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Glossary of com2451990

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Cognitive dissonance theory
the conflict between behavior and attitude.
(ABCD)
A-attitude/behavior inconsistency
B- Dissonance created
C-attitude change
D-dissonance reduced




The Three Hypothesis:
Selective Exposure
we selectively hear what we want to hear. preventing dissonance through avoiding material inconsistent with our beliefs, only seeing what you want to see ensuring positive feedback and confirming beliefs and behavior.
the three hypothesis:
post decision dissonance + retrospective rationalizing
&
the three factors




feeling unsure and doubtful after an important irreversible decision after the fact reassurance through retrospective rationalizing.
example: "it all worked out in the end"
three factors:
1. importance of issue
2. delay in choosing between options
3. difficulty in reversing decision




the three hypothesis:
minimal justification




get someone to change behavior first or do something they wouldn’t do thus changes attitude. Useful when you want long-term compliance.

3 extensions to theory:
self consistency
Dissonance NOT caused by logical inconsistency… but by need to maintain positive self-image. Feel dissonance when we contradict who we “we are”
example:
harder it is to join a group, the stronger id and membership you feel.

3 extensions to theory:
personal responsibility for bad outcomes
Knowing that your actions hurt someone else. Causing harm. Causes dissonance when your actions hurt someone else.
Note that:
Implies the person knew this beforehand & still chose to do it

3 extensions to theory:
self-affirmation to dissipate dissonance
Downplay dissonance by focusing on positive self attributes.
example:
"one donut wont hurt, i just went to the gym"

communications as patterns of interaction
focus on systems of behavior: assume interdependence will emerge among members of a system
unit of analysis-interaction
interaction (the sequence of communication acts) NOT the individuals.
Reveals unhealthy patterns in communication
characteristics of a system:
Wholeness:
Problems are no longer the fault of one person. The system generates these problems. Identify what the unhealthy pattern is in this system.
example:
“You started it!” “No, you did!”
actually… they both did:
(increased threat → increased threat → increased threat)



characteristics of systems
hierachy:
embedded subsystems i.e., systems within systems
Every system is embedded within a larger system

E.g.: Genes → cells → lungs → cardiovascular system




characteristics of systems
openness & closedness
extent to which one subsystem is impacted by other systems i.e., how much they influence each other
E.g.:
Work → Family
School → social life




characteristics of systems
feedback cycles:
positive & negative

re-introducing output back into the system
positive:amplification
small cut, infection, disease
negative: de amplification
someone asserts themselves the other takes it



communicative games & rules
what are rules?
how communication is structured within a system
communicative games and rules
constitutive vs. regulative rules
Constitutive = define what a communication act represents (i.e., what “Game” is being played)

Regulative = regulate preferred sequence for a particular communication act (i.e., how to play the “game”)

5 pragmatic axioms
one cannot not communicate
Everything we do we communicate something
nonverbal behavior does NOT = nonverbal communication IF:
-there is no sender-receiver relationship
-no shared code of meaning (if you flip off a cricket)


5 pragmatic axioms
content vs. relationship
content-what is said
relationship-how it is said (tone)
5 pragmatic axioms
punctuating communication. what is punctuation?
the nature of the relationship depends on how both parties punctuate the communication interaction.
punctuation (written) affects how we interpret things
punctuation (interactional) works the same way



5 pragmatic axioms
digital vs. analog communication
digital: specific & defined dimensions of language. structure
analog:ambiguous. but really powerful dimensions of language. interpretation.
"i am over you" words can be classified but context is unclear

5 pragmatic axioms
symmetrical vs. complementary interaction
symmetrical: interaction based on equal power (equality). "you want to grab a pizza?" "sure, what toppings?"
complementary: interaction based on accepted differences in power
Soldier and lieutenant in the army

power vs. control in relationships
Power = ability of one person to control another
includes:
1.Resources (money)
2.Rules (hierarchy)
3.Cultural norms (traditions)

Control = actual behavior used to exert power over another person
Includes:
1.Coercion/ sanctions
2.Physical force
3.persuasion









6 types of power:
principle of least interest
person with least interest in continuing the relationship has greatest power. (person with the power to walk away)

6 types of power:
definitional
power to frame/ define other people & situations

E.g.: define enemies, threats, priorities, etc.



6 types of power
Reward:
Reward Power = A’s ability to present rewards on B

E.g.: raises, grades, job perks, praise, awards, etc



6 types of power
Coercive:
power to force someone to do something against their will using threats

E.g.: dictators, bullies, etc.



6 types of power
Referent:
influence over others by being popular/ respected by them

E.g.: celebrities, role models, and likable/popular people



6 types of power
Expert
Expert Power = power from technical/expert knowledge

E.g.: technicians, doctors, academics, etc.

Control and interaction
Symmetrical
power vs. control
Power: equality/ minimization of difference
Control: SAME behavior in interaction
Does not mean both people get along fine/ agree




Control and interaction
Complementary:
power vs. control
Power: maximization of difference
Control: OPPOSITE behavior in interaction Does not mean everyone is happy/content with situation



Control Coding
Relational-
one up
one down
hierarchies
benefits of divergence




one up: movement to gain control of the interaction. dominant controlling statements
example:
Instructions & orders (put that there/ stand up when you speak to me)
Defiance/pretest (I don’t want to do that/ I cant accept that.)
Brief bored responses
Including lots of technical jargon

one down:movement to yield control of the interaction
example:
Supportive responses (okay)
Questions that seek approval/ agreement
Apologies
Flattery/ encouraging someone to dominate conversation













public vs. private identity
public: actual behavior that emerges in relation to.
private: inner motivations and psychological characteristics (unobservable)
3 rules for identity to face
1. it is socially recognized (athlete,musician,student)
2. available (unavailable would be wizard)
3. vested interest in maintaing face (individual and their social beliefs)

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