Glossary of enivob

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What are the cardinal signs of pregnancy?
1. Amniotic Vesicle
2. Fetal Slip
3. Fetus
4. Placentomes
Whan can you feel Amniotic Vesicle, Fetal Slip, Fetus?
35 days
Whan can you feel Placentomes?
90 days
Name ways to manage dystocia in bovine.
1. Epidural
2. Stand up
3. C-section
4. Pull
5. Drug Induction
Why do you give an epidural?
To stop straining.
Why do you make the cow stand up?
Get rumen off uterus
What are the 3 P's you should consider before pulling a calf?
Presentation, posture, position
What are the orientations of Presentation?
cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, lateral.
What are the orientations of Position?
All cranial presentation-decide what part is dorsal:
Dorso-sacral, pubic, ileal(R or L)
What are the orientations of posture?
Limbs: extended, retained, flexed
What do you do if pulling is not successful?
Where do you place chains on a calf?
Hitch above and below pastern.
Types of fetotomy?
Percutaneous, subcutaneous, decapitation.
What are the approaches for a C-section in a cow?
1. Ventral Midline
2. Left Flank- R. lateral recumbancy
3. Left standing flank
Pros vs cons of Ventral Midline?
Pro- Good exposure
Con- Chance to dehis.
Pro Vs cons on left flank c-section?
Pro- Good restraint
Con- Right lateral- breathing
- Have to elevate uterus
Pro Vs cons on Left standing flank c-section?
Pro- Easiest restraint
DOC for induction of parturition?
Prostaglandin F2- alpha and Dex
What is the first thing you think of when a cow presents with a Fever and fibrinous pneumonia?
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC)
What makes animal susscepitble to Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
What is the viral etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. Bovine resp syncytial virus
2. IBR (bovine herpes 1)
3. BVD
4. Parainfuenza 3
What is the bacterial etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. Manheima hemolytica
2. Past Mult
3. Heamophilus somnus
4. Mycoplasma
5. Arcanobacter pyogenes
What are your necropsy findings with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
Fibrinous pneumonia
Coagulative necrosis
AB treatment for Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
LA200, PPG, TMS, Mictil,Forfenicol
Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. LA200 upon arival
2. Seperate ages
3. Wean calves before shipping
4. Vax with Pasteurella and viral
A placenta is considered retained if it is longer than?
24 hours after parturition
What can a retained placenta induce?
post partem metritis
what can retained placenta be confused with?
Ketosis, LDA, RDA, milk fever, peritonitis
Do not give what with retained placenta?
Ecbolic drugs
What are ecbolic drugs?
Prostaglandins, ergots, oxytocin, B2 antagonists
What nutritional status may retained placenta be caused by?
Low selenium and Vitamin E
Treatment of retained placenta?
1. Will expel in 4-6 days on its own
2. Manual
3. LA 200
4. Intra uterine infusion
What are the 3 categories of infertility?
1. Decreased conception rate
2. Fertilization failure
3. Early embryonic death
What factors would cause a decrease in conception rate?
1. Timing
2. Inadequate energy
3. Maternal gene abnormalities
4. Neoplasia
5. Infectious disease
What neoplasia will result in decreased conception rate?
Granulosa Cell tumor
What infectious disease will cause pyometra?
Trichomonas fetus
What infectious disease will cause endometritis and salpingitis?
Campylobacter fetus
What infectious disease will cause Mastitis?
What lepto affects bovine?
Lepto interrogans hardjo
What infectious disease will cause papules on vestibule and vulva?
IBR-herpes I
What infectious disease will cause early embryonic death?
BVD, trichomonas, campylobacter.
What disease is only an AI disease and why?
Brucella abortus- cannot penetrate cervix
What infectious disease will cause nodular lesions?
What do you culture trichomonas with and how many times?
Diamons media-3x's
What do you collect on Clark's media?
What disease is the bull an asymptomatic carrier and is often called peter pan?
How do you manage campylobacter?
Treat bull with dihydrostreptomyacin.
What disease is the cow the carrier?
What are the AI diseases?
Ureaplasma, Hemophilus, Chlamydia, Brucella
How do you prevent AI diseases?
Double Sheath or Double rod pipette.
What are some causes of fertilization failure?
a. Bull semen
b. AI technique
c. Segmental aplasia
d. Intralumenal adhesion
e. Paraovarian cysts
f. Double cervical
g. Persistent hymen
What are some causes of early embryonic death?
a. Trichomo/Campy
b. Heat stress
c. High cortisol
d. Aged gametes
e. Lethal genes
f. Growth implants
What happens if a cow has paraovarian cysts?
Prevents follicle from dropping.
What is the disease of shipping fever?
What is the etiology of shipping fever?
1. Past Multocida
2. Mannheima hemolytics
Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the septicemic form of pasteurellosis?
Pasturella Multocida
Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the Pneumonic form of pasteurellosis?
Mannheima hemolytics
Pasturella Multocida causes
acute fibrinous pneumonia
M. Hemolytica causes
coagulation necrosis
What are Growth implants –
endometrial glands don’t develop properly and creates a toxic environment for embryo
What is the first sign of Pasteurellosis?
What is the diagnostic test for Pasteurellosis?
ELISA-blood or nasal swab
What is the pathogenesis for Pasteurellosis?
part of normal flora that becomes virulent when the animal is stressed and obtaines a virus in the respiratory complex
What are the Four virulence factors of Pasteurellosis?
b.Polysaccaride capsule
c.LPS (endotoxin)
Action of fimbriae in Pasteurellosis?
Of organism:enhances colonization in the upper resp tract
MOA of Polysaccaride capsule
– inhibits complement and phagocytosis and inc seg infilatration into the lung
MOA of LPS (endotoxin)?
– directly toxic to bovine endothelium
MOA of Leukotoxin
exotoxin that directly destroys cow’s cells
What part of intestines absorbs?
What part of intestines secretes?
Ages of onset of D+ in calves- in days
< 3 E coli
5-15 Rotavirus
5-21 Coronavirus
5-35 Cryptosprodiosis
5-42 Salmonella
5-15 Clostridium C
> 30 Coccidia
Ages of onset of D+ in pigs- in days
<3 E coli
1-7 Clostridium C
5-25 Coccidiosis
1-5 w Rotavirus
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Rotavirus
-Villus tips
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Corona virus
-Entire villus destroyed
–More severe D+
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Cryptosporidiosis?
-villus blunting
Stain for Cryptosporidiosis?
-Acid fast
What causes bloody diarrhea
salmonella T.
What breed is carrier of salmonella?
What diarrhea causes "flat calves" and why is it called this?
What type of coccidia is seen in cows?
Major cause of diarrhea in calves less than 3 days old?
Mechanism of pathogenicity for e.coli?
1. enterotoxigenic-K99 fimbriae- attach to mucosal recptors.
2. Stable enterotoxin (ST)- inhibits absorption of villous
3. Inhibits NaCl absorption- loss of Na, CL, Bicarb, K, H20
Type of diarrhea seen with e.coli?
Chemical profile seen with E.coli?
1. Metabolic acidosis- underperfused kidney
2. Hyperkalemia(cells hypo)
Diagnosis of e.coli
1. CS
2. Fecal bacteriology
What is a Brodie's abcess?
chronic fibrous osteomyelitits and chronic bone abscess
Describe a Brodie's abcess.
form of osteomyelitis that is circumscribed lined w/ granular membrane surrounded by sclerotic bone
Etiology of Brodie's abcess?
•Fusobacterium necrophorum and Actinomyces pyogenes
Iatrogenic SQ injections
mostly caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes
Where are you supposed to inject cattle?
Middle third of the neck, about 1/3 of the way down instead of the gluteal region.
In abcesses of the jaw: If the abscess is hard all over how do you treat?
Delay treatment until it is softened and pittling of one area is noticeable (called Pointing of the abscess)
What if an abscess is opened and drained prematurely?
Have a tendency to recur
Retropharyngeal abscess
may be caused by?
1. Actinobaccillosis (wooden tongue)
2. Infection entering pharyngeal wound
Liver abscessess caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes or Fusobacterium necrophorum
Liver abscessess may be due to?
Rumen acidosis
Liver abscessess may cause
1.peritonitis, rupture of a major vessel causing hemorrhage and sudden death, or vena cava thrombosis
-->Vena cava thrombosis may produce pulmonary thromboembolism leading to pulmonary abscess (painful cough, dyspnea w/ rupture of abscesses into blood vessels producing severe and recurrent epistasix and blood out of the mouth)
Explain the clinical features of myocardial abscessess.
Produces a similar clinical picture to chronic vegetative endocarditis, but with a slower temperature rise and slower course
Abscess in the preputial epithelium are caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
M/c breeds to have abscesses in the preputial epithelium?
3.Bos indicus breeds and crosses
What is pediculosis?
What are the biting lice?
Where are the biting lice usually found?
neck, withers, tail head
What are the sucking lice?
- Mallophaga-Hematophiunus eurysternus
- Linognathus
- Solenopotes
Where are the sucking lice usually found?
Is the life cycle indirect or direct?
entirely on host
What is the cardinal sign for lice infestation?
What is the treatment of lice?
-organophosphurus, pyrethroid, Coumaphos, Diazinon and permethrin
Can you use ivermectin for lice?
Ivermectin injectable gets sucking lice but not biting spp
What is the most common metabolic disorder affecting cattle?
Postparturient paresis
Predispositions to milk fever:
a. Dairy cattle
b. Inc w/age& milk yield
c. High prepartum ca+
d. Low mg+=restricts ability to absorb calcium
e. Estrogens-can inhibit Ca immobilization
f. Low feed intake at part
g. Fatty liver
Postparturient paresis AKA?
Milk fever, hypocalcemia, Eclampsia
Pathophysiology of milk fever?
a.hypocalcemia stimulates PTH which inc kidneys ability to synthesize 1,25, OH2D3 from Vit D3.
b.1,25 OH2D3 stimulates inc gut absorption of Ca and Ca from bone
Clinical signs of milk fever
a. Recumbancy
b. S bend to her neck
c. Incordination, ataxia
d. Dystocia
e. Low Ca, Low Ph and high Mg (even though milk fever is due to low Mg intake
DDx for a recumbant cow are:
a. Acute toxic mastitis paralysis
c. Pelvic fxs
d. Grass tetany
e. Downer cow syndrome
f. Inanition
g. Pregnancy toxemia
h. Acidosis
i. Hypothermia
j. BSE
In acute toxic mastitis you must make sure you do what?
Examen milk in all 4 teats
Calving paralysis due to what?
-Obturator paralysis at L4-L6
-Abduction of hindlimb or straddled
Pelvic fractures may be due to what?
Osteoperosis in dairy cattle-rare
Grass tetany aka?
What is inanition
-starvation-lack of food and water.
Pregnancy toxemia is primarily a disease of what?
What do you see with pregnancy toxemia in cattle when yoe do see it?
1. Starvation
2. Acetonemia- b/c of lack of energy
Treatment of pregnancy toxemia?
1. Slow IV Ca+ borogluconate warmed to body temperature.
Prevention of pregnancy toxemia?
Feed Mg or high anionic diets to prepartum cows.
Metritis-Pyometra complex induced by?
dystocia, retained placenta and milk fever
Why do the listed resasons for Metritis-Pyometra complex cause this?
They cause delayed return to cyclicity
Why is Metritis-Pyometra related?
Metritis will delay involution after calving, and develop into pyometra.
Pathophys of Metritis-Pyometra complex?
If the uterus is still infected after calving and ovulation and CL still develop, the progesterone created by the uterus reduces normal uterine defense mechanisms
Do not use what in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
Why do you not want to use prog in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
Defense mechanisms inhibited by progesterone:
a.Decreases protection against purulent infection
b.causes cervix to close tightly
c.reduces myometrial contractions
Etiology of pink eye?
-Moraxella bovis is most common known cause.
-May also be induced by IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and Mycoplasma bovirhinits and M. laidlawii
Factors contributing to IBK – Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivits (IBKC)

isolation, Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
· Pedersen’s suggests sulphadimidine IV injection
· Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nicti
UV light, flies and dust
Tx of (IBKC)?
1. isolation
2.Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
3.sulphadimidine IV injection
4.Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
Coccidiosis type in cattle?
Eimeria zuernii and bovis
Coccidiosis occur in what age?
Affects groups of cattle less than one year old
Usual time on onset of coccidiosis
Occurs three or four weeks after groups of purchased calves are mixed or sudden stress of extreme temperature reductions
In Coccidiosis what is the infective stage?
Gi signs of coccidia seen mostly as?
GI hemorrage of cecum
Treatment of coccidia?
a.Sulpha drugs (Albon)
What is physiologic anestrus?
Normal anestrus
What does the causes of physiologic anestrus include?
1. Pregnancy
2. Postpartum anestrus
3. Prepubertal
Postpartum anestrus is caused by? 60 days, dairy will cycle back in 18 days
3. Prepubertal – not reached puberty yet; should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
Suckling of the calf
How long does it take for beef cattle to cycle back after parturition?
45-60 days
How long does it take for dairy cattle to cycle back after parturition?
18 days
When do cows begin their first cycle?
-Should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
Causes of abnormal anestrus?
1. Nutrition
2. Cystic ovaries
3. Free martin
4. Ovarian hypoplasia
5. Retained fetal membr
6. Dystocia
7. Milk fever
8. Excess feeding
9. Metritis and pyomet
What happens with cystic ovaries?
-not enough GnRH from hypothalmus
-not enough LH receptors on ovary
- not producing or releasing LH;
Treatment for cystic ovaries?
1.GnRH or hCG to create luteal tissue-->give PGF2 alpha 10 days later to destroy luteal tissue
-If continues put on progesterone to suppress the hypothalmus and create a hyperactive state when progesterone is removed
Why do you see pyometra-metritis complex in anestral cows?
-due to prolonged progesterone production and decrease in uterus defense mechanisms
What are the two types of bloat?
Free gas and frothy
Clinical signs of bloat?
a. Severe distention of Left paralumbar fossa
b. Respriatory distress
c. Circulatory compromise
d. Death
What is Secondary Rumen tympany?
Free Gas Bloat
What are some reasons Free Gas Bloat occurs?
Esophageal obstruction or interference with eructation
How do you usually distinguish free gas bloat from frothy bloat?
Usually only one animal is affected with free gas bloat.
Free gas bloat is usually caused secondary to?
a. Vagal dysfunction
b. Impaction/ choke
c. Abscess
d. Tumor or enlarged LN
e. Choke
f. Milk fever
g. Tetanus
h. Rumen acidosis
i. Rumenitis
Vagal dysfunction can be caused by?
1.omasal or pyloric transport failure
2. salmonella
Treatment of free gas bloat?
1. Pass a stomach tube
2. Only when a tube won’t go down put in a rumen fistula or trocar to relieve tension
Is frothy Bloat (Primary Rumen tympany)more common or gas bloat?
Primary is more common
Frothy Bloat is associated with?
- pasture feeding – legumes such as alfalfa, clover or green chop
Is frothy bloat relieved by passing a stomach tube?
No-(a trochar and cannula will become blocked if used)
Treatment of frothy bloat?
1. Tx is given when froth is seen on stomach tube of surfactants (Therabloat), mineral oil
2. May perform an emergency rumenotomy in the middle of the sublumbar fossa.
Name the many causes of Downer Cow Syndrome.
1. Mastitis, milk fever or metritis
2.Injury to spine or legs
3. LSA infiltration to spinal canal
4.Toxic infectious
5.Compartmental syndrome
6.Crush syndrome
7.Pressure syndrome 8.Calving paralysis
What is the chemistry picture in a cow with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
– due to Decreased Ca, P, Mg & K
Whatshould you observe in cows with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
Injury to spine or legs should you be worried about in downer cows?
sacroiliac or coxofemoral luxation, or pelvic fx
What do you do to diagnose injuries in downer cows?
In Compartmental syndrome and a downer cow what happens?
increased pressure develops in an osteofascial compartment
In downer cows what happens in Crush syndrome?
– release of myoglobin from muscle damage
What is Pressure syndrome ?
-ischemic necrosis if cow is sitting in same position for 6 hours or more
What is damaged in Calving paralysis?
– obturator or sciatic nerve damage
What are the treatment measures for downer cows?
1.Good nursing care – soft bedding, physical therapy, hoist, Aqua Cow (best for muscles)
2. Prognosis decreases dramatically each day she is down
3.Avoid IM injections b/c of muscle damage
What are many causes of abortion in cows?
1. Salmonella dublin
2. Listeriosis
3. Brucelosis abortus
4. Campylobacteriosis
5. Leptospirosis hardjo and pomona – mainly pomona in US
6. Candidia
7. BVD
8. IBR
9. Tritrichomonas
10. PGF2 before day 150
11. Toxic plants
12. Braddica
13. Trauma/stress
14. Fusarium spp
15. Nutrition
16. Twin pregnancy
17. Genetics
What Toxic plants cause abortion?
Ponderosa Pine, Broomweed, Montery cypress, Sumpweed
What is the MOA of Braddica?
Inhibits iodine into thyroxine inducing a hypothyroidism
Samples submited of aborted feti should include?
Entire aborted calf w/ associated fetal membranes
The ticks that infest cattle are:
1.Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis
2. Anaplasma marginale
-Boophilus – Texas Cattle fever tick
-Argas – fowl tick
-Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
-Ixodes scapularis – Black legged tick
-Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
3.Epizootic bovine abortion – Spirochete; Ornithodorus coriaceus
4.Theileria – foreign countries
What transmits Texas Cattle fever?
What transmits RMSF?
Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
What is a host for babesia canis?
Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
What transmits Epizootic bovine abortion ?
Ornithodorus coriaceus
Ticks in general serve as intermediate hosts for?
Babesia, Thelieria and Cytauxzoon
Ticks in general serve as vectors for?
RMSF and lyme
What is the general term for flies?
Simuliidae flies are aka?
blackflies or buffalo flies
Where are Simuliidae flies mostly found?
around swiftly flowing streams
Simuliidae flies intermediate hosts for?
Leukocytozoon, Onchocerca
Simuliidae flies vectors for?
EEE and vesicular stomatitis
What are Phlebotomus?
Old world sand flies
What are Phlebotomus intermediate hosts for?
Vector for bluetongue?
Cullicoides – biting midges
What are Tabanus?
Tabanus are carriers of what?
– anthrax, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, EIA, tularemia, ricketsial
Name the species of Deerflies?
– Chrysops, hematopota, Pangonia
What transmitts pinkeye? (Moraxella bovis)
Face fly – Musca autumalis
What transmits Thelazia eradesii?
Face fly – Musca autumalis
What is Thelazia ?
What is the species of stable flies?
Stomoxys calcitrans; Habronema musca
What is a Glossina?
Tsetse fly
What does a Tsetse fly transmit?
What is a species of horn flies?
Haematobia irritans, Siphoma irritans
What do Heel flies cause?
gadding; cattle gallop madly to water; Warbles
What is the species name of a heel fly?
Hypoderma bovis and lineatium;
Hypodermatosis aka? • Look like bumble bees
• Life cycle
ae. Produce large domed nodules under the skin on either side of the spine and produce a ventral breathing pore
f. In the spirng the larva emerge from the cyst and fall to the gr
Warbles or Grubs
Etiology of Hypodermatosis?
Hypoderma bovis and lineatum from heel flies.
Heel flies that transmit hypoderma look like what?
Look like bumble bees
What is the lifecycle of heel flies?
1.In the spring and lay eggs on lower legs of cow in a row of six or more on a hair
2. Cattle becomes irritated by the flies and will “Gadding” or gallop madly to water
3. Eggs hatch in 4 days and crawl to skin surface and penetrate to C.T. and migrate to esophagus (lineatum) or spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
4. Remain here for autumn and winter
Which species of hypoderma will migrate to esophagus/spinal canal?
-esophagus (lineatum)
-spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
In treatment of hypoderma when would you not want to treat?
•Cattle should NOT be treated between December and March b/c the larva are migrating through the esophagus or spinal cord and can cause bloat or paralysis if killed then.
What are the four biggest criteria in BSE of bulls?
2.Minumum scrotal circumference based on age
3.Minimum progressive motility of sperm of 30%
4.Minimum morphology of 70% normal cells
Do a BSE when ?
60 days prior to breeding season
What on the sheath will you look for in BSE?
hematomas, lacerations, abscesses, adhesions
What on the penis will you look for in BSE?
papillomas, hair rings, persistent frenulum
What do you check in a bull BSE per rectum?
• Rectal exam:
a.Urethralis muscle – covering the urethra, massage to feel pulsations
b.Prostate – firm like a wedding band
c.Vesicular glands – most problems here
d.Ampullae – enlarged end of the vas deferens near the urethra
e.Internal inguinal rings – not larger than 3 finger sizes
f.Bladder, kidneys, LN, peritoneum, omentum
Most problems in bulls occur where?
Vesicular glands
Internal inguinal rings on BSE must be?
not larger than 3 finger sizes
What are the size of testicles supposed to be based on age?
-1 year old-at least 30 cm
-2 years old-at least 34 cm
What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Epididymis for a BSE?
1. head is readily palpable at proximal pole of testicle on anteriolateral surface
(sperm granulomas found here)
2. tail on distal pole
Where are sperm granulomas normally found?
head of epididymis
What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Ductus deferens for a BSE?
– 2-3 mm cord ascending on medial surface of testicle
What criteria must be met as far as sperm evaluation on a BSE?
a.Evaluate libido
b.Minimum progressively motile sperm is 30%
c.Should have only 1-2 spheroids (immature sperm that are large, grainy & non-segmented nucleus)
d.Classify as normal, Primary, or secondary
Primary classification of sperm means?
-head or midpiece or tail rolled; bigger problem b/c can compete with normal sperm
Seconday classification of sperm means?
- tail or loose, normal head

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