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Glossary of biology 213

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Created by domenida

convergent forms
-same biological trait in unrelated lineages
-australian marsupial and placental mammmals
homologous
-similar characteristics from shared ancestry
analogous
-wings of insects and birds
artificial selection
-encourage occurrence of desirable traits
vestigial organs
-once essential feature, now degenerated and useless
polymorphic
-more than one type, sometimes many
mutation
-change in DNA sequence
point mutation
-change a single base
types of point mutations
-base substitution
-insertion/deletion
base substitution results
-missense: diff amino acid
-silent: same aa
-nonsense: STOP codon

insertion/deletion results
-framshift (more serious than substitution)
intrinsic source of mutation
-spontaneous
extrinsic sources of mutation
-induced by mutagens
mutagen
-something in our environment that causes mutations
population
-group of interbreeding organisms that produce fertile progeny
gene pool
-total of all genetic variation in a sexually reproductive population
assortative mating
-"like with like" mating
-may have little effect
disassortative mating
-outbreeding
-higher hetero
sexual selection
-partners chosen according to physical or behavioral characteristics
sexual dimorphism
-marked differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics
directional selection
-favors individuals at one of the phenotypic range
stabilizing selection
-favors intermediate variants, acts against extreme phenotypes
disruptive selection
-favors individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range
fitness
-contribution of individual to the gene pool of next generation
relative fitness
-contribution of a genotype to next generation compared to contributions of alternative genotype for same locus
frequency-dependent selection
-fitness depends on abundance
oscillating selection
-fitness varies with environmental variation
hetero advantage
-hetero is more fit genotype
species
-potential to interbreed in nature
-produce viable, fertile offspring
-reproductively isolated from other species

biological species concept does not apply to...
-asexual organisms
-fossils
-organisms about which little it known regarding their reproduction

allopatric speciation
-individuals are geographically separated from others in the same population
sympatric speciation
-individuals within a population mate only with a subset of conspecies
reinforcement hybrid zone
-populations continue to diverge and will become different species
fusion
-populations being to merge together and will become one species again
stability
-populations maintain their small genetic differences
adaptive radiation
-occupied new ecological niches
heterochrony
-differential timing of development
allometric growth
-relative differences in growth
paedomorphism
-adult retention of juvenile morphology
hox genes
-affect position and development structures

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