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Glossary of busn ethics chapter 2

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Consequentialist Theories
focus is on ____


consequences
Utilitarianism (Teleological Theory) comes from Teleos (Greek)meaning ___



End
in Utilitarianism “The ends____"

justify the means.”
the obligation of Utilitarianism is to?
perform the action that will result in the greatest possible balance of good over evil.

Primary Proponents of Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832) & John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873)

examples of Utilitarianism ?
Lying creates false beliefs—this might result in someone making a disadvantageous choice (in this case lying is bad!)
What about telling a husband with murderous intentions where his cheating wife is?


4 distinct theories of Utilitarianism?
Consequentialism
Hedonism
Maximalism
Universalism


– rightness of actions is determined solely by the consequences (ends)

Consequentialism
– maximize pleasure over pain {greatest balance}

Hedonism
– the greatest amount of good consequences {choose the path with the greatest balance of good over bad}

Maximalism
– consider the consequences to everyone alike (not just consequences to you, your family, your friends, etc.)

Universalism
example of universalism?
Toxic waste dump

approach of Utilitarianism
Identify alternative actions & their consequences (laid off)

Best decision yields the greatest net benefit

Worst decision yields greatest net harms





Problems with Utilitarianism

How do you measure pleasure?
Should you try to measure utility (balance of pleasure over pain?) Ford Pinto example. The rights of minorities can be sacrificed
Should we enslave 2% of the population to serve the needs of the other 98%?)



Deontological Theory comes from the word deon which means?
Duty

Deontological focuses on
Focus on duties, obligations, & principles

the saying for Deontological theory is that "the means___.."
the means matter
Deontological Theory examples
Examples: Lying, bribery, theft, etc. are wrong regardless of the consequences!

Deontological Theory decisions are based on
abstract universal principles
dw ross 7 duties?
fidelity , reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence , self-improvement , non-maleficence
what duty is to keep promises (explicit/implicit); to tell the truth

Duties of fidelity –
what duty is to compensate people who were wrongfully injured

Duties of reparation
what duty is to return favors that others do for us

Duties of gratitude
what duty is – to ensure goods are distributed according to merit

Duties of justice
what duty is to do what we can to improve the condition of others

Duties of beneficence –
what duty is with respect to virtue & intelligence

Duties of self-improvement
what duty is – to avoid injury to others

Duties of non-maleficence
Deontology example
Person A donates to alleviate suffering.
Person B wants to impress others with his generosity.

Deontology focuses on doing what is right for the right reasons!
utilitarianism uses alternatives when dealing with ehthical decisions such as
path and and path band which has the best benefit
in regards to Deontology, What should you do if the rules/duties conflict?
pick more important duty
when making rules you don’t know your “station” in life
Veil of Ignorance”
with vitrue ehtics the focus is on...
integrity and Focus on the integrity of the moral actor rather than the act

8 Steps to Sound Ethical Decision Making
Gather the facts/Define the ethical issues/Identify the affected parties/Identify the consequences (long & short-term; consequences of secrecy)/Identify the obligations /Consider your character & integrity/Think creatively about potential actions/Check your gut

When you’re asked to make a snap decision:

Pay attention to your gut
Ask for more time
Find out about organizational policy
Ask your manager or peers for advice
Use The New York Times test



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