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- to spay a cat where should you make your incision?
- begin incision at middle third of caudal abdomen
- why is spaying a cat different from dogs?
- the body of the uterus is more caudal and more difficult to exteriorize
- feline roundworm
- Toxacara cati, leoni
- feline hookworm
- Ancylostoma tubaeforma
- lungworm of cats
- Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
- stomach worm of cats
- Ollulanus tricuspus
- tapeworms of dogs and cats
- Dipylidium caninum
- Spirometra mansinoides
- feline bile and pancreatic duct worm
- Platynosomum concinnum
- how is the cat infected with Platynosomum concinnum?
- infected thru ingestion of infected lizards
- coccidian of cats
- Isospora felis and rivolta
- Etiology of Ear Mites in cats
- Otodectes cynotis
- how is otitis externa different in dogs and cats?
- ear mites are responsible for 50% of otitis externa in the cat (only 5-10% in the dog)
- what prevents further infestation of ear mites in cats?
- Many cats acquire an immune response that prevents further infestation
- What are some Predisposing factors to ear mites?
- 1. Poor conformation – narrow ear canal, hair, floppy, heavy ears
2. Obstruction of canal from acute inflammation or tumor
3. Systemic dzs – Felv, FIV can predispose to otitis externa
- why should you acess the tympanic membrane with an ear mite infection?
- – lack of membrane may indicate middle ear dz
- Best treatments for earmites in cats?
- Revolution, Mitaclear, Acarexx or milbemycin oxime
- Fungal cause of otitis externa
- Malassezia most common
- Treatment for a fungal agent causing otitis externa
- Conofite or Tresaderm
- Treatment for a bacterial agent causing otitis externa
- which of the antibiotics used for otitis externa is oto-toxic?
- complication of otitis externa?
- Otitis media
- extra tx for otitis externa complicated by otitis media
- systemic treatments
- Aerobic agents of abcesses?
- Pasteurella multocida, beta hemolytic strept, Bacteroides, Fusiform bacilli, Actinomyces
- name the anaerobic causes of abcesses
- Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptostreptococci, Enterobacteria
- How long does it take after initial injury for an abcess to occur?
- 2-4 days
- Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by anaerobic bacteria
- Clindamycin, amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol, Metronizadozole
- Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by aerobic bacteria
- Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Cephalexin
- Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by clostridium
- high dose penicillin
- what is the etiology for Feline rhinotracheitis virus
- these two agents account for 85-90%of the feline upper respiratory infection complex
- Rhino and calicivirus
- how many feet can a virus travel to infect a cat with resp. dz?
- 4 ft
- Most cats develop a carrier state after acute natural infection with what agents?
- feline rhino, calicivirus and chlamidia
- oropharyngeal vesicles or ulcers caused by resp viruses cause this Clinical sign?
- use these antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections assoc with upper respiratory viruses
- Ampicillin, Amoxi, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol
- what do you vax against to prevent upper resp inf?
- Rhino and Calici virus only; Chlamidia is not recommended b/c of low incidence in single cat households
- Flea Allergy dermatitis (FAD) is caused by?
- Allergic reaction to bites inflicted by Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, or Pulex irritans
- what causes FAD?
- Caused by hypersensitivity to allergens and haptens in flea saliva
- immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type I
- immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type IV
- cell mediated immunity
- what is the difference between the hypersensitivity rxn to fleas in the cat versus the dog?
- Only immediate hypersensitivity has been reported in the cat (can have immediate and delayed in the dog)
- where are the lesions located with FAD?
- lesions over posterior one third of body
- type of dermatitis on head and neck of cats assoc with FAD
- Miliary dermatitis
- Insect Development Inhibitor used to treat fleas
- what can you give for pruritis assoc with FAD?
- give Pred in decreasing doses then stop or continue at lowest effective dose
- is ONLY effective tx for FAD
- Strict flea eradication
- viruses causing conjuncivitis in cats?
- Rhino, Calicivirus
- bacteria causing conjuncivitis in cats?
- Gram positive cocci, coliforms, mycoplasma
- MC foriegn body causing conjunctivitis in cats?
- plant material
- parasites causing conjuncivitis in cats?
- Thelazia, Cuterebra, Dirofilaria
- eyelid diseases causing conjunctivitis?
- trichiasis, distichiasis, ectopic cilia, eyelid masses, tumors, chalazia
- insults to the conjunctiva can cause these things?
- induce vasodilation and neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltrates
- long term insult to the conjunctiva induces?
- squamous metaplasia of epithelium, loss of conjunctival goblet cells, lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation
- used to dx conjunctivits
- Schirmers tear and fluroescein stain; obtain cultures before stain use
- Differentials for conjunctivitis
- sclertis, uveitis, glaucoma, keratitis
- Antihistamines used with conjunctivitis
- Antzoline or Naphazoline
- Antzoline is this type of med?
- H1 antagonist
- Naphazoline is this type of med?
- NSAIDS used for conjunctivitis?
- Flurbiprofen, Suprofen, Diclofenac, Detorolac
- – improves health of cornea and conjunctiva for KCS
- Cyclosporin (Optimmune)
- contraindicated in primary infectious conjunctivits or when corneal ulcer is present
- should be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
- Topical corticosteroids or NSAIDs
- why should NSAIDS and steriods be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
- b/c concerns about recrudescent feline herpesvirus
- Bacteria Frequently isolated with cystitis
- E coli, Staph intermedius, Strep, Proteus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas
- fungi Frequently isolated with cystitis
- Torulopsis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Aspergillus
- MC way cystitis is caused
- Ascending through the urethra is most common (but can also be descending or lymphatic in origin)
- Predisposing factors for cystits include...
- steroid tx, catheterization, sx alteration, uroliths, or outflow obstruction
- sequele of cystitis
- pyelonephritis, prostatitis, septicemia, struvites, granulomatous urethrocystitis, polyps, urinary incontinence or emphysematous cystitis
- number of bacteria to dx cystitis
- must be over 10^5 per mL to be detected in urine sediment
- perform this prior to Ab therapy with cystitis
- Urine culture and sensitivity
- used to treat Gram + causes of cystitis
- used to treat Gram - causes of cystitis
- Fluroquinolones or sulfonamides
- First time relapsing UTI: treat how?
- 4-6 weeks of Ab
- treat Subsequent relapsing UTI for how long
- 6-8 weeks
- used to treat fungal causes of cystitis
- why do you use Flucytosine to treat fungal causes of cystits?
- achieves high concentrations in urine
- Culture urine after initiation of antibiotics in this amnt of time with cystitis?
- Culture urine 3-5 days after initiation of Ab to ensure proper Ab selection
- obtain urine culture by this method?
- how to know if you have effectively treated cystitis?
- Culture again 3-5 days after the drug is discontinued
- How do you monitor for recurrent cystitis infections?
- Culture every 3-6 months to monitor recurrent infections
- Monitor theses pts that may have altered natural host defenses for development of UTI
- persistent catheterization, steroid use, chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, perineal urethrostomies
- Idiopathic hematuria and dysuria in cats w/ith or without obstruction
- Causes of Atypical UTI
- fungal, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, parasitic
- What are the recent trends in feline urotlithiasis?
- 1. Decreased struvide stones
2. Reduced frequency of recurrent urethral obstruction needing urethrostomies
3. Persistent inflammatory idiopathic dz regardless of dietary management
4. Increase in Ca oxalate stones
- What is the possible viral cause of FLUTD
- 1. Feline syncytia-forming virus (FeSFV) – not been proven
2. Feline Herpes virus – experimental only
3. Feline calicivirus – perhaps due to calicivirus-like particles in urethral plugs
- How common is bacteria as the cause of stones
- RARE as the primary cause especially in younger cats
In older cats, bacterial UTI is more likely, especially in renal failure cats – up to 25%
- What human dz is FLUTD similar
- Intersititial cystitis
- how is FLUTD in cats similar to Intersititial cystitis in humans?
- 1. Unknown etiology
2. Sterile urine
3. Hemorrhagic lesions visible on cystoscopy
4. Some microscopic changes in bladder mucosa
5. Increase mast cells in bladder
6. Decreased urinary GAGs
- how is FLUTD in cats different from Intersititial cystitis in humans?
- 1. Persisitent, chronic infection in humans
2. Not usually associated w/ hematureia in women
- what does the UA look like on FLUTD cats?
- the UA has blood and is concentrated
- signalment for FLUTD
- - Young, adult cats 2- 6 years
- Males and females equally
- Neutered cats of both sexes seem to be at increased risk
- Males are more likely to become obstructed with this in FLUTD
- muco-crystalline plugs
- time of year that FLUTD is increased risk with outdoor cats
- what environmental reasons increase the risk for FLUTD?
- --fat cats that are seditary
--dirty litterboxes cause the cat doesn't wanna pee or poop in dirty boxes so they hold it
--Water intake and urine volume
- what diet predisposes cats to FLUTD
- dry cat food because it has high magnesium
- why is there an increased risk of FLUTD in cats with anxiety?
- increase in mast cell and histamine release
- what anatomic feature in the cat predisposes it to FLUTD?
- Vescicourachal remnant or diverticuli may cause incomplete emptying of the bladder
- Tx of FLUTD
- Most recover is 5-7 days regardless of treatment
- SQ fluids to males to avoid blockage
- Contraindicated in cats w/ bacterial UIT or indwelling catheters
- with FLUTD only use steroids if....
- a. Obstruced cats w/ traumatic catheterization
b. Refractory non-bacterial LUTD w/ unhappy client
- Used this drug with FLUTD:
- Amitryptyline (Elavil)-Anti-anxiety drug that also is a a mild analgesic, sedative, antihistaminic & anticholinergic
- side effects of amitryptyline
- increased liver enzymes, wt gain, poor hair coat and urine retention
- med used with FLUTD to decrease urethral spasms and therefore decrease pain
- can give this med for pain assoc with FLUTD
- can give this med for stress assoc with FLUTD
- avoid these foods to prevent FLUTD
- -Avoid food high in ash & mineral
- Avoid Fish
- give this kind of food to prevent FLUTD
- canned food
- what is Pentosan polysulfate and why is it used with FLUTD?
- Pentosan polysulfate is a synthetic polysaccharide that mimics or replaces GAG layer coating the bladder
- what specifically does Pentosan polysulfate do?
- a. helps prevent adherence of bacteria, crystals or proteins to bladder epithelia
b. limits the mucosal permeability to noxious substances in urine
- Antispasmodic agents provide this with FLUTD?
- - Symptomatic relief of pollakiruia, dysuria & stranguria
- Anticholinergic that decrease the frequency of urination
- Oxybutynin, not propantheline
- Alpha antagonists that may minimize resistance in pre-prostatic and prostatic urethra
- Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin
- primary adverse effect with Alpha antagonists
- skeletal muscle relaxants used with FLUTD
- Dantolene or diazepam
- what does flushing the bladder with DMSO or cool saline do?
- stimulate degranulation of mast cells and may ‘exhaust and flush’ sensory neuropeptides & inflammatory mediators
- Avoid this when treating FLUTD
- - Phenopyridine
- Methylene blue
- Urinary acidifiers
- spraying of urine occurs on this surface....
- a vertical surface: if pee is on a horizontal surface the cat isn't spraying it is just pissing where it isn't supposed to
- anti-anxiety meds that can decrease the incidence of spraying
- Amitriptyline, Diazempam, Buspirone, Clomipramine, Megestrol acetate
- MC behavior problem in cats
- Second MC behavior problem in cats
- technical name of declawing a cat
- procedure performed to prevent retraction of P3
- Tendonectomy of Deep digital flexor
- Claw remains in retracted position b/c
- dorsal elastic ligament
- Dental Neck Lesions
- feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL), cervical line lesions, feline caries
- pathophys for FORL
- abnormal odontoclast activity
- what do FORL lesions look like?
- appear as cavities in the teeth
- Where do FORL lesions occur?
- at or near the cemento-enamel junction arising from the gingival margin (gumline)
- what causes a resorptive lacunae with FORL?
- · Cavities are lined w/ odontoclasts which are constantly resorpting dental material by degrading dentine by decalcification
- what is the normal function of odontoclasts?
- The normal function of odontoclasts is to remove the roots of deciduous teeth as the permanent teeth erupt and hence the deciduous crown is lost
- how does the lesion occur with FORL?
- – these odontoclasts become reactivated by some stimulus - so it eats a hole in the tooth
- what makes FORL lesions painful?
- The process exposes the dentinal tubules which is extremely painful and granulation tissue proliferates from the gum over the lesion
- what do FORL lesions invade
- invades the enamel or cementum and even the pulp – the root can separate from the crown and the crown will be lost (probe thorugh the area where a root should be)
- only effective treatment for FORL lesions?
- what part of GI tract does Toxicara cati infest?
- Small intestine of cats
- 3 modes of transmission of Toxicara cati
- 1. Direct – tracheal migration
2. Ingestion of parantenic host – somatic migration in parantenic host
3. Lactogenic (transmammary) – no migration
- Ascarid of both cats and dogs
- Toxacaris leonina
- how is Toxacaris leonine different from T. cati?
- · NO MIGRATION OCCURS
- Three Depths of Corneal Ulcers
- 1. Superficial erosion (corneal epithelium only)
2. Stromal ulcer – both epithelium and some stroma
3. Descemetocele – stroma down to Descemet’s membrane
- virus that can case corneal ulcers
- Feline Herpesvirus
- eyelid diseases that can cause corneal ulcers
- distichiasis, ectopic cilia, entropion
- Feline herpes is assoc with what type of resp dz?
- Upper respiratory disease
- where does herpes stay latent at?
- trigeminal ganglia and perhaps corneal cells
- when latent herpes virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, what usually happens that is different from initial infection?
- · When virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, signs of upper resp infection are usually absent
- virus causing progressive polyarthritis
- Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)
- most cats with Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV) also have...
- FelV or FIV;
- how does Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)cause arthritis?
- from chronic antigenic stimulation and immune complex deposition
- other causes of infectious polyarthritis?
- calcivirus, mycoplasmosis
- what causes Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
- – it is immune mediated:
deposition of immune complexes in the joint
- how do you diagnose Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
- serology test for Rheumatoid factor (RF) is positive and NEGATIVE for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
- MC cause of nonerosive polyarthritis?
- systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)
- SLE has been assoc with...
- diskospondylitis, enteropathy, bacterial endocardiits, and drugs
- Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn with SLE?
- Type III hypersensitivity reaction formation and deposition of immune complexes and autoantibody formation (dx via LE cells
- Dx of SLE?
- positive for ANA and negative for RF
- what is a Trichobezoar
- a hairball
- what type of problem is feline acne?
- Follicular problem –
- where does feline acne MC occur?
- cause of feline acne?
- Plastic bowls: · Recommend owner to change feed bowls to stainless steel
- Tx of Feline Acne
- Abs (Enrofloxacin, Cephalexin, Tetracycline), Retin A, topical shampoos, Listerine, malacetic wet wipes
- CS include vomiting, anorexia, large or small animal D+, enterocolitis
- Inflammatory Bowel Dz
- induces an infectious enteritis and mesenteric lymphadeopathy
- Feline panleukopenia (feline distemper, feline parvovirus)
- – eosinophilic infiltrates in multiple organs
- Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats
- Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats from neoplasia?
- mature eosinophils differentiates from neoplasia
- Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within minutes to hours after ingestion
- Type I hypersensitivity – within minutes to hours after ingestion
- Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within hours to days of ingestion
- Type IV hypersensitivty delayed w/in hours to days of ingestion
- offending allergen in 50% of cats w/ food allergy
- type of collitis with food allergies in cats?
- lymphocytic plasmacytic colitis
- food allergy dermatitis won't respond to this tx?
- Lack of response to steroids or other anti-inflammatories
- tx for severe pruitis assoc with food allergy dermatitis?
- virus induced Cardiomyopathy in cats?
- Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
- MC cardiomyopathy in cats?
- deficiency assoc with DCM in cats?
- CS assoc with HCM in cats
- Middle aged, male cats
Pleural effusion (right sided heart failure)
Gallop thyrthm or other arrhythmias
MM are pale and muddy
Easily stressed and fragile
Thrombosis – blood can clot, turbulent flow causing paralysis of rear legs
- what dz should you rule out in cats with HCM
- heart shape with HCM?
- Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
- seen on ECHO with HCM?
- a. Very thick papillary muscles
b. Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
c. Endocardial fibrosis
d. Left outflow obstruction
e. SAMMS – HOCM – seen w/ thick, venticular contraction
- is HCM a diastolic or systolic dysfunction?
- diastolic dysfunction
- Need to slow down w/ b blockers or Ca channel blockers
- drug that is contraindicated with HCM
- an ionotrope like digoxin
- used to slow the heart down with HCM
- a. Atenolol - b
b. Diltiazem - Ca
c. Enalapril – ACE inhibitor
d. Aspirin – prevents thromoembolism
- don't use these two cardio drugs at the same time?
- b blockers or Ca blockers
- MC cause of Interstitial Nephritis in all animals?
- 3 infectious agents causing interstitial nephritis in any species
- 1. Lepto
2. E. coli
- E. coli causes what kidney dz in calves
- white spotted kidney dz in calves
- Type of Lepto in cattle and pigs?
- L. pomona in cattle and pigs
- Type of Lepto in dogs?
- L. canicola & icterohemorrhagica in dogs
- Explain the pathophys of how Lepto causes interstitial nephritis.
- Lepto causes bacteremia, bacteria migrate out of vessels into lumen of tubules and replicate; reinfect epithelial cells and cause lymphocytic plasmacytic inflammation to antigens of lepto. Antiges die in tubular epithelial cells
- Cats with this disease should be evaluated for hyperthyroidism...
- MC (95%) cause of hyperthyroid in a cat....
- Hyperplastic Thyroid
(Benign Thyroid Adenoma)
- Less common (5%) cause of hyperthyroidism...
- Malignant Thyroid Adenocarcinomas
- Cardio CS assoc with Hyperthyroidism in cats?
- Tachycardia & heart murmur (gallop rhythm)
- Clin path with hyperthyroidism
- Increased Liver Enzymes
- What 3 things will you see on a ECG in cats with hyperthyroidism?
- 1. Sinus tachycardia (> 240 bpm)
2. Increased R wave (ventricular concentric hypertrophy)
3. Atrial premature complexes
- Best tests to diagnose Hyperthyroidism?
T3 Suppression Test
- Why not just measure T3 to dx hyperthyroidism?
- T3 is usually elevated anyway
- Why may T4 levels not give you the results you want in suspected hyperthyroidism?
- they fluctuate a lot
- What are three cons of a thyroidectomy to tx hyperthyroidism?
- 1.Patients are an increased anesthetic risk
2. Iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism (accidently take out parathyroid)
3. Hyperthyroidism can reoccur – take out capsule, too and leave 1 of the parathyroids
- What are some antithyroid meds that can be used to treat hyperthyroidism?
- 1. Tapazol: Methimazole
2. Propylthioouracil (PTU)
- how do antithyroid drugs work to tx hyperthyroidism?
- Not cytotoxic but block thyroid hormone synthesis
- Best, Easiest and safest way to treat hyperthyroidism, but is expensive
- Radioactive Iodine
- if radioactive iodine doesn't work to reduce T4 levels in hyperthyroidism, then what does the cat probably have?
- thyroid carcinoma
- MC uroliths in cats and dogs?
- Struvite (Mg ammonium)
- How can UTI's cause struvite uroliths?
- UTIs w/ urease producing bacteria (Staph, Proeus, Ureaplasma) can cause struvites by increasing the amount of ammonium ions and alkalinizing the urine
- if clin path shows Hypercalcemia or acidosis then you probably have this type of urolith?
- Ca oxalate or Ca phosphate calculi
- if alkaline urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
- if in neutral to acid urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
- Ammonium urate and Silica
- this urolith occurs in acid urine
- Cystine calculi
- this urolith can occur at any pH
- Ca oxalate
- often assoc with UTI's
- Most common emergency seen in male cats
- Urinary Obstruction
- blood gases with urinary obstruction shows a.....
- metabolic acidosis
- electrolytes with urinary obstruction show...
- why is hyperkalemia harmful?
- Hyperkalemia causing life-threatening arrhythmias due to automaticity of SA node
- what do calcium levels do in an obstructed cat?
- hypocalcemia w/o clinical signs b/c phosphorus is so high, so Ca shifts down
- Clin Path with urinary obstruction
- Increased PCV & TP
- type of azotemia with urinary obstruction
- post renal azotemia
- What is the first step in manageing a sick obstructed cat?
- take care of the heart and monitor the hyperkalemia
- fluids used with obstructed cat because have little potassium?
- Lactated Ringers or Normasol R
- fluids to use if severe hyperkalemia from obstruction
- 0.45% NaCl with 2.5% Dextrose with 1 mEq/kg of Sodium Bicarb (NaHCO3)
- three things used to treat hyperkalemia
- 1. Insulin and Dextrose
2. Calcium Gluconate
3. Sodium Bicarb
- why is dextrose used in hyperkalemia?
- shifts K+ into the cell
(glucose pulls potassium out of the blood and into the cell with it)
- used to protect the heart in hyperkalemia
- Calcium Gluconate
- What does the sodium bicarb do?
- corrects the acidemia: this will drive the potassium back into the cells
- Step 2 in treating an obstructed cat?
- Anesitize the cat
- good induction for obstructed cat?
- Step 3 in treating an obstructed cat?
- Remove the obstruction
- in trying to relieve the obstruction, what do you do?
- first try to pass a catheter-
try to flush stones back into bladder-
- what do you do if the blockage won't pass?
- do a cystocentesis to empty the bladder: only do one stick: use a stop cock for continual removal
- what can be used to reduce urethral spasms
- Dex plus lidocaine
- Step 4 in managing an obstructed cat?
- flush bladder and attach closed drainage system
- how long should you leave the urinary catheter in the cat?
- Leave in place until urine is clear and cat is no longer azotemic
- what occurs after diuresis in cats treated for obstruction?
- Hypokalemia – develops due to solute diuresis
- what should you add to fluids once potassium levels are normal?
- Add 20 mEq KCl to each liter
- Monitor these clin path levels after tx an obstructed cat
- Monitor Na, K, Ca, P, BUN, CREA, PCV & TP
- why must you taper the cat off fluids?
- Must taper off fluids to prevent medullary washout
- what 4 things do you see with hypokalemia?
- 1. Ileus
2. Muscle weakness – plantograde stance
3. Cervico flexion of the neck
4. Respiratory paralysis b/c diaphragm doesn’t work
- if a cat reblocks three times what should you do?
- perineal urethrostomy
- hypophosphotemia can cause these two things...
- HEMOLYSIS and muscle weakness
- stones are in the bladder and kidneys (not urethra)
- calcium oxalate
- Associated w/ chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity
- Feline Asthma
- what type of airway obstruction does feline asthma cause?
- A lower airway obstruction
- The difference between allergic bronchitis (found in dogs) and bronchial asthma in cats is...
- a. Allergic bronchitis – large number of eosinophils in tracheobronchial secretion (seen in dogs); is a Type I hypersensitivity
b. Asthma is acute, spontaneous bronchoconstriction
- pathophys of feline asthma...
- The bronchial smooth muscle hypercontracts in response to multiple stimuli inducing hypersecretion of mucus and submucosa edema causing generalized small airway obstruction
- Immune system reponse with Feline Asthma...
- IgE antigen links w/ Ab fixed to mast cells
- mediators causing direct bronchoconstriction in feline asthma...
- histamine, serotonin, PAF, trhomboxane A2, leukotriences and oxygen radicals
- breed predisposition for Feline Asthma?
- Indicates a grave prognosis with feline asthma
- Wheezes and/or crackles on auscultation
- CS with feline asthma
- sudden onset of expiratory effort and wheezing
- See on rads with feline asthma
- at the END of expiration show peribronchial cuffing
- initial treatment for feline asthma
- Bronchodilators – Terbutaline
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