Glossary of bisc

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Which of the following belongs to the general senses category?
Which type of neurons carry the signals toward CNS?
sensory neurons
What is responsible for the feeling of the well-being that drugs of abuse provide?
the drugs delay the decay of the neurotransmitter increasing the duration of the response
Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination?
Which of the following carry electrical signals towards the body of the neurons?
Which part of the brain is responsible for pain?
Which of the following form the white matter?
myelinated neurons
Which of the diseases are associated with neurotransmitter defects?
Alzheimer's, Parkinson’s, ADD
Which part of the brain is responsible for heartbeat?
brain stem
Which of the cerebrum lobes is responsible for the touch sensation?
Which of the following sensory cells have hair responsible for the reception?
auditory receptors cells

olfactory receptors

taste cells

What is the function of cochlear duct?
transmission of the waves through the liquid that fills it
Which of the following are the chemical senses?
taste and smell
Damage to internal organs may be felt as referred pain elsewhere because
Sensory neurons from internal organs share nerve pathways in the spinal cord with body surfaces
A problem with which part of the eye is responsible for cataracts?
Which of the following refers to the pain receptors?
They are also called nociceptors
Which part of the eye is affected in glaucoma?
a chamber behind the cornea filled with aqueous humor
Which types of the following receptors are mechanoreceptors?
auditory receptors
How are the sounds transmitted from the ear to the brain?
Cilia on the specific hair cells vibrate
Which photoreceptor cells are responsible for the vision in the dark
Which of the following hormones are anti-inflammatory?
Which glands are located on top of the kidneys?
Which cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin?
Everyday stress is damaging because of _________
Consistently high level of glucocorticoids

High blood-sugar level

High level of LDL cholesterol

Where is oxytocin produced?
Which hormone promotes bone demolition?
parathyroid hormone
Which of the following secretes glucocorticoids?
adrenal cortex
Which of the following secretes melatonin?
Which hormone is responsible for bonding?
The Graves' disease is caused by_________
over-secretion of thyroid hormones
Which enzyme is involved in replication?
DNA polymerase
At which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replicate?
Which of the following is not true about cancer?
Cancer cells cannot divide many times
At which stage most of the cytoplasmic division take place?
Which of the following is not a part of interphase?


What is apoptosis?
cell death
How does chemotherapy affect cancer cells?
It kills dividing cells
What duplicates in chromosomal replication?
The cancer that invaded surrounding tissue is called________
How many chromosomes do human have?
Which of the following are gonads?


How many eggs are produced from one primary oocyte?
What is the hormonal level during menstruation?
Low estrogen and progesterone
Which cell secretes testosterone?
Leydig cell
Which of the following accessory glands produce fructose?
Seminal vesicle
Where does fertilization happen?
Which of the following is much more abundant in egg than in sperm
Which of the following is more reliable contraception method?
IUD (Mirena)
What secretes progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?
Corpus luteum
When in the development the immature eggs are produced in the ovaries?
before birth
At which stage does the implantation of a pre-embryo occur?
Which structure increases the surface area for a more efficient exchange between fetus and mother?
Chorionic villi
Which embryonic structure is a precursor of muscles and bones?
Which cells of the early embryo will form placenta?
Which of the following is true about fetal oxygen source?
Oxygen diffuses from mother to fetus blood because fetal hemoglobin binds oxygen stronger
During which time in the development most of the organogenesis takes place?
During first 8 weeks
Which hormone secreted by placenta causes smooth muscle relaxation?
Which changes in telomeres, the ends of chromosomes, may lead to aging?
Telomeres shorten
Which embryonic layer does the nervous system come from?
Why do pregnant women have morning sickness?
High levels of estrogen and progesterone secreted by corpus luteum
Frontal lobe
voluntary movements, planning and organizing future behavior
cerebral cortex
understanding speech, visual and other sensory input
brain steam
heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing
relays input between the spinal cord and brain. Pain, pressure, temp are info received
sex drive, pain, pleasure, hunger, thrist, blood presure, body temp.

releases hormones that regulate sperm and egg productions, menstrual cycle

bundles of axons, or nerve fibers
clusters of cell bodies
shape change in the receptors
chemical stimuli
pain receptors
respond to tissue damage
what type of receptors is only externoreceptors?
sensory adaptation
stimulus contines over a regular span of time and perception is turned down
what is the sensory for body position
muscle spindles
when do touch receptors transmit signals?

when they are deformed
what are taste receptors called
gustatory receptors
what is the term for smell receptors?
what kind of receptors are in the ear?
what part of the eye is inflamed in viral eye infections?
muscle that adjusts the pupil?
what holds the eye in place?
ciliary body
Protein Hormones
bind to a surface receptors that trigger a change inside the cell
steroid hormones
diffuse across cell membrane, synthesized from cholesterol
hypothalamus mostly controls which other gland?
pituitary gland
what are the effects of Oxytocin
promotes affiliative behavior. encourages to make relationships and friends.
alpha cells produce?
beta cells produce?
delta cells produce?
how does strees affect the blood-glucose levels?
sympathetic nervous system triggers release of glucagon, which spikes blood glucose
parathyroid gland secretes?
increase calcium concentration in blood
Thyroid gland secretes?
calcitonin decreases calcium ion concentration in blood
what is melatonin?
hormone that induces sleep
which hormones does thymus produce?

thymosin and thymopoietin
what is the role of the thymus?
promotes development of immune system cells
a process where cells of a malignant tumor can break away and start cancers elsewhere
what is the name of the region where sister chromatids are connected?
what happens if the cell starts to ignore checkpoints?
unregulated cell divison leads to large masses of cells called tumors
process where cancer cells can stimulate the growth of surrounding blood vessels

It supplies the tumor with oxygen and nutrients

contact inhibition?
displayed by normal cells and prevents them from dividing when they would pile up on each other
anchorage dependence?
normal cells need contact with an underlying of cells to stay in place allowing them to leave the tumor and move to blood and lymph or nearby tissues
Where does sperm form?
seminiferous tubules
which cells support sperm maturation?
cytolsis cells
what are the projections that suck oocytes in the oviducts?
what is the endometrium?
inner surface of the uterus
where does ectopic pregnancy occur?
egg implants in the oviduct not the uterus
what is contained in follicles?
an immature egg
what happens with follicles during ovulation?
a primary follicle develops into a secondary follicle and then into a mature Graafian follicle
corpus luteum?
secretes progesterone that prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by maintaining blood flow to uterine lining.
polar bodies?
tiny cells that produce when an ovulated egg undergoes an off-center meiosis
Stem cells?
is an undifferentiated cell that gives rise to many different kinds of cells.
cell differentiation?
the process of the cell specification
Fetal, and embryonic stem cells are produced?
Fetal stem cells are produced during the fetal stage (9th week until birth).

Embryonic stem cells are produced during the first weeks of development.

What causes an embryo to take a ball shape?
The daughter cells are connected by gap junctions
what are the inner cell mass and trophoblasts?
30-34 cells inside the blastocyst form the inner cell mass.

The rest of the blastocyst is called the trophoblast, which includes the chorion, one of the extraembryonic membranes

What causes formation of the monozygotic twins?
During the first cleavage or two, it is possible for the daughter cells to break apart
What secretes HCG and what test is based on it?
most pregnancy tests work by detecting the presences of HCG hormone in the urine of pregnant women
Where does amniotic fluid come from? Whats its role?
The amnion contains amniotic fluid, which insulates the embryo from extreme temperatures and functions as a shock absorber to protect the embryo.

What is gastrulation? What are the three embryonic layers? Which main organs come from them?
gastrula, a structure with three germ layers-ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
What time in the development is extremely sensitive to environmental damage?
8 weeks This period of organ formation is risky because environmental exposure to toxic compounds can easily disrupt the process
Which system of the embryo is the first to develop?
nervous system
How does the neural tube form? Which organs come from it?
The ridges fuse to form a hollow neural tube covered with a layer of ectoderm. The brain
Which cells form the peripheral neural system?
original connecting cells
Which vitamin deficit causes the neural tube defect?
folic acid vitamin
How does alcohol affect fetus?
skull deformities and reduced mental capacity
How does nicotine affect the fetus?
Nicotine interferes with the migration of bone marrow stem cells from the fetal liver, more than likely resulting in cardiovascular and immunological problems in babies of smokers
what causes aging?
Some scientists feel that cells accumulate assaults that gradually cause loss of function and death resulting in organ system failure.

Genetic and environmental factors determine how a person ages.

whats the average life span for men and women.


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