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Glossary of ch 9 anthropology

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what is a system of communication using sounds and/or gestures that are put together according to certain rules, resulting in meanings that are intelligible to all who share that language?

language
what are sounds and gestures that have a natural or self-evident meaning?

signals
Through language, people in every society are able to share their experiences, concerns, and beliefs and to communicate these to who?

the next generation
Language makes ________ possible by employing a set of sounds or gestures that, when put together according to certain rules, result in meanings that are intelligible to fellow speakers.

communication
______ focuses on the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds, or phonemes.

phonetics
_________ is concerned with the smallest units of meaningful combinations of sounds (morphemes).

morphology
________ studies the sound patterns of language in order to extract the rules that govern how sounds are combined.

phonology
_______ refers to the principles according to which phrases and sentences are built
syntax
The entire formal structure of a language, consisting of all observations about its _________ and __________, constitutes the grammar of a language.

morphemes and syntax
what is the patterns or rules for the formation of phrases and sentences in a language?

syntax
_______ _______ explains the features of a language at a particular time in its history.

descriptive linguistics
________ ________investigates relationships between earlier and later forms of the same language.



historical linguistics
Sociolinguists and ethnolinguists study language as it relates to _______ and _______.
society and culture
In ________ linguistics the language itself is unraveled by recording, describing, and analyzing all of its features.

descriptive
_______ linguistics is the study of how languages change over time.

historical
_______ _______ are groups of languages descended from a single ancestral language.

language families
_______ ________ is development of different languages from a single ancestral language.

Linguistic divergence
_________ linguists focus on
Language families and Linguistic divergence.


Historical
________ linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories influence the use and interpretation of distinctive styles of speech.

sociolinguistics
_________ linguistics focuses on language and gender issues and social dialects.

Sociolinguistics
_______ ________ is the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms.

Linguistic Nationalism
One of the first in-depth studies in _____ asserted that neither language nor gender can be studied independently of the socially constructed communities in which we live.

1970
what are varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible?

dialects
_________ boundaries may be psychological, geographical, social, or economic.

linguistic
what is the study of the relationships between language and culture, and how they influence and inform each other
ethnolinguistics
Ethnolinguists may investigate how a language reflects the culturally significant aspects of a people’s traditional natural environment; this is known as linguistic _________.

relativity
what is the idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language alone?
linguistic relativity
what is the idea that language shapes the way we view and think about the world around us; sometimes called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis after its originators Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf?

linguistic determinism
All languages are (sufficient/insufficient) in communicating certain kinds of information that people need to know in order to fully understand what is being said.
insufficient
Human language is embedded within a ______ _______ system similar to that which we share with nonhuman primates.

gesture-call
The various sounds and gestures of what system serve to “key” speech, providing listeners with the appropriate frame for interpreting what a speaker is saying?

gesture call system
The gesture component of the gesture-call system consists of facial expressions and bodily postures and motions that convey intended and subconscious messages. this is called?
body language
The method for notating and analyzing body language is known as ________.

kinesics
what is the cross-cultural study of humankind’s perception and use of space?

proxemics
Relevant spacing
________ = (0–18 inches)




intimate
Relevant spacing:
_______ _______= (1-1/2–4 feet)


personal-casual
Relevant spacing
_________ _______ (4–12 feet)


social consultive
Relevant spacing:
______ _____ (12 feet and beyond)
public distance
what is the specific voice effects that accompany speech and contribute to communication?

paralanguage
what include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo?

paralanguage
what language does about 70 percent of the world’s languages are tonal languages in which the distinctive sound pitches of spoken words are not only an essential part of their pronunciation but also key to their meaning?

tonal language
Mandarin Chinese is an example of what type of language?

tonal language
English is tonal/nontonal?
nontonal
Neanderthals had the neurological and anatomical features necessary for ______.

speech
Evidence that early stone tools were made primarily by _________ individuals supports the idea that right lateral specialization, necessary for speech, had occurred by this time.
right-handed
_______ _______ is embedded in the gesture-call system and involved the use of displacement.

human language
________ is referring to things and events removed in time and space.

displacement
While ________ is unique to human language, both humans and apes are capable.

displacement
what is a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way?

writing system
The first actual writing systems was _______ hieroglyphics and cuneiform.

Egyptian
Egyptian writing developed about _______ years ago. Chinese tortoise shell symbols, currently being studied, may have been developed earlier.
5,000
what is a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order?

alphabet
what is the use of wedge-shaped imprints?
cuneiform
Cuneiform developed in _________ and was one of the earliest known forms of phonetic writing.
Mesopotamia
Today, nearly ________ adults worldwide cannot read or write.



800 million
__________ children around the world are not enrolled in school.
Seventy-five million

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