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- What are the cardinal signs of pregnancy?
- 1. Amniotic Vesicle
2. Fetal Slip
- Whan can you feel Amniotic Vesicle, Fetal Slip, Fetus?
- 35 days
- Whan can you feel Placentomes?
- 90 days
- Name ways to manage dystocia in bovine.
- 1. Epidural
2. Stand up
5. Drug Induction
- Why do you give an epidural?
- To stop straining.
- Why do you make the cow stand up?
- Get rumen off uterus
- What are the 3 P's you should consider before pulling a calf?
- Presentation, posture, position
- What are the orientations of Presentation?
- cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, lateral.
- What are the orientations of Position?
- All cranial presentation-decide what part is dorsal:
Dorso-sacral, pubic, ileal(R or L)
- What are the orientations of posture?
- Limbs: extended, retained, flexed
- What do you do if pulling is not successful?
- Where do you place chains on a calf?
- Hitch above and below pastern.
- Types of fetotomy?
- Percutaneous, subcutaneous, decapitation.
- What are the approaches for a C-section in a cow?
- 1. Ventral Midline
2. Left Flank- R. lateral recumbancy
3. Left standing flank
- Pros vs cons of Ventral Midline?
- Pro- Good exposure
Con- Chance to dehis.
- Pro Vs cons on left flank c-section?
- Pro- Good restraint
Con- Right lateral- breathing
- Have to elevate uterus
- Pro Vs cons on Left standing flank c-section?
- Pro- Easiest restraint
- DOC for induction of parturition?
- Prostaglandin F2- alpha and Dex
- What is the first thing you think of when a cow presents with a Fever and fibrinous pneumonia?
- Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC)
- What makes animal susscepitble to Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- What is the viral etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- 1. Bovine resp syncytial virus
2. IBR (bovine herpes 1)
4. Parainfuenza 3
- What is the bacterial etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- 1. Manheima hemolytica
2. Past Mult
3. Heamophilus somnus
5. Arcanobacter pyogenes
- What are your necropsy findings with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- Fibrinous pneumonia
- AB treatment for Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- LA200, PPG, TMS, Mictil,Forfenicol
- Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
- 1. LA200 upon arival
2. Seperate ages
3. Wean calves before shipping
4. Vax with Pasteurella and viral
- A placenta is considered retained if it is longer than?
- 24 hours after parturition
- What can a retained placenta induce?
- post partem metritis
- what can retained placenta be confused with?
- Ketosis, LDA, RDA, milk fever, peritonitis
- Do not give what with retained placenta?
- Ecbolic drugs
- What are ecbolic drugs?
- Prostaglandins, ergots, oxytocin, B2 antagonists
- What nutritional status may retained placenta be caused by?
- Low selenium and Vitamin E
- Treatment of retained placenta?
- 1. Will expel in 4-6 days on its own
3. LA 200
4. Intra uterine infusion
- What are the 3 categories of infertility?
- 1. Decreased conception rate
2. Fertilization failure
3. Early embryonic death
- What factors would cause a decrease in conception rate?
- 1. Timing
2. Inadequate energy
3. Maternal gene abnormalities
5. Infectious disease
- What neoplasia will result in decreased conception rate?
- Granulosa Cell tumor
- What infectious disease will cause pyometra?
- Trichomonas fetus
- What infectious disease will cause endometritis and salpingitis?
- Campylobacter fetus
- What infectious disease will cause Mastitis?
- What lepto affects bovine?
- Lepto interrogans hardjo
- What infectious disease will cause papules on vestibule and vulva?
- IBR-herpes I
- What infectious disease will cause early embryonic death?
- BVD, trichomonas, campylobacter.
- What disease is only an AI disease and why?
- Brucella abortus- cannot penetrate cervix
- What infectious disease will cause nodular lesions?
- What do you culture trichomonas with and how many times?
- Diamons media-3x's
- What do you collect on Clark's media?
- What disease is the bull an asymptomatic carrier and is often called peter pan?
- How do you manage campylobacter?
- Treat bull with dihydrostreptomyacin.
- What disease is the cow the carrier?
- What are the AI diseases?
- Ureaplasma, Hemophilus, Chlamydia, Brucella
- How do you prevent AI diseases?
- Double Sheath or Double rod pipette.
- What are some causes of fertilization failure?
- a. Bull semen
b. AI technique
c. Segmental aplasia
d. Intralumenal adhesion
e. Paraovarian cysts
f. Double cervical
g. Persistent hymen
- What are some causes of early embryonic death?
- a. Trichomo/Campy
b. Heat stress
c. High cortisol
d. Aged gametes
e. Lethal genes
f. Growth implants
- What happens if a cow has paraovarian cysts?
- Prevents follicle from dropping.
- What is the disease of shipping fever?
- What is the etiology of shipping fever?
- 1. Past Multocida
2. Mannheima hemolytics
- Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the septicemic form of pasteurellosis?
- Pasturella Multocida
- Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the Pneumonic form of pasteurellosis?
- Mannheima hemolytics
- Pasturella Multocida causes
- acute fibrinous pneumonia
- M. Hemolytica causes
- coagulation necrosis
- What are Growth implants –
- endometrial glands don’t develop properly and creates a toxic environment for embryo
- What is the first sign of Pasteurellosis?
- What is the diagnostic test for Pasteurellosis?
- ELISA-blood or nasal swab
- What is the pathogenesis for Pasteurellosis?
- part of normal flora that becomes virulent when the animal is stressed and obtaines a virus in the respiratory complex
- What are the Four virulence factors of Pasteurellosis?
- Action of fimbriae in Pasteurellosis?
- Of organism:enhances colonization in the upper resp tract
- MOA of Polysaccaride capsule
- – inhibits complement and phagocytosis and inc seg infilatration into the lung
- MOA of LPS (endotoxin)?
- – directly toxic to bovine endothelium
- MOA of Leukotoxin
- exotoxin that directly destroys cow’s cells
- What part of intestines absorbs?
- What part of intestines secretes?
- Ages of onset of D+ in calves- in days
< 3 E coli
5-15 Clostridium C
> 30 Coccidia
- Ages of onset of D+ in pigs- in days
<3 E coli
1-7 Clostridium C
1-5 w Rotavirus
- What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Rotavirus
- -Villus tips
- What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Corona virus
- -Entire villus destroyed
–More severe D+
- What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Cryptosporidiosis?
- -villus blunting
- Stain for Cryptosporidiosis?
- -Acid fast
- What causes bloody diarrhea
- salmonella T.
- What breed is carrier of salmonella?
- What diarrhea causes "flat calves" and why is it called this?
- What type of coccidia is seen in cows?
- Major cause of diarrhea in calves less than 3 days old?
- Mechanism of pathogenicity for e.coli?
- 1. enterotoxigenic-K99 fimbriae- attach to mucosal recptors.
2. Stable enterotoxin (ST)- inhibits absorption of villous
3. Inhibits NaCl absorption- loss of Na, CL, Bicarb, K, H20
- Type of diarrhea seen with e.coli?
- Chemical profile seen with E.coli?
- 1. Metabolic acidosis- underperfused kidney
2. Hyperkalemia(cells hypo)
- Diagnosis of e.coli
- 1. CS
2. Fecal bacteriology
- What is a Brodie's abcess?
- chronic fibrous osteomyelitits and chronic bone abscess
- Describe a Brodie's abcess.
- form of osteomyelitis that is circumscribed lined w/ granular membrane surrounded by sclerotic bone
- Etiology of Brodie's abcess?
- •Fusobacterium necrophorum and Actinomyces pyogenes
- Iatrogenic SQ injections
mostly caused by?
- Actinomyces pyogenes
- Where are you supposed to inject cattle?
- Middle third of the neck, about 1/3 of the way down instead of the gluteal region.
- In abcesses of the jaw: If the abscess is hard all over how do you treat?
- Delay treatment until it is softened and pittling of one area is noticeable (called Pointing of the abscess)
- What if an abscess is opened and drained prematurely?
- Have a tendency to recur
- Retropharyngeal abscess
may be caused by?
- 1. Actinobaccillosis (wooden tongue)
2. Infection entering pharyngeal wound
- Liver abscessess caused by?
- Actinomyces pyogenes or Fusobacterium necrophorum
- Liver abscessess may be due to?
- Rumen acidosis
- Liver abscessess may cause
- 1.peritonitis, rupture of a major vessel causing hemorrhage and sudden death, or vena cava thrombosis
-->Vena cava thrombosis may produce pulmonary thromboembolism leading to pulmonary abscess (painful cough, dyspnea w/ rupture of abscesses into blood vessels producing severe and recurrent epistasix and blood out of the mouth)
- Explain the clinical features of myocardial abscessess.
- Produces a similar clinical picture to chronic vegetative endocarditis, but with a slower temperature rise and slower course
- Abscess in the preputial epithelium are caused by?
- Actinomyces pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
- M/c breeds to have abscesses in the preputial epithelium?
3.Bos indicus breeds and crosses
- What is pediculosis?
- What are the biting lice?
- Where are the biting lice usually found?
- neck, withers, tail head
- What are the sucking lice?
- - Mallophaga-Hematophiunus eurysternus
- Where are the sucking lice usually found?
- Is the life cycle indirect or direct?
- entirely on host
- What is the cardinal sign for lice infestation?
- What is the treatment of lice?
- -organophosphurus, pyrethroid, Coumaphos, Diazinon and permethrin
- Can you use ivermectin for lice?
- Ivermectin injectable gets sucking lice but not biting spp
- What is the most common metabolic disorder affecting cattle?
- Postparturient paresis
- Predispositions to milk fever:
- a. Dairy cattle
b. Inc w/age& milk yield
c. High prepartum ca+
d. Low mg+=restricts ability to absorb calcium
e. Estrogens-can inhibit Ca immobilization
f. Low feed intake at part
g. Fatty liver
- Postparturient paresis AKA?
- Milk fever, hypocalcemia, Eclampsia
- Pathophysiology of milk fever?
- a.hypocalcemia stimulates PTH which inc kidneys ability to synthesize 1,25, OH2D3 from Vit D3.
b.1,25 OH2D3 stimulates inc gut absorption of Ca and Ca from bone
- Clinical signs of milk fever
- a. Recumbancy
b. S bend to her neck
c. Incordination, ataxia
e. Low Ca, Low Ph and high Mg (even though milk fever is due to low Mg intake
- DDx for a recumbant cow are:
- a. Acute toxic mastitis paralysis
c. Pelvic fxs
d. Grass tetany
e. Downer cow syndrome
g. Pregnancy toxemia
- In acute toxic mastitis you must make sure you do what?
- Examen milk in all 4 teats
- Calving paralysis due to what?
- -Obturator paralysis at L4-L6
-Abduction of hindlimb or straddled
- Pelvic fractures may be due to what?
- Osteoperosis in dairy cattle-rare
- Grass tetany aka?
- What is inanition
- -starvation-lack of food and water.
- Pregnancy toxemia is primarily a disease of what?
- What do you see with pregnancy toxemia in cattle when yoe do see it?
- 1. Starvation
2. Acetonemia- b/c of lack of energy
- Treatment of pregnancy toxemia?
- 1. Slow IV Ca+ borogluconate warmed to body temperature.
- Prevention of pregnancy toxemia?
- Feed Mg or high anionic diets to prepartum cows.
- Metritis-Pyometra complex induced by?
- dystocia, retained placenta and milk fever
- Why do the listed resasons for Metritis-Pyometra complex cause this?
- They cause delayed return to cyclicity
- Why is Metritis-Pyometra related?
- Metritis will delay involution after calving, and develop into pyometra.
- Pathophys of Metritis-Pyometra complex?
- If the uterus is still infected after calving and ovulation and CL still develop, the progesterone created by the uterus reduces normal uterine defense mechanisms
- Do not use what in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
- Why do you not want to use prog in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
- Defense mechanisms inhibited by progesterone:
a.Decreases protection against purulent infection
b.causes cervix to close tightly
c.reduces myometrial contractions
- Etiology of pink eye?
- -Moraxella bovis is most common known cause.
-May also be induced by IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and Mycoplasma bovirhinits and M. laidlawii
- Factors contributing to IBK – Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivits (IBKC)
isolation, Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
· Pedersen’s suggests sulphadimidine IV injection
· Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nicti
- UV light, flies and dust
- Tx of (IBKC)?
- 1. isolation
2.Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
3.sulphadimidine IV injection
4.Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
- Coccidiosis type in cattle?
- Eimeria zuernii and bovis
- Coccidiosis occur in what age?
- Affects groups of cattle less than one year old
- Usual time on onset of coccidiosis
- Occurs three or four weeks after groups of purchased calves are mixed or sudden stress of extreme temperature reductions
- In Coccidiosis what is the infective stage?
- Gi signs of coccidia seen mostly as?
- GI hemorrage of cecum
- Treatment of coccidia?
- a.Sulpha drugs (Albon)
- What is physiologic anestrus?
- Normal anestrus
- What does the causes of physiologic anestrus include?
- 1. Pregnancy
2. Postpartum anestrus
- Postpartum anestrus is caused by? 60 days, dairy will cycle back in 18 days
3. Prepubertal – not reached puberty yet; should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
- Suckling of the calf
- How long does it take for beef cattle to cycle back after parturition?
- 45-60 days
- How long does it take for dairy cattle to cycle back after parturition?
- 18 days
- When do cows begin their first cycle?
- -Should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
- Causes of abnormal anestrus?
- 1. Nutrition
2. Cystic ovaries
3. Free martin
4. Ovarian hypoplasia
5. Retained fetal membr
7. Milk fever
8. Excess feeding
9. Metritis and pyomet
- What happens with cystic ovaries?
- -not enough GnRH from hypothalmus
-not enough LH receptors on ovary
- not producing or releasing LH;
- Treatment for cystic ovaries?
- 1.GnRH or hCG to create luteal tissue-->give PGF2 alpha 10 days later to destroy luteal tissue
-If continues put on progesterone to suppress the hypothalmus and create a hyperactive state when progesterone is removed
- Why do you see pyometra-metritis complex in anestral cows?
- -due to prolonged progesterone production and decrease in uterus defense mechanisms
- What are the two types of bloat?
- Free gas and frothy
- Clinical signs of bloat?
- a. Severe distention of Left paralumbar fossa
b. Respriatory distress
c. Circulatory compromise
- What is Secondary Rumen tympany?
- Free Gas Bloat
- What are some reasons Free Gas Bloat occurs?
- Esophageal obstruction or interference with eructation
- How do you usually distinguish free gas bloat from frothy bloat?
- Usually only one animal is affected with free gas bloat.
- Free gas bloat is usually caused secondary to?
- a. Vagal dysfunction
b. Impaction/ choke
d. Tumor or enlarged LN
f. Milk fever
h. Rumen acidosis
- Vagal dysfunction can be caused by?
- 1.omasal or pyloric transport failure
- Treatment of free gas bloat?
- 1. Pass a stomach tube
2. Only when a tube won’t go down put in a rumen fistula or trocar to relieve tension
- Is frothy Bloat (Primary Rumen tympany)more common or gas bloat?
- Primary is more common
- Frothy Bloat is associated with?
- - pasture feeding – legumes such as alfalfa, clover or green chop
- Is frothy bloat relieved by passing a stomach tube?
- No-(a trochar and cannula will become blocked if used)
- Treatment of frothy bloat?
- 1. Tx is given when froth is seen on stomach tube of surfactants (Therabloat), mineral oil
2. May perform an emergency rumenotomy in the middle of the sublumbar fossa.
- Name the many causes of Downer Cow Syndrome.
- 1. Mastitis, milk fever or metritis
2.Injury to spine or legs
3. LSA infiltration to spinal canal
7.Pressure syndrome 8.Calving paralysis
- What is the chemistry picture in a cow with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
- – due to Decreased Ca, P, Mg & K
- Whatshould you observe in cows with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
- LOOK AT THE VAGINA AND TEATS
- Injury to spine or legs should you be worried about in downer cows?
- sacroiliac or coxofemoral luxation, or pelvic fx
- What do you do to diagnose injuries in downer cows?
- NEED RECTAL PALPATION
- In Compartmental syndrome and a downer cow what happens?
- increased pressure develops in an osteofascial compartment
- In downer cows what happens in Crush syndrome?
- – release of myoglobin from muscle damage
- What is Pressure syndrome ?
- -ischemic necrosis if cow is sitting in same position for 6 hours or more
- What is damaged in Calving paralysis?
- – obturator or sciatic nerve damage
- What are the treatment measures for downer cows?
- 1.Good nursing care – soft bedding, physical therapy, hoist, Aqua Cow (best for muscles)
2. Prognosis decreases dramatically each day she is down
3.Avoid IM injections b/c of muscle damage
- What are many causes of abortion in cows?
- 1. Salmonella dublin
3. Brucelosis abortus
5. Leptospirosis hardjo and pomona – mainly pomona in US
10. PGF2 before day 150
11. Toxic plants
14. Fusarium spp
16. Twin pregnancy
- What Toxic plants cause abortion?
- Ponderosa Pine, Broomweed, Montery cypress, Sumpweed
- What is the MOA of Braddica?
- Inhibits iodine into thyroxine inducing a hypothyroidism
- Samples submited of aborted feti should include?
- Entire aborted calf w/ associated fetal membranes
- The ticks that infest cattle are:
- 1.Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis
2. Anaplasma marginale
-Boophilus – Texas Cattle fever tick
-Argas – fowl tick
-Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
-Ixodes scapularis – Black legged tick
-Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
3.Epizootic bovine abortion – Spirochete; Ornithodorus coriaceus
4.Theileria – foreign countries
- What transmits Texas Cattle fever?
- What transmits RMSF?
- Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
- What is a host for babesia canis?
- Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
- What transmits Epizootic bovine abortion ?
- Ornithodorus coriaceus
- Ticks in general serve as intermediate hosts for?
- Babesia, Thelieria and Cytauxzoon
- Ticks in general serve as vectors for?
- RMSF and lyme
- What is the general term for flies?
- Simuliidae flies are aka?
- blackflies or buffalo flies
- Where are Simuliidae flies mostly found?
- around swiftly flowing streams
- Simuliidae flies intermediate hosts for?
- Leukocytozoon, Onchocerca
- Simuliidae flies vectors for?
- EEE and vesicular stomatitis
- What are Phlebotomus?
- Old world sand flies
- What are Phlebotomus intermediate hosts for?
- Vector for bluetongue?
- Cullicoides – biting midges
- What are Tabanus?
- Tabanus are carriers of what?
- – anthrax, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, EIA, tularemia, ricketsial
- Name the species of Deerflies?
- – Chrysops, hematopota, Pangonia
- What transmitts pinkeye? (Moraxella bovis)
- Face fly – Musca autumalis
- What transmits Thelazia eradesii?
- Face fly – Musca autumalis
- What is Thelazia ?
- What is the species of stable flies?
- Stomoxys calcitrans; Habronema musca
- What is a Glossina?
- Tsetse fly
- What does a Tsetse fly transmit?
- What is a species of horn flies?
- Haematobia irritans, Siphoma irritans
- What do Heel flies cause?
- gadding; cattle gallop madly to water; Warbles
- What is the species name of a heel fly?
- Hypoderma bovis and lineatium;
- Hypodermatosis aka? • Look like bumble bees
• Life cycle
ae. Produce large domed nodules under the skin on either side of the spine and produce a ventral breathing pore
f. In the spirng the larva emerge from the cyst and fall to the gr
- Warbles or Grubs
- Etiology of Hypodermatosis?
- Hypoderma bovis and lineatum from heel flies.
- Heel flies that transmit hypoderma look like what?
- Look like bumble bees
- What is the lifecycle of heel flies?
- 1.In the spring and lay eggs on lower legs of cow in a row of six or more on a hair
2. Cattle becomes irritated by the flies and will “Gadding” or gallop madly to water
3. Eggs hatch in 4 days and crawl to skin surface and penetrate to C.T. and migrate to esophagus (lineatum) or spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
4. Remain here for autumn and winter
- Which species of hypoderma will migrate to esophagus/spinal canal?
- -esophagus (lineatum)
-spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
- In treatment of hypoderma when would you not want to treat?
- •Cattle should NOT be treated between December and March b/c the larva are migrating through the esophagus or spinal cord and can cause bloat or paralysis if killed then.
- What are the four biggest criteria in BSE of bulls?
2.Minumum scrotal circumference based on age
3.Minimum progressive motility of sperm of 30%
4.Minimum morphology of 70% normal cells
- Do a BSE when ?
- 60 days prior to breeding season
- What on the sheath will you look for in BSE?
- hematomas, lacerations, abscesses, adhesions
- What on the penis will you look for in BSE?
- papillomas, hair rings, persistent frenulum
- What do you check in a bull BSE per rectum?
- • Rectal exam:
a.Urethralis muscle – covering the urethra, massage to feel pulsations
b.Prostate – firm like a wedding band
c.Vesicular glands – most problems here
d.Ampullae – enlarged end of the vas deferens near the urethra
e.Internal inguinal rings – not larger than 3 finger sizes
f.Bladder, kidneys, LN, peritoneum, omentum
- Most problems in bulls occur where?
- Vesicular glands
- Internal inguinal rings on BSE must be?
- not larger than 3 finger sizes
- What are the size of testicles supposed to be based on age?
- -1 year old-at least 30 cm
-2 years old-at least 34 cm
- What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Epididymis for a BSE?
- 1. head is readily palpable at proximal pole of testicle on anteriolateral surface
(sperm granulomas found here)
2. tail on distal pole
- Where are sperm granulomas normally found?
- head of epididymis
- What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Ductus deferens for a BSE?
- – 2-3 mm cord ascending on medial surface of testicle
- What criteria must be met as far as sperm evaluation on a BSE?
b.Minimum progressively motile sperm is 30%
c.Should have only 1-2 spheroids (immature sperm that are large, grainy & non-segmented nucleus)
d.Classify as normal, Primary, or secondary
- Primary classification of sperm means?
- -head or midpiece or tail rolled; bigger problem b/c can compete with normal sperm
- Seconday classification of sperm means?
- - tail or loose, normal head
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