Glossary of common1
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aggregate great wealth in short periods of time
- n.cheerful promptness;eagerness
They packed up the ski and climbed into the van with alacrity
- v.combine;unite in one body
the union will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body
- adj.unclear or doubtful in meaning
His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take
- n.the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes.
Torn between loving her parents one minute and hating them the next, she was confused by the ambivalence of her feelings.
I try to ameliore the working environment
- n.something or someone misplaced in time
Shakespeare's reference to clocks in Julius Caesar is an anachronism; no clocks existed in Caesar's time
She called our attention to the things that had been done in an analogous situation and recommended that we do the same
- n.absence of governing body;state of disorder
The assassination of the leaders led to a period of anarchy
she was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures that she despised
Tom's extreme antipathy for disputes keeps him from getting into arguments with his temperamental wife; Among his other anitipathy are honking cars, boom boxes, and heavy metal rock.
- n.lack of caring;indifference
A firm believer in democratic government, she could not understand the apathy of people who never bothered to vote
- v.pacify or soothe;relieve
I tried to appease the crying baby; They appeased his hunger by giving him a cookie.
I was apprised of the dangerous weather conditions.
She looks for her boss approbation to proceed
- v.acquire;take possission of for one's own use
The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for indian's use
Her arduous efforts had sapped her energy
- adj.without guile;open and honest
an artless comment
- adj.practicing self-denial;austere
ascetic life led by members of some monastic orders.
it took me weeks of assiduous labor before my supervisor is satisfied with my work
- v.ease or lessen(pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe(anger);
assuage my heartache;assuaged my appetite.
- v.make thin;weaken
By withdrawing their forces, the generals hoped to attenuate the enemy lines
audacious , death-defying leap to freedom;an audacious plan to strike back at the enemy
- adj.forbiddingly stern;severely simple and unornamented
headmaster's austere demeanor; a simple and austere room.
an autonomous university
- v.state confidently
i wish to aver that he is a bafoon;He aver that he is innocent
- adj.hackneyed; commonplace; trite; lacking originality
reporters ask the most banal of questions
use the evidence to bolster my argument
- adj.pompous; using inflated language
the moron spoke in such a bombastic manner
- adj. rude; insensitive
man's boorish behavior
- v.grow forth;send out buds
In the spring, the plants begin to burgeon
- v.make shiny by rubbing;polish
The maid burnished the brass fixtures until they reflected the lamplight
- v.support;prop up
architects buttress the walls of cathedrals with flying buttresses, debater buttress their arguments with facts
Those sneaky lawyers misrepresented what occurred, made up all sorts of lie to confuse the jurors, and in general depend on chincanery to win the case
Even after you remove the pudding from the burner, it will continue to coagulate as it stands
- n.concluding section of a musical or literary composition
The piece concluded with a distinctive coda that strikingly brought together various motifs
he had several cogent reasons for going there
- adj.equal in extent.
your reward will be commensurate with your effort
- v.brief,comprehensive summary.
This text can serve as a compendium of the tremendous amout of new material being developed in this field
- adj.trying to please;obliging
The courtier obeyed the king's orders in a complaisant manner
- adj.yielding;conforming to requirements
Because Joel usually gave in and went along with whatever his friends desired, his mother worried that he might be too compliant
she was still angry despite his concilitory words.
- v.overlook;forgive;give tacit approval;excuse
Unlike Widow Douglass, who condoned Hucks' minor offenses, Miss Watson did nothing but scold
no mystery could confound Sherlock Holmes for long
- n.person competent to act as a judge of art, etc; a lover of an art
She had developed into a connoisseur of fine china
It is our contention that, if youfollow our tactics, you will boost your score on the GRE v.contend
The coach became so contentious that the referees threw him out of the game
Her contrite tears did not influence the judge when he imposed sentence. n.contrition
- n.riddle;difficult problem
during the long car ride, she invented conundrums to entertain the children
- v.approach;tend to meet; come together.
everyone converged on Washinton to take part in the parade
- adj.coiled around; involed; intricate
his argument was so convoluted that few of us could follow it.
Charlie's craven refusal to ask the girl out was funny
- adj.aimless;haphazard;digressing at random
reading was purposeful, not desultory
- n.something that discourages;hindrance
does the threat of capital punishment serve as deterrent to potential killers?
- n.bitter scolding; invective.
during lengthy diatribe delivered by his opponent he remained calm and self controlled
- n.split;branching into two parts (especially contridictory ones).
Willie didn't know how to resolve the dichotomy between his ambition to go to college and his childhood longing to run away and join the circus
you must overcome your diffidence if you intent to become a salesperson
- adj.wordy;rambling;spread out (like a gas)
if you pay authors by the word, you tempt them to produce diffuse manuscripts rather than brief ones.
- n.wandering away from the subject
The professor wandered away from their official theme; his digressions were always more fascinating than the topic of the day
- n.lament with music
The funeral dirge stirred us to tears
- v.correct a false impression; undeceive
i will attempt to disabuse you of your impression of my client's guilt; i know he is innocent
- adj.mentally quick and observant; having insight.
Though no genius, the star was sufficiently discerning to distinguish her true friends from the countless phonies
- adj. not harmonious; conflicting
Nothing is quite so discordant as the sound of a juunior high school orchestra tuning up
- v.defame; destroy confidence in; disbelieve
the campaign was highly negative in tone; each candidate tried to discredit the other
- adj.not naive; sophisticated
although he was young, his remarks indicated that he was disingenuous
give the judge's political ambitions and the lawyers' financial interest in the case, the only disinterested person in the courtroom may have been the court reporter.
his remarks were so disjointed that we could not follow his reasoning
A doting mother, Emma was more likely to praise her son's crude attempts at art than to disparage them
- adj. basically different; unrelated
Unfortunately Tony and Tina have disparate notions of marriage.
even though john tried to dissemble his motive for taking modern dance, we all knew he was there not to dance but to meet girls
- v.distribute;spread;scatter(like seeds)
The folklore has been disseminated over the internet for awhile
- n.disintegration; losseness in morals.
The profligacy and dissolution of life in Caligula's Rome appal some historians
- n.discord; opposite of harmony
Composer Charles Ives often used dissonance - clasing or unresolved chords == for special effects in his musical works
- v.expand;swell out
I can tell when he is under stress by the way the veins distend on his forehead
A moonshiner distills mash into whiskey; an epigrammatist distills thoughts into quips.
- v.vary; go in different directions from the same point.
The spokes of the wheel diverge from the hub
- v.strip; deprive
He was diversted of his power to act and could no longer govern n.divestiture
- adj.opinionated; arbitrary; doctrinal.
We tried to discourage Doug from being dogmatic.
- n.someone easily fooled
while the gullible Watson often was made a dupe by unscrupulous parties, Sherlock Holmes was far more difficult to fool
- adj.short-lived; fleeting
The mayfly is an ephemeral creature; its adult life lasts little more than a day
- n.calmness of temparament;composure
When one is happy, one can look at both comedy and tragedy with equanimity
- v.lie;mislead;attemp to conceal the truth.
He does not equivocate. "We don't have any evidence that this is a serious problem," he says flatly
- adj.learned; scholarly
Though his fellow studnets thought him erudite, He knew he would have to spend many years in serious study
- adj.hard to understand; known only to the chosen few.
esoteric and occult belief
- n.expression of praise,often on the occasion of someone's death.
Instead of delivering an eulogy at his funeral, he sang a song instead
- n.mild expression in place of an unpleasant one
The expression "he passed away" is an euphemisum for "he died"
The latest bombing exacerbated England's already existing biterness against the IRA
- v.clear from blame
She was exculpated of the crime when the real criminal confessed
based on their extrapolation from the results of the primaries on Super Tuesday, the net works predicted that...
- v.stir up;instigate
Cynical politicians may even foment conflicts among groups to advance their own power
- v.prevent by taking action in advance.
I left the room to forestall any involvements.
you must practice frugality in order to save money n.frugal
- v.urge on
she was goaded by her friends until she yielded to their wishes.
- gouge (1)
the ticket sellers try to gouge the public
- adj.pompous;bombastic;using high sounding language
The politician could never speak simply; she was always grandiloquent
typically, party throwers are gregarious
- adj.without deceit.
He is naive, simple and guildless
- adj.easily deceived.
gullible people have only themselves to blame if they fall for con artists
- adj.overstatement, exaggeration
Apple's claim about the new computer is pure hyperbole
- adj.impervious; not permitting passage through its substance
The new material is impermeable to liquids
I remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in spite of the hysteria and panic all around me n.impertinenece
- adj.impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed
Impervious to damage.
Having read so many negative reviews of his acting, movie star was now impervious to criticism
- adj. incapable of being pacified.
Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family
- adj.understood but not stated
Jack never told Jill he adored her; he believed his love was implicit in his deeds
- adv.unintentionally; by oversight; carelessly.
I inadvertenly omit a question on the exam and mismark her whole answer sheet
- adj.recently begun; rudimentary; elementary.
You take on a project because of the feeling, perhaps inchoate, that it may in some way contribute to your deeper understanding of the larger-scale research program you have chosen as your life's work.
- n.lack of harmony; absurdity
The incongruity of his wearing sneakers with formal attire amused the observers. adj incongruous
- adj.insignificant; unimportant
The test mark is inconsequential
- v.introduce something into a larger whole; combine; unite
Breaking with precedent, the president ordered the military to incorporate blacks into the arm force
- adj.uncertain; not clearly fixed; indefinite
It remain indeterminate when the typhoon is going to arrive
We need to find a way to eliminate indigence from our society
Couch potatoes lead an indolent life lying back in their recliners
- adj.inactive; lacking power to move
I like ot lay in bed inert on a saturday morning
- adj. naive and trusting; young; unsophisticated
a very ingenuous person n.ingenue
- adj.firmly established by nature of habit.
Katya's inherent love of justice.
An occasional glass of wine with dinner is relatively innnocuous and should have no ill effect on most people
- adj. unconscious; unresponsive
He seems insensible to shame
- v.hint; imply; creep in
When you said i looked robust, did you mean to insinuate that i'm getting fat?
- adj. lacking in flavor; dull
Flat prose and flat ginger ale are equally insipid;
- n.narrow-mindedness; isolation.
The insularity of the islanders manifested itself in thier suspicion of anything foreign. adj.insular
- adj.unruly; stubborn; unyielding
Charlie Brown's friend Pigmpen was intractable: He absolutely refused to take a bath
- n.refusal of any compromise; stubborness
The negotiating team had not expected such intransigence from the striking workers, who rejected any hint of a compromise. adj.intransigent
- v.overwhelm; flood; submerge
This season, i am inundated with work; The waters of the Nile used to inundate the river valley every year
- adj.accustomed; hardened.
She became inured to the Alaskan cold
- n.Denunciatory or abusive language
He had expected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal
- adj.irritable; easily angered.
My boss's irasible temper intimidated the newcomer
- adj.uncertain how to act;weak
A leader should never appear irresolute
- n.plan of a trip
Disliking sudden changes in plans when she traveled abroad,Ethel refused to make any alterations in her itinerary
- adj.drowsy; dull
The full room made her lethargic; she felt as if she was about to nod off
- n.lack of seriuosness or steadiness; frivolity
Stop giggling and wriggling: such levity is improper in Church.
put a phone in a woman's hand and see how loquacious she can be
- adj.easily understood; clear; intelligible
Her explanations of technical points are lucid enough for a child to grasp n.lucidity
- adj.shining; issuing light
The sun is a luminous body
- adj.excessively careful; painstaking; scrupulous
Martha Stewart was a meticulous housekeeper
- n.one who hates mankind.
- v.appease; moderate
Nothing Jason did could mitigate Medea's anger; she refused to forgive him
The airline customer service representative tried to mollify the angry passenger
- adj.ill-humored; sullen; melancholy
Forced to take early retirement, Billa acted morose for months
- adj. worldly as opposed to spiritual; everyday
mundane matter like doing lungery
He was obdurate in his refusal to listen to our complaints.
- adj.slavishly attentive; servile; sycophantic
Nothing irritated me more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk
She asked for an assistant because her work load was too onerous
- n.infamy; vilification
He refused to defend himself against the slander and opprobrium hurled against him by the newspapaers;
- adj.showy; pretentious; trying to attract attention
Trump's latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling palace in the East
- n.model of perfection
Even his friends and business associates, men and women alike, were paragons of health: avoiders of fatty foods, moderate drinkers, health-club habitues, lovers of cross-country skiing, weekend canoe trips, and daylong hikes in the North Woods.
- adj. one-sided; prejudiced; committed to a party
The democrats and Republicans spend their time one partisan struggles
- adj.pertaining to disease
Let's study the pathological aspects of this disease
They closed the restaurant because the paucity of customers made it uneconomical to operate
- adj.showing off learning; bookish
He is erudite, but neither stuffy nor pedantic
- n.Strong inclination; liking
Dave has a penchant for taking risks;
- n.something long-lasting
that hardy perennial, the budget deficit
- adj.treacherous; disloyal
when caesar realized that brutus had betrayed him, he reproached his perfidious friend. n.perfidy
- adj.superficial; not thorough; lacking interest, care or enthusiasm.
The auditor's perfunctory inspection of the books overlooked many erros
- adj.penetrable; porous; allowing liquids or gas to pass through.
If you jogging clothes weren't made out of permeable fabric, you'd drown in your own sweat
- adj. spread throughout
despite airing them for several hours, she could not rid her clothes of the pervasive odor of mothballs that clung to them v.pervade
- n.devoutness; reverence for God
Living her life in prayer and good works, Mother Teresa exemplified the true spirit of piety. adj.pious
- v.pacify; conciliate
The store manager tried to placate the angry customer, offering to replace the damaged merchandise or to give back her money
- n.ability to be molded
when clay dries out, it loses its plasticity and becomes less malleable
- n.trite remark; commonplace statement
In giving advice to his son, old Polonius expressed himself only in platitudes; every word out of his mouth was a truism
- n.excess; overabundance
she offered a plethora of excuses for her shortcomings
- adj.full of pores; like a sieve
Dancers like to wear porous clothing because it allows the ready passage of water and air
- adj. practical; concerned with the practical worth or impact of something
This coming trip to France should provide me with a pragmatic test of the value of my conversational French class
- n.introductory statement
In the Preample to the Constitution , the purpose of the document is set forth.
- adj.uncertain; risky
a precarious solution to a difficult problem
- adj.rash; premature; hasty; sudden
Though I was angry enough to resign on the spot, I had enough sense to keep myself from quitting a job in such a precipitate fachion
Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romatic poets who followed them, most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement, not true Romantics
- adj. arrogant; taking liberties.
It seems presumptuous for one so relatively new to the field to challenge the conclusions of its leading experts
- v. lie. Some people believe that to prevaricate in a good cause is justifiable and regard the statment as a "while lie"
- adj. characteristic of earlier times; primitive, unspoiled.
This area has been preserved in all its pristine wildness
- n.uprightness; incorruptibility
Everyone took his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shocked us all
- adj.wasteful; reckless with money
don't be so prodigal spending my money; when you've earned some money, you can waste as much of it as you want!
- adj. tending to prevent the purchase or use of something; inclined to prevent or forbid
Susie wanted to buy a new Volvo but had to settle for a sued Dodge because the new car's price was prohibitive
- v. grow rapidly; spread; multiply
Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get-rich-quick schemes to proliferate. n.proliferationn
- n. natural inclination
Convinced of his own talent, Sol has an unfortunate propensity to belittle the talents of others
The natives offered sacrifices to propitiate the gods
- n.fitness; correct conduct
Miss Manners counsels her readers so that they may behave with propriety in any social situation and not embarrrass themselves
- v.ostracize; banish; outlaw
Even in war there are rules and accepted norms of behaviour that prohibit the use of certain types of weapons, proscribe various tactics and outlaw attacks on specific categories of targets.
- adj.stinging; sharp in taste or smell; caustic
The pungent odor of ripe Limburger cheese appealed to Simone but made Stanley gag; pungent satire; N.pungency
- adj.limited; restricted.
Unable to give the candidate full support, the mayor gave him only a qualified endorsement
- adj. obstinately stubborn; determined to resist authority; unruly.
Which animal do you think is more recalcitrant, a pig or a mule?
- n.hermit; loner
Disappointed in love, Miss Emily became a recluse; she shut herself away in her empty mansion and refused to see another living soul. ADJ. reclusive
- adj.stubborn; unmanageable
The refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the jockey
The defense called several respectable witnesses who were able to refute the false testimony of the prosecution's only witness N.refutation
- v. banish to an inferior position; delegate; assign.
After Ralph dropped his second tray of drinks that week, the manager swiftly relegated him to a minor post cleaning up behind the bar
- v.express disapproval or disappointment.
He never could do anything wrong without imaging how the look on his mother's face would reproach him afterwards.
- n.person hardened in sin, devoid of a sense of decency.
I cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you say he is
- v.disown; disavow
On separating from tony, Tina announced that she would repudiate all debts incurred by her soon-to-be ex-husband.
Because of the public outcry against the new taxes, the senator propsed a bill to rescind the unpopular financial measure
Nothing could shake his resolution to succeed despite all difficulties. ADJ.resolute
- n.determination; firmness of purpose
How dare you question my resolve to take up sky-diving! Of course i haven't change my mind!
- adj.reserved; uncommunicative; inclined to silence.
Fearing his competitors might get advance word about his plans from talkative staff memebers, Hughes preferred reticent employees to loquacious ones, N.reticence
- adj. respectful; worshipful.
They all maintained a reverent silence. V.revere. N.reverence
- v.hide away or cache; produce and release a substance into an organism
The pack rat secretes odds and ends in its nest; the pancreas secretes insulin in the islets of Langerhans
- adj.worried, concerned
The employer was very solicitous about the health of her employees as there are paucity of replacement right now N.solicitude
- adj. sleep-causing; marked by sleepiness.
Professor Pringle's lectures were so soporific that even he fell asleep in class
- adj.seemingly reasonable but incorrect; misleading(often intentionally).
A specious theory is confuted by this free and perfect experiment
- adj.occurring irregularly.
Although you can still hear sporadic outbursts of laghter and singing outside, the big Halloween parade has passed
- n.token of disgrace; brand.恥辱，污名
Her behavior will leave a stigma on her family
- v. be thrifty 節省,吝惜; set limits
"Spare no expense", the bride's father said, refusing to stint on the wedding arragments;
I have to stint myself of food.
- v.make express conditions in an condition, specify.
Before agreeing to reduce Amercican military forces in Europe, the president stipulated that NATO teams be allowed to inspect Russian bases
The earthquake shattered Stuart's usual stolid demeanor; trembling, he crouched on the no longer stable ground N.stolidity
- adj.marked with parallel bands; grooved
The glacier left many striated rocks. V.striate
- strut (1)
- n.pompous walk.
His strut as he marched about the parade ground revealed him for what he was; a pompous buffon
- strut (2)
- n.supporting bar
The engineer calculated that the strut supporting the rafter needed to be reinforced
- n.writ summoning a witness to appear
The prosecutor's office was ready to serve a subpoena on the reluctant witness
- v.settle down; descend; grow quiet
The doctor assured us that the fever would eventually subside.
- v.establish by evidence; verify; support
These endorsements from satisfied customers substantiate our claim that the book is a best seller
- v.cause to be set aside; replace; make obsolete
Steam locomotives were superseded by diesel
- n.hypothesis; surmise
I based my decision to confide in him on the supposition that he would be discreet V.suppose
- adj. understood; not put into words
We have a tacit agreement based on only a handshake
- adj.peripheral; only slightly connected; digressing.
dispite Clark's attempts to distract her with tangential remarks, Lois kept on coming back to her main question: Why couldn't he come out to dinener with Superman and her?
- n.extended scolding; denunciation; harangue
Everytime the boss holds a meeting, he goes into a lengthy tirade, scolding us for everything from tardiness to padding our expenses
- n.lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy.
Throughout the winter, nothing aroused the bear from his torpor. He would not emerge from hibernation until spring. ADJ.torpid
- adj.winding;full of curves
Because this road is so tortuous, it is unwise to go faster than twenty miles an hour on it
- adj.docile; easily managed.
Although Susan seemed a tractable young woman, she had a stubborn streak of independence that occassionally led her to defy the powers-that-be when she felt they were in the wrong. N.tractabiilty
- n.violation of a law; sin
Forgive us our transgressions; apologize for one's transgressions
- n.aggressiveness; ferocity
Tynan's reviews were noted for their caustic attacks and general tone of truculence. ADJ.truculent
Uncertain which suitor she ought to marry, the princess vacillated, saying now one, now the other
In Tibet today, the common people sill venerate their traditional spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama
- Adj. truthful.
I can reccommend him for this position because i have always found him veracious and reliable N.veracity
We had to make some major cuts in Senator Foghorn's speech because it was far too verbose. N.verbosity
- adj. practical or workable; capable of maintaining life.
The plan to build a new baseball stadium. though missing a few details, is viable and stands a good chance of winning popular support.
- adj.sticky, gluey
Melted tar is a viscous substance. N. viscosity
- adj.abusive; scolding
He became more vituperative as he realized that we were not going to grant him his wish
- adj.changeable; explosive; evaporating rapidly.
The political climate today is extremely volatile; no one can predict what the electorate will do next.
MariaCalla's temper was extremely volatile; the only thing you could predict was that she would blow up.
Acetone is an extremely volatile liquid. It evaporates instantly
- adj.justified; authorized
Before the judge issues the injunction, you must convice her this action is warranted
- adj.very cautious.
The spies grew wary as they approached the sentry
- n.turnoil; bewildering jumble
The existing welter of overlapping federal and state proclaims cries out for immediate reform;the daily welter of details and little problems
- n.caprcious; fanciful
- v.subside or moderate
- adj.abnormal or deviant
- n.suspended action
- v.depart secretly and hide
- adj.sparing in eating and drinking; temperate
- v.warn; reprove
- v.make impure by adding inferior or tainted substances
- adj.artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful
- v.contradict; give a false impression
his coarse , hard-bitten exterior belied his innate sensitivity
- adj.kindly; doing good
- adj.discordant; inharmonious
- adj.unpredictable; fickle
- n.punishment; severe criticism
- n.agent that brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged
- adj.buring; sarcastically biting
- v.intimidate; frighten
- v.kill, usually one out of ten
- n.failure to act
- n.courteous regard for another's wish
- v.portray; depict; sketch
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