Glossary of ch.1-5 biology

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deductive reasoning
summarize the info at hand and draw conclusions from that information, proceeds from the general to the specific
inductive reasoning
drawing a generalization from several specific observations, proceeds from specific to general. it is IMPOSSIBLE to prove the accuracy of generalization
the recursive nature
experiments provide more observations, and at any time more observations may be added in and more testable models may be produced
linnks together significant bodies of thought
principle or law
when a theory yields unvarying adn uniform predictions over a long period of time
the goal of science is to
understand nature
the goal of technology is to
apply scientific knowledge
the basic structure adn functional unit of life consisting of living material bounded by a membrane. It is the smallest unit of life capable of growth and development
increase in size and number
changes in roles of cells during the life cycle of an organism
includes the chemical process essential to growth and repair. It is the sum of the chemical rxns adn energy transformations
the tendency of an organism to maintain a relatively constant interna or external environment. (Metabolism needs this).
asexual reproduction
copying; reprduction not involving sex, resulting from only cell division
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving sex, typically involves the formation of specialized egg and sperm cells and their fusion to produce a zygote which grows and develops into a new organism
carries the genetic info cells use to make proteins
chemical signals used for intercellular signaling
what type of system do biologists use?
binomial system for classifying organisms
the science of classifying adn naming of organisms
Carolus Linnaeus
swedish botanist who developed a system of classification that is the basis of what is used today
basic unit of classification.
if species sexual
can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
if species asexual
group based on similarities (DNA sequence based)
a gorup of closely related species
binomial name
made of genus and specific epithet. Genus is capitalized. ex. Homo sapiens
order of taxonomic classification
Dashing King Phillup Came Over For Great Sex
Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain
the highest level of classification
two domains of consist of prokaryotes
archaea and bacteria
no true cellular nucleus
Kingdom Archaebacteria, typically found in extreme environments, distinguished by RNA
Kingdom Eubacteria, very diverse group of bacteria
domain Eukarya
consists of eukaryotes, organisms with a discrete cellular nucleus, it is divided into 4 kingdoms
Kingdom Protista
(domain eukarya) sinlge celled adn simple multicellular organisms having nuclei
Kingdom Plantae
(domain eukarya)plants are complex multicellular organisms having tissues and organs. Have cells walls containing cellulose. Have chlorophyll.
Kingdom Fungi
(domain eukarya)have cell walls containing chitin. most decomposers.
Kingdom Animalia
complex multicellular organisms that eat other organisms for nourishment. NO CELL WALLS. most forms of motile.
autotrophs, manufacture their own food from simple materials
CO2 + H2O + light energy = carbohydrate(food) + Oxygen
carbohydrate + oxygen = CO2 +H2O + energy
heterotrophs, obtain energy by eating other organisms (ultimate source of energy is producers) use food and oxygen and release CO2 and water
obtain energy by breaking down the water products, and dead bodies of producers and consumers. Usually bacteria or fungi.
the core unifying theme thst explains much of the observations connected with the other themes
substances that cannot be further broken down. 92 naturally occuring elements
4 elements that make 96% of the mass of living things
8 other elements present in small amounts
Ca, P, K, S, Na, Mg, Cl, Fe
smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of that element
contributes no significant mass to the atom, but carries a (-1) electrical charge
contributes a mass of 1 mass unit, carries a (+1) charge
contributes a mass of 1 mass unit, carries no charge
protons and neutrons are found in the
elements differ from
different number of protons
atomic number
protons + nucleus
atoms that have the same number of protons but have different number of neutrons
atomic nuclei can undergo
most unstable isotopes are
when an atom is neutral
electrons = protons
energy levels
valence electrons
the outer electrons
chemical properties of an atom are determined by
valence electrons
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds, may be composed of one or more elements. molecule differs in its physical and chemical properties from the elements that make it up
a specific combination of two or more DIFFERENT elements chemically combined in a fixed ration. have unique physical and chemical properties that differ from those of the elements use to make it. some held by covalent bonds - making it molecular
chemical formula
showing the number of atoms of each element present. often called molecular formula.
structural formula
shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
molecular mass
the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in the molecule
a chemical bond is a
reduced energy state
bond energy
is the amount of energy required to break a particular chemical bond
covalent bond
electrons shared b/w two atoms. result in filled valence shells, electrons are shared in pairs, carbon forms 4 covalent bonds
ionic bond
one atom completely gives up an electron to another atom. formed by the attraction b/w cation and anion
equal sharing of electrons
unequal sharing of electrons. result if one nuclues holds a stronger attraction on the electron pair. partial charge
an atom gains or gives one or more electrons
lost one or more electrons, has a positive charge
gains one or more electrons, has a negative charge. suffix -ide indicates an anion
polyatomic ions
only they can lose or gain PROTONS
surrounding the ions with the ends water molecules w/ the opposite charge
hydrogen bonds
weak interactions involving partially charged hydrogen atoms, more common and important in living things. very weak compared to cov. bonds.
strength of covalent, hydrogen, and ionic bonds
covalent bond stronger than ionic, and ionic stronger than hydrogen, hydrogen is the weakest
double arrow in an equation indicates
a chemical process in which an atom, molecule, or ion LOSES an electron(s). oxygen is most common oxidizing agent
an elecctron is GAINED (charge is reduced)
oxidation and reduction are always
paired, hence redox reactions
look for movement of what in redox reactions
what percentage of cells is made of water?
about what percentage of the earrth's surface is covered in water?
electron seeking, oxygen atoms are electronegative
the polar character of water allows it to form what type of bonds?
four properties of water that are critical to life
1. it is the principle solvent
2. exhibits both cohesive and adhesive forces
3. helps maintain stable temp
4. ice floats in liquid water
water makes a good solvent because?
of its highly polar character
hydrophilic substances
interact readily with water
water does not readily dissolve. . .
nonpolar(hydrophobic) substances, thus, hydrophobic substances are good compounds for membranes
cohesive forces
are caused by the attraction of water molecules to other water molecules, and give water a high surface tension
surface tension
the ability of a water surface to withstand some stress
adhesive forces
cause water molecules to be attracted to other kinds of molecules, it is how things are made wet
capillary action
the tendency of water to move up narrow tubes even against gravity, results from cohesion and adhesion, living organisms take advantage of this
specific heat
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a specific amount of a substance one degree celsius. (for water, 1g og water to raise by one degree of celsius
the specific heat of water is. . .
much higher than most other substances, due to hydrogen bonding. It cools down slowly b/c of the formation of hydrogen bonds
in order to change temp of water. . .
requires gain or loss of more energy than it does other substances
what helps cool the ecosphere?
the high heat of vaporization
heat vaporization
the amount of energy required to convert one gram of liquid into the gaseous state
water has an extremely high vaporization b/c?
of the hydrogen bonds in liquid water
the amount of heat(energy) required to cause the temperature of one gram of pure water to rise one degree celsius
how many calories does it take to convert 1g of liquid water into water vapor
540 calories
as liquid water cools, it becomes?
denser, but only up to a point
at 4 degrees celsius
water begins to expand as it cools further
zero degrees celsius
ice freezes into a crystal based on the placement of hydrogen bonds
proton donors. a substance that dissociates in solution to yield hydrogen ions (H+)
any substance that yields a proton is a?
proton acceptors, eaither dissociate in water to produce hydroxide ions and a cation, or split water to form a cation and hydroxide ion
water tends to slightly dissociate into?
hydrogen adn hydroxide ions (H+ and OH-)
in pure water, the concentrations of these ions are?
H+ = OH- = 10^-7
ten more times = 10^-6
acidic solutions
have an elevated H+, and thus reduced OH-
basic solutions
have an elevated OH-, and thus reduced H+
pH scale
to express the proton concentration of a solution
pure water has a pH of?
so ten times more = 10^6 or pH 6
ten times less = 10^8 or pH 8
a pH below 7 is
a pH above 7 is
the pH of most living things is?
7.2 to 7.4
minimize pH changes
weak acids and weak bases serve as?
a liquid into which a substance dissolves
the dissolved substance
solvent + solute
form from acids adn bases
are salts, acids, or bases that form ions in water and thus can conduct an electrical current when dissolved in water. (pure water is poor conductor, but put salt in and it is)
are substances like sugar that dissolve in water do not become ionic
a mixture of 2 or more elements and/or more elements and/or compounds
mixtures that are not uniform composition throughout - a living organism is a good ex.
mixtures that are completely uniform thorughout, a salt water is a good ex.
organic chemistry
have at least one carbon covalently bonded to another carbon atom or to hydrogen, the chemistry of organic molecules is organized around the carbon atom
single carbon cardon bonds allow?
rotation around them and lend to flexibility to molecules
the shape of a molecule is important in determining?
its chemical and biological properties
molecules that have same molecular formula but different structures
substances with the same arrangement of covalent bonds, but the order in which the atoms are arranged in space is different
structual isomers
substances w/ the same molecular formula that differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms
two kinds of stereo isomers
cis-trans isomers - associated w/ compounds that have carbon carbon double bonds
enantiomers - substances that mirror images of each other and that cannot be superimposed on each other
functional groups
groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone that give properties different from a C-H bond
hydroxly group
polar, found in alcohols, interacts w/ water
carbonyl group
polar, found in aldehydes and ketones, interacts w/ water
carboxyl group
weally acidic, found in organic acids, iteracts w/ water
amino group
weakly basic, found in such things as amino acids, interacts w/ water
sulfhydryl group
essentiallu nonpolar, found in some amino acids, does not interact w/ water
phosphate group
weakly acidic, found in such things as phospholipids and nucleic acids. interacts w/ water
methyl group
CH - chomp down on meth
nonpolar(thus hydrphobic), found in such things as lipids, other membrane components
are long chains or branching chains based on repeating subunits (monomers)
ex. proteins(polymer) made from amino acids (monomer)
very large polymers
polymers are degraded into monomers by?
monomers are covalently linked to form polymers
the four major classes of biologically important organic molecules are
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
include sugars, starches, and cellulose. contain only 3 elements - C, H, O = CH20
created for energy storage and consumed for energy production
carbohydrates are grouped into?
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
simple sugars(a single monomer).
include ribose and deoxyribose
include GLUCOSE, fructose, and galactose
pentose and hexose sugars form what kind of structure?
ring structures in solution -this often creates diastereomers
consist of two monosaccharide
units. formed when the equivalent of a water molecule is removed from the 2 monosaccharides
two monomers are joined by a
glycosidic linkage
common disaccharides
maltose, sucrose, lactose
(malt sugar)has 2 glucose subunits
(table sugar) glucose + fructose
(milk sugar) glucose + galactose
marcomolecule made of repeating monosaccharides units linked together by glycosidic bonds
the main storage carbohydrate of plants. polyer made from alpha-glucose units
unbranched starch chain
branched starch chain. plants store starch in organelles called amyloplasts
the main storage carbohydrate for animals. highly branched and more water-soluble. mostly found in liver and muscle cells, NOT found in organelle
the major structural componet of most plant cell walls. polymer made from beta-glucose.
most organisms cannot digest?
cellulose contains what percentage of the carbon found in plants
structural component in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons
fata and fat like substances. are a heterogeneous group of compounds defined by solubility NOT structure.
lipids are principally
lipids consist of
carbon and hydrogen
roles of lipids are
serving membrane as structural components, signaling molecules, and as energy storage
major classes of lipids are?
triacyglycerols(fats), phopholipids, and terpenes
contain glycerol joined to three fatty acids
saturated fatty acids contain
no carbon-carbon double bonds
usually solid at room temp
unsaturated fatty acids contain
one or more double bonds
usually liquid at room temp
one double bond
more than one double bond
condensation results in
ester linkage b/w a fatty acid and the glycerol
consist of diacylglycerol molecule, a phosphate group esterfied to the 3rd OH group of glycerol, and an organic molecule esterfied to the phophate
phospholipids are
amphipathic, they have a nonpolar end(tail -hydrophobic)) and a polar end(head)
long chained lipids built from 5-carbon isoprene units
are terpene derivatives that contain four rings of carbon atoms
macromolecues that are polymers formed from amino acids. have structural diversity.
roles of proteins
enzyme catalysis, defense, transport, structure/support, motion, regulation
proteins are made from amino acids and amino acids are linked by?
peptide bonds
amino acids
consist of a central or aloha carbon, bound to that carbon is a hydrogen atom
the R group of an amino acid determines?
the identity and much of the chemical properties of the amino acid
plants and bacteria usually make their own?
amino acids
peptide bond
joins the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another, is formed by a condensation reaction
two amino acids fastened together by a peptide bond
what determines the structure of a protein?
the sequence of amino acids
proteins have 4 levels of organization
primary structure (1 degree)
secondary structure(2 degree)
tertiary structure(3 degree)
quaternary structure(4 degree)
primary structure of a protein
the sequence of amino acids in the peptide chain
secondary structure of a protein
results from hydrogen bonds involving the backbone, where the peptide chains is hld in structures, either a coiled aloha-helix or folded pleated sheet
quaternary structure of a protein
results from interactions between two or more seperate polypeptide chains. it is the 3-dimensional structure(the protein conformation)
protein conformation
the final three dimensional structure. this determines the function
biological substances that regulate the rates of the chemical reactions in living organisms, most are proteins
nucleic acids
transmit hereditary info by determining what proteins a cell makes. are polymers made of nucleotide monomers
two classes of nucleic acids
functions in protein synthesis according to mechanisms
a nucleotide consists of
a 5-carbon sugar(ribose or deoxyribose), one or more phosphate groups, and a nitrogen base
double-ringed nitrogen bases
single-ringed nitrogen bases
DNA typically contains the purines. . .
and the pyrimidines
adenine(A) and guanine(G)

cytosine(C) and thymine(T)
RNA typically contains the purines. . .
and the pyrimidines
adenine(A) and guanine(G)

cytosine(C) and uracil(U)
nucleotides are fastened together by
phosphodiester bonds
DNA's structure is
double helix, it is the hydrogen bonds hold strands together
the two stralnds of DNA are
adenosine triphosphate(ATP)
an important energy carrying compound in metabolism
cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)
is a hormone intermediary compound
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD+)
an electron carrier which is oxidized or reduced in many metabolic reactions

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