Glossary of biol 117

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Atmosphere levels
Earth > troposphere > stratusphere > mesosphere > Theremosphere
mostly above the tree line
limited nutrients/sunlight
mostly above artic circle
cold and damp with minimal precipitation
Ptarmigan, snowy owls artic foxes
high carbon stores in permafrost

Conifer (boreal forest)
low tree diversity
needles insead of leaves which conserve water
cold and dry
catastrophe prone: shallow root growth & insect devastation

Temperate deciduous forest
Moderate/seasonal temperatures
many decomposers in soil
rich/thick soil due to slow decay
skunks, raccoons, deer, bear, moose

drier and warmer
grazing animals limit tree growth
rich soil
solar radiation promoting vegetative growth
fires help maintain and cycle nutrients

Very dry and hot
plants/animals conserve water well
stems of plants used for photosynthesis
animals avoid mid-day activity

Tropical Rainforest
most bio diverse - 2/3 of living organisms
warm and most
plants compete for sunlight and grow up
little plant growth on ground
thin soil due to rapid decay
consumers live in tree
plants use trees as support for growth (stanler fig)
competition and predation

Vernal pools
spring thaw puddles
dont last long
year round water basins
amphibians, few fish, water plants, insects
swamps and bogs
acidit water due to decaying vegetation
lake zones
Littoral zone: shallow, recieves sunligh, contains rooted aquatic plants

Limnetic zone: entire layer of sunlit water, no rooted plants, plankton and fish

Profundal: no direct sunlight

Benthic: no sunlight, bottom

Brakish water
mixed salt and freshwater
[saltwater below freshwater]
marshes, bays, estuaries

high nutrient content
harsh living - waves, tides
neritic zones
shore to continental shelf
sunlight for photosynthesis
nutrient cycling from bottom
kelp forests - provide shelter

any recognizable structure of ORGANIC origin preserved from geologic past
Mineral profusion
total tissue replacement with iron, calcium, silicon

petrified wood
coprolites - fossilized dung

Precambrian Era
Age of earth [4.5], first rocks, oldest cells, O2 levels increase from photosynthetic bacteria, first archaea and eukarya, first multicellular organisms, first animals
Mesozoic Era
Age of reptiles: higher temp favors reptiles
Break up of Pangaea
Dinosaurs, mammals, birds, flowers
Dinosaur extinction late mesozoic

65MYA - present
age of mammals
flowering plant radiation
origin of hominids (human ancestors)

Peptidoglycan cell wall
layer outside cell membrane
gram positive = thin & no dye
gram negative = thick & dyed violet

Gram negative, autotrophic
dont cause disease
slimy cel wall
1st autotrophic bacteria
largest biomass
generated O2 early environments
ancestors of chloroplasts
symbiotic relationship with fungi to form lichens

Gram negative, heterotrophic
thick phospholipid bilayer impedes antibiotics & immune system
ancestors of mitochondria
disease causing: e. coli, yersenia, cholera, gonorrhea, ulcers

Nitrogren fixing: plant symbonic relationship

Gram positive bacteria
disease causing
thick peptidoglycan layer
can be bad or good
streptococcus, staphlycoccus, MRSA
Streptomyces (antibiotics), lactobacillus (makes cheese/yogurt)

no organelle/nuclear membranes
branched hydrocarbon lipid layer which resists abiotic stress
Thermophiles: high temp
Halophiles: high salinity
Methanogens: produce methane
Chemoautotrophs: self feeding using inorganic chemicals

Nuclear membrane
distinct hydrocarbon layer
protists (paraphyletic), plants, fungi, animals
Internal cytoskeleton
Cell organelles
many chromosomes

Apical complex
at one end of cell enzymatically aids in penetrating prey cells
Alternation of generations in protists
Alternate between multicellular haploid individuals that produce sperm and egg. Sperm and egg unite and form diploid sporophite which then produce haploid gametophytes and cycle continues
Key characteristic of plantae kingdom
Presence of photosynthetic organelle (chloroplast) that derived from endosymbiosis in ancestor NOT JUST the photosynthetic pigments
Stacked and flattened vesicles without connection to inner membrane in chloroplasts. Most efficient extraction of solar energy
help intercellular diffusion of vital products to other cells in the same organism that don’t have access to one or more resources

Waxy cuticle
reduces dehydration that would reduce photosynthesis

Allows growth on land

Brings CO2 more rapidly into cells for photosynthesis
Vascular System in land plants
cellular pipes that bring in water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves and vice versa
Nonvasular plants without cuticle
green algae
purely aquatic
immerced in freshwater
Chlorophyta (ex: Charales)

nonvascular plants with cuticles
lack supportive structures
sprawling surface growth
conducting tubular cells but not lignin
first to have stomata
Slightly extend out of water
first spores
largest divistion (mosses)
first land plants

Vascular seedless plants
tower over low level nonvascular plants
still need moist conditions - flagellated sperm

Xylem tissue (with lignin in tracheid cells for above-water transport and
phloem tissue for sugar transport – photosynthate)

paleozoic era appearance
spores produce gametes when moisture
Largest Division: Pteridophyta (Ferns)

Vascular, naked seed plants (gmynosperms)
innovation of pollen:
1. spore produced
2. 2 cells: germ and tube
dehydration resistant seeds:
1. embryo
2. endosperm (nutrients)
3. seed coat made of sporopollenin which protects against dehydration, digestion and allows dormancy

Cones: scales that partially protect spores and naked seeds
Largest Division: Pinophyta (Pines/spruces/firs)

Vascular plants with fruit covered seeds
Lack primary and secondary cell walls in vessel elements - improves water transport
Monocot - grasses
Dicot legumes, asters and orchids

Functions of Root
Provide N, O, K, H2O
Tap vs. Diffuse system
Attach plant to ground
Long term starch storage
Access O2

Stems/ Trunks/Shoots function
[have nodes and leaves]
transport between leaves and roots
support of plant
photosynthesis in dry conditions
water storage in cacti
protection - thorns
energy storage: potatoes
asexual reproduction: lateral stem runners above ground (stolons) and below (rhizomes)

Leaf functions
Light collectors
Water collectors
Attachment in climbing plants
Defense: cacti spines
Water storage
Obtaining nitrogen in carnivorous plants

Flower functions
Attract pollinators
Protect eggs embryo and seeds in an ovary
Promote seed dispersal by making fruit

Meristematic cells
actively dividing, undifferentiated
thin cell walls
no secondary walls
meristem (primary growth, tip of root) and cambium (secondary growth, shoot tip) tissue

Parenchyma Cells
Totipotent (can be anything)
slow dividing
Thin primary cell wall
variable function
95% of plant cells

Specialized support cells
missing cytoplasm components and primary cell wall (pholem cells)

or no cytoplasm and primary and 2ndary cell wall with ligin (xylem cells)

irritants on leaves
reflect excess solar radiation
conserve water
sometimes kill/digest insects

Palisade mesophyll
elongated cells
site of most photosynthesis
spongy mesophyll
part of leaf
spave for gas and H2O exchange

Vascular Bundle: xylem, pholem and support cells

Consists of:
Cork Cells
Cork Cambium
Secondary phloem

Cork cambium
produces cork cells
often with lignin
Secondary pholem cells
transport photosynthate, nutrients between inner/outer cells
Secondary Vascular Cambium
produce rays that transport fluids/nutrients between cells of trunk

produces secondary phloem cells on outside and xylem cells on inside

light colored secondary zylem layers active in water transport
dark-colored xylem layer in core of tree that nolonger transport water but serve as a depot for anti-microbial and anti-fungal resins

seep out in rays to protect sapwood

Epidermis, lateral roots, root hair
increase root surface area
Cortex (in root)
food storage cells in root
Root endodermis
vascular tissue

barrier in plant root functioning

Casparian strip which blocks passive flow of materials into central part of root or stem

Pericycle in root
later from which lateral roots begin and grow
Vascular tissue (bundle) in roots

Cellular division zone
Root cap: most active area of cell division

Apical Meristems: meristematic tissue at root tips

Primary meristems: meristematic cells just above apical meristems

Elongation zone of plant growth
vascular tissue with primary phloem and xylem

Maturation zone
vascular tissue with primary phloem and xylem
Root hairs
lateral roots

Primary plant growth
apical meristem cells at root and shoot tips which increases height of plant
Secondary growth in plants
Caused by Lateral Meristems (Cambium)
increases girth
enclose and protect developing flower bud
structure which produces pollen

shaft (filament)
and terminal pad of pollen (anther)

reproductive structure that produces female gametophytes

composed of swolen basal ovary with ova, tubular style, and terminal stigma

Cohesion-tension theory
Root positive pressure pump (minor)
Endoderm - selectively permiable membrane that drives high concentration of K and sugars from phloem cells to cortex cells. This osmotically draws water into root from soil
Plasmodesma: allow water into cytoplasm to xylem cells but not out. Pressure builds up pushing water up xylem cells

Leaf Transpiration: negative pressure (Major)
Spongy mesophyll cells/stomata - puddles of water coat leaves from h2o used from photosynthesis. Water transpires due to low humidity outsideleaf
Leaf vascular bundle - the above evapotranspiration draws water out of adjacent zylem cells as well creating negative pressure that draws water up the xylem

Movement of sugars up and down the phloem
Positive pressure-flow hypothesis
1. Phloem loading: occurs in palisade mesophyll cells. Sucrose in palisade mesophyll cells are transported to phloem cells of leaf which draws water from leaf xylem. This pressure pushes sugary water mix down phloem to root
2. Phloem unloading: Root experiences increased water pressure in phloem and water flows to xylem cells and back up the tree. Sugar is transported into storage areas in root cortex
hydrophobic techniques
roots submerged in nutrient water determines the exact concentrations of nutrients required for max growth
Rapid movement via change of tugor pressure (internal water pressure ) of cells stimulated by depolarization caused by physical stimulation

ex: venus fly trap

Slower movement
Plants move toward light source (positive) or away from (negative)
Triggered by phytochromes responding to blue wavelengths (sunlight) and auxins are released in apical (shoot) meristems to shaded side of plant causing cell elongation on shaded side bending plant to light

Root tips grow downward (positive) and plants shoot upward (negative) in response to auxins generated in apical shoot meristems. Concentrations of auxins on down side of stem cause elongation and growth of those cells upwards. Roots grow downward with concentrations of auxins on the downside
Growth promoting horomone
stimulat cell elongation
flowering respone (opposite of abscisic acid)
growth promoting hormone
Abscisic acid
Promotes leave abscission (drop)
opposit of gibberellins
uses sugar in leaves
chlorophyll is digested causing color change in leaves

promotes fruit ripening
Animal characteristics of fungi
Chitin (arthropod skeleton or exoskeleton)

Chytridiomycota fungi
freshwater decomposers
mutualisms in herbivore guts
predators of protists, nematodes, mosquito and amphibian epidemics

Endomycorrhizal (arbuscular) Fungi
most common symbiotic fungi of the roots of grasses

mycelia invasion of cell wall but not cell membrane

Ectomycorrhizal fungi
symbiotic fungi of tree roots in temperate and northern forests

hypical band forms a band around tree roots

club fungi
common saprophytes (live off dead plant tissues) using peroxidase and cellulase to break down plant tissue

Mushrooms are reproductive structures

fungi associate with cyanobacteria to form lichen
Protist ancestors of animalia
colonial protist, Choanoflagellateprotist

based on likeness to sponge feeding cells

Phylym Porifera
No germ layers (totipotent)
Dead end phylum
Benthis (bottom dwelling)
Attached filter feeders

Phylym Cnidaria
Jellyfish and hydra-like animal forms
gelatinous, specialized, sessile, holozoic

Diploblastic with radial symmetry

nematocysts (harpoons) within cnidcyte cells to capture prey and defence

Multipurpose, blind, gastrovascular cavity, direct nutrient delivery and waste collection

Autotrophic endosymbionts supplement enegy intake (algae in coral)

Wave protection, refuges

Phylum Platyhelminthes
Triploblastic with bilateral symmetry
S:V ratio maximised for gass diffusion
Most primitive group w/ bilateral symm.
Slowmoving, bottom scavengers
gastrovascular cavity
Endoparasites disguise as host tissue
-Human blood fluke

Phylum Annelida
Segmented Worms
Protostome - triploblastic, bilateral sym.
Slow crawling, benthic, marine worms
todays earthworm
collagen cuticle protects against abrasion
Recycle neutrients

Phylum Mollusca
Second largest phylum
abundant and divers
muscular foot, mantle, protective shells, radula scrapes algae off shore

food, environmental fouling

Protostomes, triploblastic, bilateral sym.

Protostomes, triploblastic, bilateral sym
extremely abundant
endoparasitic heterotrophs
stress tolerant
collagen cuticle

nutrient recycling: most abundant multicellular organisms feed on bacteria and fungi in decaying matter

Human diseases - hook/tape worms

Phylum Arthropoda
Protostomes, triploblastic, bilateral sym
Crustaceans, insects, spiders, etc
80% of species
Beetles - largest order (Coleptera)

Community Crowding drove formation of exoskeleton

Niche filled
Jointed appendages, trachae, compound eyes

Food, pollination, copepods, spiders are land filter feeders, mites

Phylym Echinodermata
Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers etc
Brittle stars - 95% of sea floor biomass
Adults - 5 part radial sym
Larvae - Bilateral sym
Marine, benthic
Slow moving, heterotrophs with spines

Urchins can distroy kelp forests
Crown of thorns starfish kill coral

Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate but no skull (protochordates)
More mobile, rigid body

1st: sea squirt did not mature from larvae - gave rise to fish, amphibians etc

Cephalization - more active, development of head

Notochord - fibrous support rod along back of animal replace by vertebral column

Pharyngeal gill slits - respiration

Dorsal Hollow nerve chord - rapid sensory processing and movement integration

Post anal tail - locomotion

2 major subphyla without hardened skyll, and Subphylum Vertebrata (with cranium)

Class Chondrichthyes
Chordata > Vertebrata

First chordates with jaws
Mostly Marine Carnivores
Most designed for stream-lined mobility
Cartilaginous endoskeleton
Ventral mouth and nares

Improve quality of marine vertebrates

Class Osteichthyes
Chordata > Vertebrata
Bony fishes, ray finned fish

Most numberous of vertebrates
All aquatic habitats occupied
Ray finned fishes
All Major feeding modes
Endoskeleton of bones
No notochord
Terminal mouth

Fisheries, sport fishing, reef preservation

Class Amphibia
Chordata > Vertebrata
Frogs and Toads, salamanders, caecilians

First chordates to invade land
Increased support of body in air
Obtain O2 from air
Prevent dehydration
Achieve gamete union
- return to water for Amplexus
-external spermatophore transfer

Health index species

Class Reptilia
Chordata > Vertebrata
Lizards and Snakes, turtles, crocs

First vertebrates to breed on land & live in xeric conditions
Evolved in late Paleozoic

Terrestrial adaptations: internal respiration, internal fertilization, dry keratinized scaly skin

First appearance of amniote egg with 4 extra membranes and shell

Class Aves
Chordata > Vertebrata

Birds are reptiles?
-evolved from bipedal dinosaur in mid Mesozoic

Flying heterotrophs w/ high energy
Weight reducing adaptations

egg albumin used in antibody production

Class Mammalia
Chordata > Vertebrata
Monotremes - egglaying
Marsupials - pouch
Placentals - placental mammals

Most diverse vertebrates
Evolved from reptiles

Mammary glands
Hair and endothermy
Diet specialization
Highest quality parent care in verte.

Squamos cells
High S:V
Important exchange function
Important protective function

Cuboidal Cells
Low S:V
Secretory or protective function
Columnar cells
Intermediate S:V
Complex secretory and/or absorptive functions
Form/Function design...
Has preformance flexibility and limits

Involves tradeoffs
-structural specialization: giraffe
-Physiological specialization: koala bear
-Histological specialization: slow vs fast twitch muscle fibers

Major determinant is S:V - tradeoff between enhanced surface exchange and intracellular transport

Increased S:V ratio in animals causes
heat loss
decreased metabolic rate

Connective Tissue
secrete extracellular matrix
-transports, holds together, protects other cell types
ex: layers of skin would otherwise blister

Also bone, cartilage, fat, blood (plasma)

Nervous Tissue
Cells that generate/conduct electrochemical signals
Muscle Tissue
Cells with ability to contract and thus move associated animal structure
Epithelial tissue
two-sided cells that line surface of organism and provide interface between inner/outer surfaces of glands and organs in organism.

Opposite side functions differ significantly

connect muscles to muscles
Afferent vs. efferent pathways
Efferent = from EFFECTORS to CNS
Afferent = to CNS from effectors
Master gland of body is _____
Master transduction center of electrical to chemical information occurs in ____
Pituitary gland
Migration and concentration of neural control centers and sensory receptors forward on the body and increased bilateral symmetry and bilateral placement of sense organs for rapid and improved taxis
Maintenance Processes
"first and foremost"
physiological maintenance
Requires source of energy which involves:
Discharging wastes
Maintaining energy products in blood for immediate use and keeping a reserve of extra for emergency

eating feces in rodents with hind-gut fermentation
Stomach digestion process
Parietal cells secrete HCl
cheif cells secrete protease pepsis
goblet cells secrete mucus
proteins broken down
food moved to pyloric valve

first intestinal region
Intrinsic regulation of heart beat
Sinoatrial Node (SA, pacemaker) - spontaneously generates a beat by causing contraction through R and L atria that forces blood into ventricles

Atrioventricular node (AV) - relays impulse from SA to AV nerve bundle

AV Nerve Bundle - conducts impulse to PurKinji fiber at lower tip of ventricles where muscle contraction first begins in a wave driving blood out of heart ventricles

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