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Glossary of biology 1112

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Created by britneyzurovetz

to have knowledge
scientia
study of natural phenomena and uncovering explanations that govern natural phenomena
science
promote understanding
basic science
use/ apply understanding
technology-applied science
use science to enforce their point of view

ex. astrology and physics

pseudo science
natural phenomena
domain of science
cross connection between perception of senses
synaetheisa
start simple. - brief
parsimony
attempt to disprove your hypothesis
experimental design
without data...
you are just another person with an opinion
scientific results are often reported as...
probability
lack of absolute proof is bothersome to...
miopic people
if a hypothesis can not be disproven then we
accept it
a hypothesis that has stood the test of time
theory
hypothesis vs theory is...
description vs prediction
scientific method aims for objectivity, and avoids mythecism and
works by self correction and leans towards rationalism and avoids dogmatism
what percent of adults have a bachelors degree
24.4
evidence vs gut feeling
dogma
law of gravity was discovered by
sir isaac newton
law of gravity means
what goes up must come down
self correcting and progressive
science
physics and chemistry are:
atoms and molecules
biology is
-organelles
-cells
-tissue
-organs
-organ system
-organisms




ecology is
-population
-ecosystem
-biosphere

astronomy is
extraterrestrial
atom:
-92 natural elements
-lego blocks of the universe


periodic table was made by
ernest rutheford
molecules:
- ex. proteins, fats, carbs, dna (macromolecules)
-C02, h20 (compound molecules)


organelles:
-each has a distinct function within the cell
ex. mitochondrian (important for aerobic activity)
cell:
-basic unit of biology
-200-220 cells in an adult




bacteria is a
prokaryote
the study of cells
cytology
tissue:
-four types: muscle, connected, epithalial, nervous
in a human adult body there are how many cells?
50-100 trillion
the infrastructure to life:
carbon
organ system:
-also called teamwork personified
-ex. digestive system


organ:
food storage and digestion
individual/organism
-smallest form in which a species can exist and is an organism

who said "10 to 100 times 10^6 species on earth"
el wilson
population:
individuals that share a gene pool.
-can also mean species exhibiting metamorphosis
ex. caterpillars to butterflies

sexual dimorphism:
ex. humans lions and angler fish
biological community:
the biota of an area.
-ex. terrestrial-woods
ocean-diatom to sharks

all living things
biota
ecosystem:
-basic unit of ecology
-types: temperature, rainfall, soil.
biosphere
-ex. earth

extraterrestrial:
out of earth
the study of life and discovering principles governing life
biology
rules to win the darwin awards:
1. make yourself unable to reproduce
2. have to have an outstanding misapplication of good judgment
darwin awards 3-5.
3. self selection
4. must be an adult
5. event must be witnessed by another person

who made up the darwin awards
wendy northcutt
characteristics of living things:
-growth
-organization
-adaptation
-metabolism
-movement
-irritability






robert wadlow was the...
largest human
the blue well is the...
largest animal
the tree is the...
largest plant
the small mushroom is the...
largest living organism
organization:
-ex. art, things like the mona lisa.
reproduction:
sexual, asexual.
states that all new life comes from existing life
theory of biogenesis.
role of dna:
you gotta have it
in order for organisms to survive, they have to adapt or go extinct.
adaptation
an outcome of natural selection...
adaptation
what percentage of animals are extinct
99%
total of all internal chemical reactions

metabolism`
types of metabolism.
aerobic and anaerobic
requires oxygen
aerobic
sources of biological energy:
solar and chemical (photosynthesis)
where the flowers follow the sun
phototaxis
the fastest species:
the perigrin falcon
how fast can the paragrin falcon go?
over 200 mph
the fastest land animal:
cheetah
how fast can the cheetah go?
over 70 mph
response to environmental stimuli.
irritability
gorammi
growth
organization
reproduction
adaptation
metabolism
movement
irritability





unifying concept one:
physical-chemical nature of life
living systems are governed and explained solely by the laws of physics and chemistry
mechanism
things that thrive in extreme places
extremeophiles
all religious creation accounts involve the supernatural and mythology, many -isms. all are examples of vitalism
vitalistic philosophy
what determines the origin stories and myths?
when and where you are born
why creationism is scientifically unacceptable?
-not a hypothesis.
-no supporting physical evidence
defers origin of life to a different place...reason not accepted?
no evidence to support hypothesis
what does gorammi stand for?
Growth
Organization
Reproduction
Adaptation
Metabolism
Movement
i?





rapid, continuous and spontaneous generation of life from inanimate matter
spontaneous generation
egyptians, crocodiles, and nile mud; aristotle and birds are all examples of what?
spontaneous generation.
"new life-big or small- is not spontaneously generated from inanimate matter" is the conclusion concerning...
spontaneous generation
"life is an outcome of predictable chemical interactions that simply follow basic physical chemical laws. overtime, these chemicals become more complex and stable" is a...
contemporary scientific hypothesis of chemical evolution leading to the origin of life
big bang happened how long ago?
13.7 x 10^9 yr. ago
oldest fossils were from how long ago?
3.5 x 10^9 years ago
the earth is how old?
4.5 x 10^9 yr.
time for life to originate?
1 billion years
nobel prize winning experiments of miller and urey who simulated early earth conditions allows for what?
experimental testing
7 gases placed in a sterilized, circulating, closed system with an energy source is the experimental test of which 2 scientists?
miller and urey
what is the meaning of the experimental testing?
a supported testable hypothesis instead of special creation
cooling,
energy capture
polymerization
metabolism
hereditary material.
evolution
aerobic resspiration





the order of things to happen for life to happen
the difference among the following?
1. origin of life
2. continuation of life
3. diversification of life


1. chemical evolution
2. sexual & asexual reproduction
3. evolution by natural selection

characteristics of the earth that contributed to the development of a carbon based life system?
-distance from the sun and temp.
-size of something related to gravity
what is the second unifying concept?
cellular basis of life
in 1665 who coined the word cell?
robert hooke
the beginning and end...
cell importance
the greatest invention in the history of life on earth...
cell
since the invention is has been...
all cell all the time.
during 1830-1860 three germans contributed to...
cell theory
cell theory has 3 parts...which are...
1. all organisms consist of cells.
2. cells are functional units of organisms
3. theory of biogenesis

all cells are...
monophyletic
monophyletic:
all cells come from one cell
do prokaryotic cells have a nucleus...
no
does eukaryotic have a nucleus?
YES
-cell wall
-chloroplast
-vacuals
-no centriols


plants have these...
eukaryotic cell composition:
-nucleus with dna
-cytoplasm
-plasma (cell membrane)

2 interesting points concerning mitochondria...
-source comes from mom.
-they have their own dna
lynne margulis came up with...
the idea of symbiosis.
unifying concept no. 3...
chemical similarity of inheritance.
responsible for the construction of a cell, operation of a cell, heredity
genetic materials
the most important chemical on earth...
dna
the universal language of life
dna
watson and crick determined what in the 1950s
the structure of dna
was from the 1990s to 2005. they found al ot of stuff.
human genome project
unifying concept 4:
evolution by natural selection
evolution is the ---- of biology
cornerstone
evolution is ---- as atomic theory is to ----
biology
chemistry
evolution has been studied for ---- years
150
middle ages were the dark ages because
all explanations about nature were homocentric
earth circulates around the sun.
heliocentrism
which two scientist got in trouble.
gallileo
capernicus
which scientist was excused by the pope in 1992?
gallileo
once a species always a species
fixody or immutability of species.
who was the first person to coin evolution and say that the species change over time with use and disuse of parts
lamark
who thought of the eye and reproduction experiment
lamark
who tested lamarks theory using mice tails and cutting them off.
weismen
an ocean is an example of this
constant environment
well adapted species persist relatively unchanged...
constant environment
in a changing environment, there is...
extinction
evolution is the consequence of 3 natural processes...
1. variation.
2. natural selection.
3. inheritance

over time evolution results from...
variation
natural selection
inheritance.

when evolution happens we have...
adaptation.
speciation.
radiation

change within a species
adaptation
the development of a new species. ex birds
speciation
one species evolving into a bunch of species
adaptive radiation
how many species of sponge are there?
5 k
how many species of grass?
10k
how many species of fish?
25 k
how many species of beetles
350 k
birds evolve from
theropods
who said that as long as there is dna on the planet there will be evolution
natalie angier
what is the significance between lincoln and darwin?
they were both born on the same day...feb 12th 1809
lincoln did what?
darwin did what?
emancipation proc.
evolution
who had the greatest impact on the world?
darwin
arch bishop ussher estimated the earth was how old?
6,000 years
how far off was ussher?
6 orders of magnitude
facts about darwin.
-english aristocrats
-grandfa. free thinker
-religious family
-grandfa. athiest


what did darwin like to do?
-ride horses
-shoot stuff
-collect objects of nature

what was the goal of the hms beagle
to generate a map of the coastline of south america
who was the 3rd person to influence darwin?
charles lyle- gave him a book about the earths age
charles lyle gave darwin which book.
principles of biology
who did darwin marry?
emma wedgewood
what did he do before he got married?
made a pro and con list
how many kids did darwin have? and how many years were him and emma married?
10 kids.
42 years
who came up with the idea that species begin to change over time in space
darwin
breeding for certain trait in a species.
artificial selection
who tried to publish the same findings that darwain did?
ar wallace
who is the father of taxonomy?
carl von lynne
the process of naming organisms
taxonomy
two names per organism
binomial nomenclature
what were the good things about binomial nomenclature
-provides a single file per species
-avoids regional names
who named 10,000 species including homosapiens
carl
all the names are in which language
latin
one individual selected to represent the entire species
holotype
arranging objects in some logical order
classification
who founded the new species of dinosaurs
edward drinker cope
when they first wanted to do classification...they used what? now they use what?
anatamy and proteins
-now dna
the actual revolutionary history of a species
philogeny
who was the father of science
aristotle
who crated the scale naturia?
aristotle
what is scale naturia translated to? and what does it mean?
scale of nature
ladder of life
who created the classification tree in the 1860s?
ernest hackel
what is the acronym for the tree?
dumb kings play chess on fine grained sand
what is the tree?
domain
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species






how many domains are there?
3
how many kingdoms are there?
6
how many phylums are there?
50
what are the 3 domains?
archaeobacteria
what is archaeobacteria?
ancient backteria
what are the three domains?
-archaeobacteria
-eubacteria
-eukarya

what does eubacteria mean?
true bacteria
what does eukarya mean?
nucleated cell
prokaryotes are put into the
eubacteria
prokaryotes have the ability to...
photosynthesize
and capture atmospheric nitrogen
what is the oldest organism on the planet?
bacteria
what is the most numerous organism on the planet?
bacteria
what will always be the age of bacteria?
earth
what are good things about bacteria?
-the decompose things
-fix nitrogen
what are the bad thigns about bacteria?
they cause disease
how many kingdoms does eukarya make up? and what are they?
four.
-protista
-fungi
-plantae
-animale



what is algae and protozoans
protista
what is yeast mold and mushrooms?
fungi
what is liver wart to flowering plants?
plantae
what is sponges to vertebraes?
sponges
what are multicellular and have 55000 species?
protista
what use external digestion via hyphae, and also are responsible for decomposition of human food and have 75000 species?
fungi
what are green, do photosynthesis, major species in terrestrial ecosystems, and all the energy we digest is from this?
plantae
how many species of plantae are there?
275,000
what have 36 phyla, are invertebraes,ex analids and molescs invertebraes.
and vertebraes. ex. humans, fish.
animale
how many animale species are there?
1.9 x 10^6
there are four cordate characteristics of these. 1. has a notochord (backbone) 2. nervechord. 3. pouches inside the throat area. 4. post anal and tail.
for all vertebraes
insects, jointed legs, exoskeleton,
anthropada
the study of insects
anthropology
1.agnatha-jawless fish
1.contrichthes-cartilage (no bone)
3. osteichthytis (bony fish)
4. amphibia (transitional to land)
5. reptilia (reptiles)
6. aves (birds)
7. mammalia (humans)





7 cordate classes
oldest vertebraes, parasites, no fins
agnatha
no bladder, no lungs, placoid sclaes, evolved from bony fish
contrichthes
the most numerous of vertebraes, bladder, lungs, scales
osteichthytes
first terrestrial vertebrae, require moist environments for reproduction, scaleless, highy ceceptible to extinction
amphibia
first truly terrestrial vertebraes, scales, better lungs, ambiotic, ambiotic egg
reptilia
glorified reptiles, no teeth, have light bones, homeothermic (warm blooded)
aves
homeothermic, hair, mammary glands, live birth, monotremes,
mammalia
what does darwin love?
BIRDS!

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