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Glossary of chpater 13 331 KD

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Created by kdillane

hallmark of schizo
significant loss of contact with reality
psychosis
an erroneous belief that is fixed and firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence
involves a disturbance in the context of thought
delusion
some external agency has robbed one of ones thoughts
thought withdrawal
a sensory experience that seems real to the person having it, but that occurs in the absence of any external perceptual stimulus
hallucination
most common types of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia
auditory
patient may show absence of all movement and speech
patient may hold unusual posture for extended period of time
catatonia
bizarre behavior and disorganized speech are examples of __________ symptoms
disorganized
symptoms that reflect an excess or distortion in a normal repertoire of behavior and experience such as delusions or hallucinations
positive symtpoms
symptoms that reflect an absence or deficit of behaviors that are normally present
negative symptoms
paranoid schizophrenia:
shows history of increasing suspiciousness and of severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships
clinical picture dominated by absurd and illogical ideas and beliefs that are often highly elaborated and organized into a coherent, yet delusional framework
paranoid schizophrenia
disorganized schizophrenia
characterized by disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect.
gradual, insidious onset. occurs at earlier age
catatonic schizophrenia:
pronounced motor signs, either of excited or stuporous type
immobile body
excessive motor activity
extreme negativism
echolalia or echopraxia



resistance to being moved or following instructions
negativism
imitate the actions of others
echopraxia
imitate phrases of others
echolalia
undifferentiated schizophrenia
meets usual criteria for schizophrenia but does not clearly fit into one of the other subtypes because of a mixed-symptom picture
residual schizophrenia
a category for people who have suffered at least one episode of schizophrenia but do not now show any prominent positive symptoms
schizoaffective disorder
people who have features of schizophrenia and severe mood disorder. person has psychotic symptoms that meet criteria for schizophrenia but also has marked changes in mood for a substantial amount of time
schizophreniform disorder
schizophrenia like psychosis that last at least a month but do nt last for 6 months and do not warrant a diagnosis of schizophrenia
delusional disorder
patients hold beliefs that are considered completely false and absurd by those around them
involves the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. usually only last a matter of days
brief psychotic disorder
ways in which dopamine could become too available in synapse
1) increasing the synthesis or production of dopamine
2) releasing more dopamine into the syanapse
3) slowing down rate of metabolism
4) blocking neuronal reuptake


postmortem studies show that there are more ____ receptors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia than in controls
D2
a measure of the family environment that is based on how a family member speaks about the patient during a private interview with a researcher
expressed emotion
examples of first gen antipsychotics
Thorazine
Haldol
(neuroleptics)

works by blocking and interfering with dopamine receptors (specifically, D2)
anti-psychotics
work best for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
first gen antipsychotics
extrapyramidal side effects (EPS)
involuntary movements such as muscle spasms, rigidity, tremors, etc
Minorities such as african americans are at increased risk of these
involuntary movements of the mouth and lips even when not speaking
tardive dyskinesia
Examples of second generation anti-psychotics
Clozaril
Risperdal
Zyprexa
Seroquel
Geodon
More recently, Abilify




Effective in relieving both positive and negative side effects of schizophrenia
second generation anti-psychotics
agranulocytosis
a drop in white blood cells that has the potential to be fatal. seen in 1 in 100 cases of patients who take clozapine (regular blood tests required)
"Increased blockade of _____ receptors is associated with patients reporting more negative subjective experiences such as feeling tired or depressed"
D2

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