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Glossary of culinary test 1

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Allumette
is a matchstick-sized cut, (1/8 in. x 1/8 in. x 2 to 2½ in.) long, used for potatoes. Also used to refer to certain types of puff pastry.
Appareil
a general term for a prepared mixture, used on its own or as an ingredient in another preparation, such as stock
Aromatics
Any of various plants, herbs and spices (such as bay leaf, ginger, garlic, peppers, onions, shallots. Carrots, leeks or parsley) that impart a lively fragrance and flavor to food and drink.
Bâtonnet
Items cut into pieces somewhat larger than allumette or julienne; 1/4 inch x 1/4 inch x 2 to 2 1/2 inches is the standard. Translated to English as `stick` or `small stick.`
Bouillon
Bouillon, in French cuisine, is simply a broth. This name comes from the verb bouillir, meaning to boil. It is usually made by the simmering of Mirepoix and aromatic herbs (usually a bouquet garni) with either beef, veal, or poultry bones in boiling water.
Bouquet Garni
The bouquet garni (French for "garnished bouquet") is a bundle of herbs tied together with string, tied in cheesecloth, or wrapped in a leek green. Mainly used in preparing soup, stock, and various stews to add flavor. The bouquet is boiled with the other ingredients, but is removed prior to consumption. A classic Bouquet Garni contains parsley stems, thyme, peppercorns, and bay leaf.
Broth
Broth is a liquid in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered and strained out. Broth is used as a basis for other edible liquids such as soup, gravy, or sauce. It can be eaten alone or with garnish.
Brunoise
Taillage (food item cut to specific size and shape):

1-2mm cube
(produced by cutting Julienne into cubes)


Cheesecloth
a loosewoven cotton cloth used in cheese making, such as to press cheese curds for poutine. Cheesecloth is also used in straining stocks and custards, bundling herbs, making tofu, and thickening yogurt. It can be used to strain liquid
Chiffonade
a knife technique in which herbs or leafy green vegetables (such as spinach and basil) are cut into long, thin strips. Leaves are stacked, rolled together into a cigarette shape, then thinly sliced.
Chinois
A chinoise (sometimes chinois) is an extremely fine meshed conical sieve used for straining soups and sauces to produce a very smooth texture.
Concassé
Concasse, from the French "concasser", to crush or grind, is a term meaning to rough chop any ingredient, usually vegetables. This term is most specifically applied to tomatoes, with tomato concasse being a tomato that has been peeled, seeded (seeds and membranes removed), and chopped to specified dimensions.
Dicing
is a method of food preparation in which the food item is cut into small blocks or dice.
Fumet
The French name for a fish stock.
Ice water bath
Used to immediately arrests the cooking process. Item is directly immersed in a bowl of ice and cold water, or a second container holding the cooked item is placed in the ice water bath. Method using ice water bath to stop cooking is called shocking.
Julienne
Taillage (food item cut to specific size and shape):
1-2mm x 1-2mm x 6-7cm long
Ladle
a type of spoon used to serve soup or other liquids.
Lozenge
cutting something in the shape of a flat diamond
Matignon
at its most basic is a vegetable mixture that has been cooked down to a pulp.
Mince
a knife technique in which food ingredients are finely divided. The effect is to create a closely bonded mixture of ingredients and a soft or pasty texture.
Mirepoix
Mirepoix is the French name for a combination of onions, carrots and celery (either common Pascal celery or celeriac). It is made of either 1/2 onions and 1/2 carrots, or 1/2 onion, 1/4 carrots, and 1/4 celery. Mirepoix, either raw, roasted or sautéed with butter, is the flavor base for a wide number of dishes, such as stocks, soups, stews and sauces.
Mis en place
A french term literally meaning "put in place", mis en place refers to preparing and measuring out all ingredients for a recipe in advance. Once a chef begins cooking a specific dish, everything should be in place.
Oblique
(roll cut) Oblique (roll-cut): Cut long vegetable such as parsnips, carrots or cylinder beets into wedges by turning (rolling) the vegetable with each cut. Zigzag diagonal cut while rolling
Oignon Brulée
charred onion halves; used to flavor and color stocks (e.g. Marmite) and sauces
Oignon Pique/ Oignon Clouté
A bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion; used to flavor sauces and soups.
Paysanne
Cutting of vegetables into thin slices of 1cm diameter or side according to shape.commonly used when breaking down an onion 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/4in
Remouillage / Remouiller
A French word that means "re-wetting"/ "re-wet". Remouillage is a stock that is made from bones that have already been used once to make a stock. A remouillage may be used in the place of water when starting a new stock.
Rondelle
round cuts made with tubular vegetables. Straight or angled cut.
Sachet d’épices
This translates from french as \"Bag of spices.\" Most commonly consists of aromatic ingredients that are encased in cheesecloth. It is used to flavor stocks and other liquids. A classical sachet contains parsley stems, cracked peppercorns, dried thyme, and a bay leaf.
Skimmer
large wire mesh spoon. Used for taking fats and other undesirables off liquids
Slice
kinfe point at 45 degree angle. Press down and forward for a clean slice.
Spider
Similar in purpose to a sieve, this kitchen utensil is most often used to retrieve foods that are being cooked in pots or pans of hot water.
Stock
Stock is a flavoured liquid. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups and sauces. Stock is prepared by simmering various ingredients in water
Tourner
football shapes - Tourner exactly describes the act of turning vegetables
Beurre Manie
Thickening agent. Flour worked into butter at room temperature.
Slurry
Thickening agent. Cold liquid mixed into starch, then added to item to be thickened.
Liaisons
Thickening/binding agents. Examples include: Flour/Starch (roux, beurre manie, slurry, singer), Double Cream, Egg Yolk, Vegetable Purée. Butter and mustard are often used as liaisons but are not true liaisons. Liaisons are added to stock to create a sauce.
Velouté
Roux + Stock
Pommade
Soft Butter
Glaces
Glazes. Stock reduced until syrupy and intensely flavored.
Demi Glace
Stock reduced to half volume.
Sauces Mères
Mother sauces from which many other sauces are derived. 1. Bechamel 2. Espagnole 3. Tomato 4. Hollondaise 5. Velouté (and some consider Fond de Veau Lié a 6th sauce mère).
Sauce Suprême
Veloute Blanc + Cream (White Roux + White Stock + Cream)
Un Blanc
Flour + Water + Lemon Juice + Oil + Salt. When used to cook an item (e.g. Artichokes), the item is said to be cooked à Blanc
Raidir
Sauté without adding color (without browning).
Poste de Travail
Workstation
Éffiler
To pull off stringy filaments.
Écosser
To shell or hull.
Éplucher
To peel
Épluchage
Cleaning + peeling, unwrapping, or dissecting.
à L'Anglaise
Method for preparing vegetables prior to service.
1. Fill russe or other pot with water; salt until it tastes like sea water; boil.
2. Set aside ice bath and chinois.
3. Add vegetables to boiling water; cook until tender.
4. remove vegetables from boiling water and put in chinoise in ice bath to stop cooking.
5. Drain and dry.
6. Reheat when required for an order in butter. Season.





à L'Etuvée
Method for preparing vegetables à la minute.
1. Place vegetables in a sautoir large enough to hold them in one layer.
2. Add enough water to come about half way up the vegetables; add a pinch of salt and a little sugar and water
3. Cover with a parchment paper cover with a cheminer)
4. Bring to a boil, turn down heat; simmer until just tender. Water should evaporate just as the vegetables finish cooking. (simmering water will emulsify the butter and melt the salt and sugar to make a glaze).



Clarification
Process by which a stock is made more flavorful and perfectly clear.
Requires:
1. Ground lean protein
2. Egg whites (3/liter or 90 grams/liter)
3. Aromatic vegetables

Albumen in egg whites + other ingredients creates a raft which floats to the top of heated stock (carrying impurities).





Mignonnette
Coarsely crushed whole peppercorns.
Peler à Vif
To remove the rind (and pith) from fruits. The top and bottom are cut off, then a knife is used to cut from top to bottom (following the curved line of the fruit) to remove the rind. Most commonly used to describe citrus, but also applies to other fruits such as cantaloupe and pineapple.
Suprême (citrus)
To peler à vif a fruit that has segments (citrus), and then cut out each individual segment. The resulting segments (without membrane) are also called suprêmes.
3 Fundemental Methods of Preservation
1. Drying
2. Pickling
3. Salting

Additional Methods of Preservation
1. Alcohol
2. Hot Smoking
3. Cold Smoking
4. Dry Curing
5. Wet Curing
6. Freezing
7. Refrigeration
8. Sterilization
9. Pasturization
10. Sugar








Preservation
To keep edible what would otherwise spoil
Cold Smoking
Method of preservation

1. Cure product
2. Apply smoke at temperatures below 100 degrees (but in many cases much lower)

Avoids coagulating proteins, so meat is still raw.
Heat source must remain separate (so as not to cook food)
Never use wood chips that contain resin






Hot Smoking
Method of preservation

1. Generally product is cured in advance
2. Smoke with heat

Food is cooked during process, texture is changed

Never use wood chips that contain resin






Liquid Cure
Method of preservation:

Submerging item in brine:
Water
Salt
Sugar
Spice

several hours to several days depending on size







Dry Cure / Salt
Method of preservation

Item is rubbed with salt and left to sit for a specific time period

Generally a preliminary step to smoking

Usually small pieces are cured (with the exception of prosciutto)





Pickling
Method of preservation

Soaking food with acid or creating an environment that will encourage fermentation

Preserving in Sugar
Foods (usually fruit) are cooked in sugar. The density retards bacterial growth, and slows enzymatic activity (due to lower water ratio)

Minimum of 60% Sugar
Generally pasteurized to prevent fermentation.


White Mirepoix
Onions, Leeks, Celery, Mushrooms or Mushroom Scraps (optional). Used in fish stocks because a white final product is desired.
Dégorger
To soak bones to remove blood and impurities (also applies to sweetbreads).
Mouiller
Moisten; Add water to bones and aromatics to make stock.
Maillard Reaction
Sugar + Amino Acids = Browning; When denatured proteins on the surface of cooking meat recombine with sugar present.

Occurs between 300 and 500 degrees.

Dégraisser
Remove grease from top of stock. Ladle used is dipped in a contained of hot water to rinse off grease after each pass.
Vanner
Stir in a "Z" motion.
Ecumer
To remove coagulated blood and impurities.
Reduire
Reduce
Tamponner
1. To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent a skin from forming
2. To lay a piece of plastic wrap over the surface of a sauce to prevent a sauce from forming.
Sabayon
Thick airy emulsion formed by whisking yolks & flavor elements over a hot water bath.

Base for many classic warm emulsified sauces (e.g. Hollandaise, Béarnaise).

•Mixture must reach 120 degrees F



Clarified Butter
Butter from which the solids and impurities have been skimmed off after heating. Used in warm emulsion sauces.
Emulsion
The stable distribution of microscopic droplets of one liquid in another liquid with which it normally does not mix.
Emulsifying Agents
Act to enable non-soluble liquids to mix together evenly.

•Egg yolks are the most common agents

Manchonner
To chop off tip of a wing and end of muscle. AKA French
Purées
Soups made of liquid and fresh or dried vegetables cooked together, then thickened by adding the vegetables back after removing and blending.

•Flour is not used to thicken
• Butter and egg are often added


Consommé Double
A consommé (clarified broth) enriched and concentrated
Potages Liés
Bound or thickened soups:

•Purées
•Cremes
•Bound Consommés
•Bisques
•Soupes
•Taillés






Potages Clairs
Clear soups:

•Consommé

Taillage
Cutting foods (vegetables) to uniform size and shape.
en pluie
adding an ingredient by sprinkling (e.g. flour)
Roux classifications
•Roux Blanc (White)
•Roux Blond
•Roux Brun (Brown)

Sauce Espagnole/ Brown Sauce
A Sauce Mère (mother sauce)

Contains:
• Fond de Veau/ Braisière (Veal Stock/ Brown Beef and Veal Stock)
• A.P. Flour
• Butter
• Lardons
• Mirepoix (Carrots & Onions)
• Tomatoes, chopped
• Tomato Paste
• Garlic Clove, crushed
• Tarragon
• Mushroom Trimmings











Warm Emulsified Sauce
1. Clarify butter
2. Whisk & cook sabayon over hot water bath.
3. Remove from heat, slowly add warm butter while whisking with balloon whisk. (add warm water if it is too thick).
4. Season
5. Hold at 120˚

•1 egg yolk can hold aprox. 100-150ml of butter in a warm emulsified sauce•
Examples:
•Hollandaise
•Béarnaise








Cooking Times For Fonds/Stocks
• Fumet de Poisson = 20-30 min.
• Bouillon de Légumes = 30 min.
• Fond de Volaille Blanc/Brun = 2 Hrs
• Fond de Veau Blanc = 4-6 hours
• Marmite = 6-8 Hrs
• Fond de Veau Brun = 8-12 Hrs
• Brasière = 8-12 Hrs





Brigade
Executive Chef Chef de Cuisine/Working Chef Sous-Chef Chef de Partie (ind. station chef) • Poissonnier (Fish) • Saucier (sauces & stocks) • Rôtisseur (roasting, broilling, grilling braising) • Grillardin (broil, grill, deep-fry) • Garde Manger (Cold Station) • Entremetier (Veg., Egg, & Side dishes + Soups) • Patissier (pastry) Commis (Assistant)
Causes of Spoilage
Yeast -Causes fermentation as it consumes food. Mold -As food (often fruit) ripens, starch is converted to sugar. Mold feeds on sugar. Food deteriorates Bacteria
Dehydrating
Method of preservation

•Draws out moisture
•Eliminates medium for bacteria growth

Used for: Fruit, Herbs, Beans, Other Vegetables




Beurre Fondu
Butter emulsified with a little water. Mixture emulsifies as water simmers or boils.
Jardinière
Taillage (food item cut to specific size and shape):
.5cm x .5cm x 4-5 cm long
Macédoine
Taillage (food item cut to specific size and shape):
.5cm cube (or pea size)
Made by cutting Jardinière into cubes.

Monder
Peel and seed
Rafraîchir
Refresh in ice water
Cold Emulsified Sauce
Combine Room temperature:
• Egg yolks
• Mustard
• Vinegar (or Lemon Juice)
• Salt & Pepper

Slowly whisk in room temperature oil until thick and emulsified.

Mayonnaise is the classic cold emulsified sauce, and has many derivatives
•One egg yolk can emulsify 150-200 ml of liquid in a cold emulsion•








Mayonnaise
Classic cold emulsified sauce.
Room temp. egg yolks + mustard + vinegar (or lemon juice) + salt + pepper are whisked together.
room temperature oil is added in a slow stream while whisking until thick.

Examples of Derivatives:
Aioli= mayo + garlic
Rémoulde= mayo + mustard, capers, cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley, anchovy essence
Chantilly= 2/3 mayo + 1/3 Whipped cream
Verte= mayo + green herbs
Andoulouse= mayo + tomato coulis + diced pepper








Monder (tomatoes)
1. Remove stem.
2. Cut small x in skin.
3. Blanch & shock
4. Peel off skin


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