing tail on fence posts, trees, etc
- Dfdx of pinworms (4)
- 1. Food allergy
2. culicoides hypersensitivity
4. stable vice
- Premature/dysmature foal
- any sick foal
- barker foal, hypoxiod ischemic
- Neonatal maladjustment syndrome
- lymphopenia, decreased IgM, lymphoid hypoplasia
- Combined immunodeficiency
- COPD aka
Allergic Airway Disease
- COPD signs can appear after this vaccine
- Flu vax
- COPD: allergy to...
- spores of hay molds=indoor
pollens in pasture=outdoor
- type of dyspnea due to bronchitis from COPD
- Expiratory dyspnea
- heave line is hypertrophy of these muscles
- External abdominal oblique
- Seen on TTW with COPD
- Healthy neutrophils (segs)
lg amnt of mucous
- response to this with suspected COPD means postive dx
- atropine or glycopyrolate
- TX of COPD
- Corticosteroids (dex, triamcilinolone, beclamethasone)
Bronchodialtors (brethine, clenbuteral, albuterol)
- Infectious degen disease of the frog that results in black necrotic material in this region
- Thrush associated with these 3 things..
- 1. filthy stalls
2. failure to clean frog reg.
3. lack of frog pressure
- Tx of Thrush?
- Debride diseased frog
Pick feet daily
- Shock aborber between cartilage and cortical bone
- Subchondral bone
- _________(incr. or decr) PG's and HA's with Arthritis
- _________(incr. or decr) vol., protein count with Arthritis
- Configuration of collagen fibrils with arthritis
- Arthritis: inflamm. induces
- Cytokines, kkinins, PG E, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and prostacycline
- Synovial fluid analysis with aseptic arthritis
- total leukocytes: norm or slightly elevated
- Synovial fluid analysis with septic arthritis
- Predominance of segmented neutrophils
- Pathogneum of septic arthritis
- Segs greater than 30,000 in synovial fluid
- Seen with septic arthritis on rads
subchondral bone reabsorption
periosteal bone formation
- uses 90m-methylene diphosphonate isotope and reflects relative blood flow in tissue
- Neuclear scintigraphy
- Tx of Arthritis
Antiarthritics like PSGAG's (adequan)
- Ocular trauma can result in
- How much of their body wt shuld foals consume in a day?
- Uses to assess malnutrition
- If foal can't suckle, how do you feed
- Nasogastric tube
- Why shouldn't you force feed with foals?
- Aspiration pneumonia
- Common condition associated w/ severe straining or tearing of flexor tendons
- Bowed Tendons
- Causes of Bowed Tendons
- 1.Hyperextension of the fetlock
2.Trauma w/ exercise
3.Muscle fatique w/ exhaustion
- MC Cause of Bowed Tendons
- Hyperextension of the fetlock
- 3 types of Bowed Tendons
- 1.High bow – w/in carpal sheath
2.Mid bow – between carpal and digital sheaths
3.Low bow – caudal to P1
- MC limbs for bowed tendons
- rule outs for bowed tendons
- Cellulitis and suspensory desmitis
- Immed tx for bowed tendons
- 1.For three days
2.Ice 20 minutes every 6 hours
- Follow up therapy for bowed tendons
- 1.U/S 4 days post injury and then every 30 days
2.Stop DMSO and possibly bute
3.Stall rest until heat is gone
4.Support bandages and controlled hacks for 4-8 weeks
- Surgical treatments for bowed tendons
- 1.Proximal check ligament desmotomy
3.Volar ligament transection
- Tendon splitting
- Allows for collagen reconstruction of core tendon- In association w/ proximal check desmotomy
- Volar ligament transection
- -SDF tendinitis-Restricted movment of SDF through fetlock canal- Notching of sheath over volar annular ligament
- prognosis with bowed tendons
- 20% return to previous level of training
- aka lumpy wool and Strawberry fot rot, cutaneous streptotrichosis, rain rot, rain scald, dew poisoning
- Dermatophilosis etiology
- Dermatophilus congolensis
- Infection of the epidermis characterized by exudative dermatitis w/ scab formation
·Seen in cattle, sheep and goats most commonly (occasionally horses)
- causes of Dermatophilosis
- Prolonged wetting by rain, high humidity, high temp and flies and ticks can increase it
- Dermatophilosis: how do scabs look?
- Scabs look raised and circular
- Dermatophilosis: Lumpy wool
- pyramid-shaped masses of scabs on wool
- Dermatophilosis:· Strawberry foot rot
- skin from coronet to carpus or hock
- Tx of Dermatophilosis
- PPG or streptomycin injections
- where is dermatophysis seen?
- ·In horses it is seen on the rump, limbs and face
- Bacterial pneumonia in foals: common primary
- Primary – Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Rhodococcus equi
- Bacterial pneumonia in foals
Secondary to sepsis
- E coli, Actinobacillus equuli & suis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Salmonella
- Bacterial pneumonia in foals
Secondary to virus
- Influenza, EAV, EHV-1,2,4, or Rhino
- Bacterial pneumonia in foals
Others often seen in combination with above organisms are
- Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica
- bacterial pneumonia of the foal caused by
- overcrowding, poor housing, transportation, rough handling, inadequate nutrition, dehydration, poor ventilation, FPT, poor vaccination of mare
- Clinical signs of bacterial pneumonia of the foal
- a.Fever – early
b.Resp rate > 30 bpm
c.Flared nostrils, exaggerated rib movement and abdominal effort
d.Exercise intolerance, cyanosis, weakness and reluctnce to move – esp R. equi infection
e.Mucopurulent nasal discharge
f.Coughing – exacerbated by exercise or restraint
g.Auscultation shows increased bronchial and tracheal sounds, esp in cranioventral lungs
h.R. equi foals may show nonseptic synovitis, D+ and uveitis
- Rhodococcus equi
- 8-10 weeks old, when passive immunity declines
- Two clinical forms of Rhodococcus equi
- a.Subacute – diffuse miliary pyogranulomatous pneumonia, usually die w/in days
b.Chronic – pneumonia, compromised resp fxn and untrhiftiness
- Inflammation of the pleural surface w/ exudation into the pleural space
- Horses are ...more prone or less prone... to pleural fluid accumulation b/c arterial supply to pleura is from sytemic circulation (not pulmonary circulation)
- more prone
In the horse (not other spp), it is...
- secondary to pneumonia or pulmonary abscesses
- Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia MC secondary to...
- most common Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia in horses recently transported
- Clinical signs with Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia
- ·Clinical signs
b.Nasal discharge – mucopurulent to serohemorrhagic
c.May see halitosis, wt loss and edema and pleural pain
e.O may complain of low grade colic or laminitis signs
f.Auscultation – can hear all but bronchial sounds
- best prognostic indicator for Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia
- ODOR – , can detect putrid smell (anaerobic bactreial infection)
- Dx of Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia
- Thoracocentresis for cell cont, cytology, protein, Gram stain, bacterial culture and senstivity, aneaerobic bacterial culture and mycoplasmal isolation
- Tx of Pleuritis/pleuropneumonia
- antimicrobial therapy and drains
- Etiology of Tuberculosis in horses
- Mycobacterium avium, bovis or tuberculosis
- how is tb in horses spread?
- Ingestion and inhalation, hematogenous spread causing acute miliary tuberculosis in lung or specific organ involvement w/ nodular lesions
- Nutritional D+ in foals caused by
- Caused by overfeeding milk or sudden intro of grain or roughage, or ingestion of sand, dirt or wood
- Gastroduodenal ulcers in foals caused by
- a. High grain diet or severe malnutrition
b. May be other causes including stress, NSAIDs, infectious agents
- Clinical signs of Gastroduodenal ulcers
- Clinical signs are bruxism (grinding teeth), ptyalism, low volume D+, colic and anorexia, lie in dorsal recumbancy
- tx of Gastroduodenal ulcers
- - H2 blockers (Cimetidine & Ranitidine)
- antacids (Aluminum hydroxide)
- proton pump inhibitor Omeprazole
- Prostaglandin E analog Misoprostel
- Metoclopromide – stimulate GI motility and enhance gastric empyting
- Bethanechol – cholinergic agonist
- cause of septicemia in foals
- Caused by bacteria through the blood stream from resp, GI, umbilicus, placenta or locatlized infection (jt ill, navel ill, pneumonia, encephalitis)
- MC cause of septicemia in foals
- E. coli
- Clincial signs with septicemia in foals
- a.ADR – depression, lethargy
b.Petechial and echymotic hemorrhaging in MM and ears
c.Shock or coma
d.Pneumonia, D+, ecepthalitis, uveitis, septic arthritis
e.Owner will think mare stepped on her foal
f.Neutropenia most often with toxic changes
- Dx of septicemia in foals
- IgG of < 800
- Tx of septicemia in foals
- colostrum IV if less than 12 hours old, Ab therapy
- Parturition problems in the mare Number one cause is
- presentation problem
- Causes of prolonged gestation are:
- a. Draft breeds
b. Mule crosses
- sequela of dystocia in a mare
- a. Laminitis
b. Retained placenta
- fatal problem in older mares
- ruptured middle uterine artery
- low calcium
- indications for induction on partuition in the mare
- a.Owner conventince
e.Impending prepubic tendon rupture
f.Problem mare (steps on foal)
g.Preparturent leakage of colostrum
h.Nurse mare – used for colostrum only
- guidelines for induction of partuition in the mare
- a.Foal is in correct PPP
b.Gestation over 320 days
c.Full mammary development
d.Cevix is dilated at least 3-4 findgers
e.DO NOT induce if the mare has a systemic dz, there is a foul smelling discharge, or will have an abortion
- DOC for induction of partuition in the mare
- watch for this during partuition in the mare
- ‘red bag’ or premature placental separation
- Moldy sweet clover – contains
- dicurmarol which inhibits blood clotting
- botulism occurs with
- large round bales and ensilted forage w/ inadequate storage
- tall fescue toxicity
- N. coenophialum causes prolonged gestation, thickened placenta, abortion and agalacia
- red clover toxin and CS
- slaframine, slobbering (black spots on leaves and stems)
- blister beetle toxin and CS
- cantharidine, contaminate of alfalfa hay; causes D+, colic and synchronous diaphragmatic flutter
- problem with Corn grain mold: Fusarium moniliforma
- Corn and CSM
- aflotoxins w/ Aspergillus
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