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Glossary of chapter 11 biology 101 KD

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Created by kdillane

signal on cells surface is converted to a cellular response
brings about cellular response through transduction
signal transduction pathway
a type of local regulator in animals; stimulate nearby cells to grow and divide
growth factors
term for a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule
example: signaling molecule
ligand
a protein that binds to GTP
g protein
what uses g protein coupled reception?
yeast mating factors
epinephrine, hormones, neruotransmitters
an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the amino acid tyrosine on a substrate protein
tyrosine kinase
an enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to a protein
protein kinase
catalyze the removal of the phosphate groups from protein kinases, making them inactive and available for reuse
protein phosphatases
What are the advantages of signaling pathways with multiple steps?
1) Amplify signal and in turn amplify signal response
2) provide different points where regulation can occur
3) allow cells to respond to signaling pathways in specific ways because of the presence of specific proteins

what is gtpase associated with?
g protein regulated pathways
what is phosphodiesterase associated with?
conversion of cAMP to AMP
what do protein phosphatases do?
remove phosphate groups off of active protein kinases in phosphorylation cascades, making the inactive and ready for reuse
controlled cell suicide
apoptosis
enzymes that cut up proteins and DNA of a cell
proteases
nucleases

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