Glossary of biology 1112
Created by britneyzurovetz
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- to have knowledge
- study of natural phenomena and uncovering explanations that govern natural phenomena
- promote understanding
- basic science
- use/ apply understanding
- technology-applied science
- use science to enforce their point of view
ex. astrology and physics
- pseudo science
- natural phenomena
- domain of science
- cross connection between perception of senses
- start simple. - brief
- attempt to disprove your hypothesis
- experimental design
- without data...
- you are just another person with an opinion
- scientific results are often reported as...
- lack of absolute proof is bothersome to...
- miopic people
- if a hypothesis can not be disproven then we
- accept it
- a hypothesis that has stood the test of time
- hypothesis vs theory is...
- description vs prediction
- scientific method aims for objectivity, and avoids mythecism and
- works by self correction and leans towards rationalism and avoids dogmatism
- what percent of adults have a bachelors degree
- evidence vs gut feeling
- law of gravity was discovered by
- sir isaac newton
- law of gravity means
- what goes up must come down
- self correcting and progressive
- physics and chemistry are:
- atoms and molecules
- biology is
- ecology is
- astronomy is
- -92 natural elements
-lego blocks of the universe
- periodic table was made by
- ernest rutheford
- - ex. proteins, fats, carbs, dna (macromolecules)
-C02, h20 (compound molecules)
- -each has a distinct function within the cell
ex. mitochondrian (important for aerobic activity)
- -basic unit of biology
-200-220 cells in an adult
- bacteria is a
- the study of cells
- -four types: muscle, connected, epithalial, nervous
- in a human adult body there are how many cells?
- 50-100 trillion
- the infrastructure to life:
- organ system:
- -also called teamwork personified
-ex. digestive system
- food storage and digestion
- -smallest form in which a species can exist and is an organism
- who said "10 to 100 times 10^6 species on earth"
- el wilson
- individuals that share a gene pool.
-can also mean species exhibiting metamorphosis
ex. caterpillars to butterflies
- sexual dimorphism:
- ex. humans lions and angler fish
- biological community:
- the biota of an area.
ocean-diatom to sharks
- all living things
- -basic unit of ecology
-types: temperature, rainfall, soil.
- -ex. earth
- out of earth
- the study of life and discovering principles governing life
- rules to win the darwin awards:
- 1. make yourself unable to reproduce
2. have to have an outstanding misapplication of good judgment
- darwin awards 3-5.
- 3. self selection
4. must be an adult
5. event must be witnessed by another person
- who made up the darwin awards
- wendy northcutt
- characteristics of living things:
- robert wadlow was the...
- largest human
- the blue well is the...
- largest animal
- the tree is the...
- largest plant
- the small mushroom is the...
- largest living organism
- -ex. art, things like the mona lisa.
- sexual, asexual.
- states that all new life comes from existing life
- theory of biogenesis.
- role of dna:
- you gotta have it
- in order for organisms to survive, they have to adapt or go extinct.
- an outcome of natural selection...
- what percentage of animals are extinct
- total of all internal chemical reactions
- types of metabolism.
- aerobic and anaerobic
- requires oxygen
- sources of biological energy:
- solar and chemical (photosynthesis)
- where the flowers follow the sun
- the fastest species:
- the perigrin falcon
- how fast can the paragrin falcon go?
- over 200 mph
- the fastest land animal:
- how fast can the cheetah go?
- over 70 mph
- response to environmental stimuli.
- unifying concept one:
- physical-chemical nature of life
- living systems are governed and explained solely by the laws of physics and chemistry
- things that thrive in extreme places
- all religious creation accounts involve the supernatural and mythology, many -isms. all are examples of vitalism
- vitalistic philosophy
- what determines the origin stories and myths?
- when and where you are born
- why creationism is scientifically unacceptable?
- -not a hypothesis.
-no supporting physical evidence
- defers origin of life to a different place...reason not accepted?
- no evidence to support hypothesis
- what does gorammi stand for?
- rapid, continuous and spontaneous generation of life from inanimate matter
- spontaneous generation
- egyptians, crocodiles, and nile mud; aristotle and birds are all examples of what?
- spontaneous generation.
- "new life-big or small- is not spontaneously generated from inanimate matter" is the conclusion concerning...
- spontaneous generation
- "life is an outcome of predictable chemical interactions that simply follow basic physical chemical laws. overtime, these chemicals become more complex and stable" is a...
- contemporary scientific hypothesis of chemical evolution leading to the origin of life
- big bang happened how long ago?
- 13.7 x 10^9 yr. ago
- oldest fossils were from how long ago?
- 3.5 x 10^9 years ago
- the earth is how old?
- 4.5 x 10^9 yr.
- time for life to originate?
- 1 billion years
- nobel prize winning experiments of miller and urey who simulated early earth conditions allows for what?
- experimental testing
- 7 gases placed in a sterilized, circulating, closed system with an energy source is the experimental test of which 2 scientists?
- miller and urey
- what is the meaning of the experimental testing?
- a supported testable hypothesis instead of special creation
- the order of things to happen for life to happen
- the difference among the following?
1. origin of life
2. continuation of life
3. diversification of life
- 1. chemical evolution
2. sexual & asexual reproduction
3. evolution by natural selection
- characteristics of the earth that contributed to the development of a carbon based life system?
- -distance from the sun and temp.
-size of something related to gravity
- what is the second unifying concept?
- cellular basis of life
- in 1665 who coined the word cell?
- robert hooke
- the beginning and end...
- cell importance
- the greatest invention in the history of life on earth...
- since the invention is has been...
- all cell all the time.
- during 1830-1860 three germans contributed to...
- cell theory
- cell theory has 3 parts...which are...
- 1. all organisms consist of cells.
2. cells are functional units of organisms
3. theory of biogenesis
- all cells are...
- all cells come from one cell
- do prokaryotic cells have a nucleus...
- does eukaryotic have a nucleus?
- -cell wall
- plants have these...
- eukaryotic cell composition:
- -nucleus with dna
-plasma (cell membrane)
- 2 interesting points concerning mitochondria...
- -source comes from mom.
-they have their own dna
- lynne margulis came up with...
- the idea of symbiosis.
- unifying concept no. 3...
- chemical similarity of inheritance.
- responsible for the construction of a cell, operation of a cell, heredity
- genetic materials
- the most important chemical on earth...
- the universal language of life
- watson and crick determined what in the 1950s
- the structure of dna
- was from the 1990s to 2005. they found al ot of stuff.
- human genome project
- unifying concept 4:
- evolution by natural selection
- evolution is the ---- of biology
- evolution is ---- as atomic theory is to ----
- evolution has been studied for ---- years
- middle ages were the dark ages because
- all explanations about nature were homocentric
- earth circulates around the sun.
- which two scientist got in trouble.
- which scientist was excused by the pope in 1992?
- once a species always a species
- fixody or immutability of species.
- who was the first person to coin evolution and say that the species change over time with use and disuse of parts
- who thought of the eye and reproduction experiment
- who tested lamarks theory using mice tails and cutting them off.
- an ocean is an example of this
- constant environment
- well adapted species persist relatively unchanged...
- constant environment
- in a changing environment, there is...
- evolution is the consequence of 3 natural processes...
- 1. variation.
2. natural selection.
- over time evolution results from...
- when evolution happens we have...
- change within a species
- the development of a new species. ex birds
- one species evolving into a bunch of species
- adaptive radiation
- how many species of sponge are there?
- 5 k
- how many species of grass?
- how many species of fish?
- 25 k
- how many species of beetles
- 350 k
- birds evolve from
- who said that as long as there is dna on the planet there will be evolution
- natalie angier
- what is the significance between lincoln and darwin?
- they were both born on the same day...feb 12th 1809
- lincoln did what?
darwin did what?
- emancipation proc.
- who had the greatest impact on the world?
- arch bishop ussher estimated the earth was how old?
- 6,000 years
- how far off was ussher?
- 6 orders of magnitude
- facts about darwin.
- -english aristocrats
-grandfa. free thinker
- what did darwin like to do?
- -ride horses
-collect objects of nature
- what was the goal of the hms beagle
- to generate a map of the coastline of south america
- who was the 3rd person to influence darwin?
- charles lyle- gave him a book about the earths age
- charles lyle gave darwin which book.
- principles of biology
- who did darwin marry?
- emma wedgewood
- what did he do before he got married?
- made a pro and con list
- how many kids did darwin have? and how many years were him and emma married?
- 10 kids.
- who came up with the idea that species begin to change over time in space
- breeding for certain trait in a species.
- artificial selection
- who tried to publish the same findings that darwain did?
- ar wallace
- who is the father of taxonomy?
- carl von lynne
- the process of naming organisms
- two names per organism
- binomial nomenclature
- what were the good things about binomial nomenclature
- -provides a single file per species
-avoids regional names
- who named 10,000 species including homosapiens
- all the names are in which language
- one individual selected to represent the entire species
- arranging objects in some logical order
- who founded the new species of dinosaurs
- edward drinker cope
- when they first wanted to do classification...they used what? now they use what?
- anatamy and proteins
- the actual revolutionary history of a species
- who was the father of science
- who crated the scale naturia?
- what is scale naturia translated to? and what does it mean?
- scale of nature
ladder of life
- who created the classification tree in the 1860s?
- ernest hackel
- what is the acronym for the tree?
- dumb kings play chess on fine grained sand
- what is the tree?
- how many domains are there?
- how many kingdoms are there?
- how many phylums are there?
- what are the 3 domains?
- what is archaeobacteria?
- ancient backteria
- what are the three domains?
- what does eubacteria mean?
- true bacteria
- what does eukarya mean?
- nucleated cell
- prokaryotes are put into the
- prokaryotes have the ability to...
and capture atmospheric nitrogen
- what is the oldest organism on the planet?
- what is the most numerous organism on the planet?
- what will always be the age of bacteria?
- what are good things about bacteria?
- -the decompose things
- what are the bad thigns about bacteria?
- they cause disease
- how many kingdoms does eukarya make up? and what are they?
- what is algae and protozoans
- what is yeast mold and mushrooms?
- what is liver wart to flowering plants?
- what is sponges to vertebraes?
- what are multicellular and have 55000 species?
- what use external digestion via hyphae, and also are responsible for decomposition of human food and have 75000 species?
- what are green, do photosynthesis, major species in terrestrial ecosystems, and all the energy we digest is from this?
- how many species of plantae are there?
- what have 36 phyla, are invertebraes,ex analids and molescs invertebraes.
and vertebraes. ex. humans, fish.
- how many animale species are there?
- 1.9 x 10^6
- there are four cordate characteristics of these. 1. has a notochord (backbone) 2. nervechord. 3. pouches inside the throat area. 4. post anal and tail.
- for all vertebraes
- insects, jointed legs, exoskeleton,
- the study of insects
- 1.agnatha-jawless fish
1.contrichthes-cartilage (no bone)
3. osteichthytis (bony fish)
4. amphibia (transitional to land)
5. reptilia (reptiles)
6. aves (birds)
7. mammalia (humans)
- 7 cordate classes
- oldest vertebraes, parasites, no fins
- no bladder, no lungs, placoid sclaes, evolved from bony fish
- the most numerous of vertebraes, bladder, lungs, scales
- first terrestrial vertebrae, require moist environments for reproduction, scaleless, highy ceceptible to extinction
- first truly terrestrial vertebraes, scales, better lungs, ambiotic, ambiotic egg
- glorified reptiles, no teeth, have light bones, homeothermic (warm blooded)
- homeothermic, hair, mammary glands, live birth, monotremes,
- what does darwin love?
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