Glossary of chapter 13 R readings
Created by tbelsheim
- bard study
- held the pioneering view that police officers served a preventive function in which they could reduce the likihood of future crimes by properly handinling current family conflict.
the study was a non equivalent design with different cultural groups in experimental controls in the study
since effective conflict resolution was the objective bar approach repeat calls individuated the problem was not successfully resolved.
- marie wit detrio study
the best predictors of homicide assult were
- presence of a gun in the household
history of prior distrubances
presence of alcholol
- lipton and colleges
- noted that in terms of rehabiliation nothing works
- three types of methodology in domestic abuse studies
- having police specify how they would respond to a given sitaution
looking at police reports
examine Beauvoir in real interventions
- in examing the police decision matrix
- apparent lack of weight given to victums injurites by the police
indifference in ascertaining whether the event was a isolated incident
the mans demenour towards the police , is probably given to much weight
- ford and regoli
- using randomized designthey tested 4 policies, no prosecution, pre trial diversion, prosection and rehabilitaiotn
they found that the prosecutors actions could have a dramtic effect on future rates of recidivism
- fords power by alliance concept
- a domestic violence victim can forma partnership or an alliance with a legal actor police officer or prosecuting attorney, the alliance itself can be a powerfull resource that vitim can use to preven tviolnce. the threat to call an ally backed by the power of the state in responce to the cirminal code violeation has a greater detterent effect.
- buzawa and mandatory arrest
- suggested the implementation of mandatory arrest would affect police Beauvoir and lead to low rates of identified domestic assaults reclassify the event
unevenly applied as a reult not consutling rank adn file police before insittuing study
cites study in pheonix in which they did not record spousal abuse if the assalant fled the seen.
- jaffe Wolfe and Telford
- reported 2500 percent increase in the rates of arrest after the introduction of mandatory arrest for domestic assult
- subjective contributions to recidivism reduction.
- one perception is that criminals belong to a sublcuture that has an extensive informal knowede of criminal judtice system "they know how to beat the system:
or it coudl work the opposate way, visable signs of crackdown could create a placebo effect in a criminal subculture.
we do not know at present whether men arrested for wife assult do not repeat because of fear of re arrest or whether original arrest served a didactic function demonstratin that wife assult was unaccceatable.
- subjective recidvism study
- men who had not been arrested for wife assult estimated extremely low sanction weights for legal sanction. men who had been violent but never arrested estimated even lower legal sanction men who had been arrested estimated significnatly higher legal sanction but also extimated higher informal sanctions if they were to ever re offend in other words they thought that if they were to commit wife assult again not nly would police likely intervene but also teh partner would leave the victim.
- minneapolis study
- treatments arrest, seperation or mediation.
this result suggest that for a small subgroup of all men possily recidvism reduction exsits.
the results were only based on two precincs and a small number of cooperative officers.
in the minneapolis study we do not know from sherman and berk whether a recidvism reduction observed from the arrested group is due to deterrence or some other social factor.
- has argued that the central mechanism that precludes recidivsm is an equalization of power in a male female realtionship. he points out the fear of divorce and fear of relationship losss are mentioned more frequently than fear of legal sanction as a factor that enabled batteries to desits. fagan concludes that the legal factors dimins power imbalances in the faimly and reaise the reapted cost of assult for the husand
- when wife assult is disclosed to informal groups or the police it tends to
- 1) the victim may discover the assult is more common that she formerly bleived as a consqeunce may stop blaming herself for the assult
2) the husband might learn that other dissaprove
3) the husband may learn that his wife has the power to disclose this unaccepatble behvoir to toehr who can sanction ro punish him.
- does arrest reduce future assults ?
- treatments warning , short arrest, full arrest.
they found that arrest did not cause couples to break up. the arrested men cohabited after the arrest as much as non arrested men.
during a 30 day period of recdivism was reduced for teh arrested group
however at about 7-9 months after the presenting incident the arrest and non arrest recidvism curves cross over and from that point on teh arrest group had a higher rate of recidivsm
the persons for whom arest backfired in the long term were marginal (defined by authors as unemployed and high school drop outs.
in general teh authors conclude taht in areas were urban problems are great and marignaly high arrest may be contracted. in other words when general social constrains ahve broken down arrest in a vacuum will not reduce recidivism in wife assault cases.
- Garner et all
- pooled data across all 6 replication sites to standarzie methodlogies and measures
found most correlation between arrest and subsequent assault
by comparison the suspects age, prior criminal history affected the likelihood of re offending by 50-330 percent., 10 times as important.
- sugarman and boney
- they found no average deterrence effect based on police data but a modest deterrence effect based on victim interview data.
- calcualted odds ratios estimated effects of legal sanctions
mandatory arrest (modest)
- hotaling and buzawa
- findings suggeted that importance of victim frustration with criminal justice system
1) perception that the criminal justice system was being unresponsive
2) being less likely to have wanted offender prosecuted in the first place.
- advocates a survivor centered approach that focuses on listing the women options, with her and leaving the control outcome in her hands.
- iatrogenic violence
- violence accidentally triggered by police in miss handling of conflict.
- marie wit study
- the police return rate for these cards was only 5 percent, making the generalization of these findings questionable.
- bard and zacker
- witness assults in 29-33 percent of domestic disturbances they attened.
- sherman and berk found
- when police attend and do not make an arrest there is a 28-37 percent likihood of recidvist assult with the next 6 months.
- sanction weight
- by multiplying the perceived likilhood and severity a sanction weight is derived.
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