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Glossary of chapter 3 slsl

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E. Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
thought that the brain grew lumps would appear on the brain after an increase of experience.
D.Pierre Flourens
equipotentiality (all parts of the brain were equal in potential.) said Galls ideas were inaccurate.
E. Paul Broca
-said brain activity was localized (different parts of the brain carry out different functions and different parts do different things.)
-studied the brains of deceased patients who refused to speak and found that all patients had damage to the left side of the brain, getting its name brocas area from paul broca.
localization vs. lateralization
localizaion: different parts of the brain carry out different functions. not all parts of the brain do the same thing. both hemispheres (e.g., vision, control of voluntary movement, understanding speech, etc.)
lateralization: some fucntions are carried out exclusively on one side of the brain.
wilder penfield
performed electrical charges on the surfaces of his patients brain, which caused twitching on opposite sides and elicited memories.
brainstem
old behavior
brain arousal
heart rate, breathing, respiratory

cerebellum
movement
sense of timing
cerebral cortex
lateral symmetry
sulci (valleys of the brain)


central sulcus
landmark in the brain that separates the frontal and parietal lobes.
gyri
hills in the brain
lateral sulcus
separates the frontal and temporal lobes.
temporal lobe
auditory cortex
verbal comprehension
some aspects of emotion

parietal lobe
body senses and awareness of body parts.
Dr. Oliver Sacks
studied a man who drug his left leg and noticed he was unaware that it was his own. the man had damage to the somatosensory cortex, which gives people the perception of their body parts.
frontal lobe
motor cortex
aspects of memory and planning
speech production



phineas gage
suffered from a metal pole blasting through his head, giving him frontal lobe damage and suffered personality changes.
wernikes area
temporal cortex damage; comprehension of language and recalling names of objects
law of forward conduction
information comes in at dendrites and leaves through axon terminals in one direction.
true or false: neurons occur in an all or none fashion
true
resting potential
The cell membrane of a neuron has charged particles (ions) on either side. When the neuron is at rest (not actively transmitting an impulse), the outside of the membrane has a net positive charge because it has more positive ions than negative ones. The inside has a net negative charge, because it has more negative ions than positive ones.
acion potential
generated at axon hillock
happens outside of myelin sheaths
sodium potassium pumps sodium and potassium back to belonged places.

reuptake
the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has transmitted a neural impulse.

acetylcholine
acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. can cause excitatory actions in the central nervous system.
dopamine
movement attention learning.
norepinephine
wakefulness

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