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Glossary of brain

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Created by klrmom

4 main sections of ventral (under portion) of brain:
1. diencephalon
2. mesencephalon (midbrain)
3. pons
4. medulla oblongata


cerebrum
This is the largest and most obvious portion of the brain. It accounts for approximately 80% of the brain’s mass. It is divided into two equal hemispheres. Each hemisphere is then divided into four lobes
fissures
deep grooves that divide lobes
gyri
raised portions of the cerebrum
sulci
grooves in between gyri
cerebellum
located below and behind the cerebrum and looks like a smaller version of it. This is responsible for coordinating muscle movement and maintaining posture.
meninges
a term given to the three membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord
dura mater
outermost layer of meninges; contacts bones of cranium
arachnoid
Underneath the dura mater; this is a mesh of connective tissue, thinner and more delicate than the other two layers
pia mater
The innermost layer surrounding the surface of the brain; which is similar in makeup to the dura mater—a dense and highly vascular sheet of connective fibers.
choroid plexus
The blood vessels of the pia mater infold and are covered by a thin layer of cells which then project into the third, fourth, and lateral ventricles of the brain; responsible for making cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid
circulates through the hollow areas of the brain and spinal cord. It is then reabsorbed into the walls of the arachnoid where it drains into the circulatory system. This fluid functions primarily as a shock absorber.
commissure
A site of union of common parts.
corpora quadrigemina
Part of the mesencephalon.
corpus callosum
An arched mass of white matter found in the depths of the longitudinal fissure.
diencephalon
Contains some of the most vital centers of body activity.
fornix
A general term for an arch-like structure or the vault created by such a structure.
genu
A general term used to describe any anatomical structure shaped like a knee.
mammillary body
Located near the pituitary gland.
medula oblongata
Together with the pons, it makes up the brain stem.
neuron
A general term meaning nerve cell.
optic chiasm
Part of the hypothalamus formed by the crossing of the optic nerves.
pituitary
The “master gland.”
septum pellucidum
A triangular membrane separating the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles.
splenium of corpus callosum
The posterior rounded end of the corpus callosum; it conveys visual information.

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