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Glossary of bio 212 final

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Created by domenida

structure/function relationship
-structure determines function
-natural selection acts on these relationships
-Natural selection acts within physical laws & environmental constraints

universal principles of physiology
-structure/function relationship
-Homeostasis
-diffusion

homeostasis
-the maintenance of a constant internal environment
-environment affects macromolecule structure (proteins)
-homeostatic mechanisms (regulation, signaling, feedback)
-degree of regulation varies


systems used for regulation, feedback, and signaling
-endocrine
-nervous
hormones
signaling molecule
how to get high diffusion rate
-higher A
-higher change p
-lower d

how body plans meet challenge of diffusion
-diffusion distance kept small
-circulatory systems for animals
-body plans act to control surface area

vertebrate tissues
-epithelial
-connective
-muscle
-nervous


epithelial tissues
-cellular boundary between inside and outside of body
-all substances entering/leaving body must pass through epithelial
functions of epithelial
-barrier/protection
-secretion
-absorption

muscle tissue
-motors of animal body
-abundance of protein filaments that effect movement
nervous tissue
-senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
-contains neurons & glial cells
neurons
-nerve cells; transmit nerve impulses
glial cells
-help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
animal energetics
-flow of energy through an animal
animals as consumers
-gains: food
-losses: heat, locomotion, growth, reproduction
Metabolic rate (MR)
-energy animal uses per unit time
calorie
-unit of energy
functions of digestive systems
-storage
-secretion
-digestion
-absorption
-elimination



types of digestive systems
-gastrovascular cavity
-gut
gastrovascular cavity
-one opening
-unspecialized
-Cnidarians, flatworms

gut
-two openings (mouth & anus)
-specialized areas
-many inverts & all verts

parts of digestive system
-mouth
-salivary glands
-esophagus
-stomach
-liver
-gall bladder
-pancreas
-small intestine
-large intestine
-anus








mucosa
-epithelium
-often convoluted
-secretes mucus

lumen
-space
-"outside"
circular & longitudinal muscle
-antagonistic smooth muscle pair
-can perform peristalsis
mouth
-muscular action & teeth break up food
-storage
saliva from salivary glands
-lubricates food
-secretion of sugar-digesting enzyme
esophagus
-moves food to stomach via peristalsis
stomach; structure
-highly convoluted
-expandable
stomach; function
-storage
-secretion (HCl & protein-digesting enzyme)
-some digestion
-muscular churning: breaks up food


pancreas; structure
-exocrine gland: invaginated epithelium & duct
pancreas; function
-production of digestive enzymes & bicarbonate
-secreted into duct
liver; structure
-exocrine gland
liver; function
-secretion of bile
bile
-salts & pigments
gall bladder
-bile storage sac
small intestine; structure
-convoluted
-villus
-microvilli

villus
-highly vascularized
microvilli
-folding of plasma membrane
small intestine; function
-digestion
-absorption (water and digested food)
large intestine; structure
-large diameter
-low surface area
large intestine; function
-concentration of waste by water absorption
complexity of digestion
-many hormones involved
-sense progress of digestion
-signals initiate downstream processes (gastrin, CCK, secretin)
-negative feedback


gastrin
-promotes secretion
CCK
-triggers enzyme release
secretin
-triggers bicarb release
homeostasis central to nutrition involves
-hormones
-signaling
-feedback

cecum
-blind sac at entrance of large intestine
-in herbivores: site for symbiotic microbes (high digestion of plant cell walls)
ruminant herbivores
-4 chambered stomach
-Chamber for fermentation by symbionts
-regurgitate & ruminate
-result: thorough digestion of plant material


ruminate
-chew cud
gut symbioses
-cecum
-ruminant herbivores
types of circulatory systems
-gastrovascular cavities
-open circulation
-closed circulation

open circulatory system
-hemolymph moves through vessels and extracellular spaces
-most molluscs & arthropods
hemplymph
-kind of equal to blood
closed circulatory system
-blood circulated entirely in vessels
-annelids, cephalopods, vertebrates
function of vertebrates circulatory system
-transport (gases, metabolites, wastes)
-regulation (transport of hormones & thermoregulation)
-protection (clotting: maintenance & immunity)

components of vertebrate blood
-plasma
-blood cells
plasma
-55% of blood
-water
-solutes (ions, metabolites, wastes, hormones, proteins)

blood cells
-45% of blood
-Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
-white blood cells (leukocytes)
-platelets


erythrocytes
-RBC
-contain hemoglobin
-function: gas exchange & transport

hemoglobin
-oxygen binding protein
leukocytes
-WBC
-1% of cells
-nucleate
-different types
-function: immunity & defense



platelets
-cell bits: pinch off from cells in marrow
-function: clotting
sphincter muscle
-close capillary beds
close beds to..
-direct flow elsewhere
-thermoregulate
-control blood pressure



types vessels
-veins
-arteries
-capillaries

interstitial fluid
-plasma leaking into interstitial spaces
-artery pressure high (forces fluid out of capillaries)
-85% of fluid re-enters capillaries by osmosis

connections with lymphatic system
-interstitial fluid
-excess fluid (lymph) drains into lymphatic system
hearts
-cardiac muscle
heart; function
-pump blood through vessels in body
heart; structure
-atrium
-ventricle
-valves

atrium
-chamber collecting blood from veins
ventricle
-muscular pumping chamber
valves
-closeable flaps between chambers
2 chamber hearts
fish
3 chamber hearts
amphibians & reptiles
4 chamber hearts
-mammals & birds
respiration
-uptake of oxygen from environment and disposal of CO2 into environment
echinoderm gills
-dermal gills (high area)
-gas exchange across 2 thin epithelia (low diffusion distance)
-epithelia ciliated (high change p)

fish gills; structure
-operculum (gill cover)
-buccal cavity
-gills
-opercular cavity


fish gills
-water movement one way
-countercurrent exchange maximizes diffusion
insect tracheal system
-series of rigid tubes (trachae) lined by exoskeleton
-trachea reach every cell
-closeable spiracles to lower water loss
-movement largely via diffusion
-circulatory system not involved
-good system for small body size




lungs
-expandable, internalized sacs supported by body
-covered in membrane
-lie in thoracic cavity
-connected to outside by tubes
-supported by cartilage



alveoli
-bronchioles branch into blind-ended sacs
-highly vascularized
-site of gas exchange

inhalation
-contraction of diaphragm (moves down)
-rib muscles contract
-occurs via negative pressure

exhalation
-thorax and lungs elastic
-relax muscles
bird lung
-1 way flow through lung
-air sacs and lungs
-lungs only site of gas exchange
-no mixing (more efficient)


partial pressure
-measure of gas quantity
3 ways to transport CO2
-hemoglobin picks up CO2 and H+
-removal of bicarbonate
-diffuses into blood plasma

osmotic homeostasis
-solutes and water must be maintained within narrow limits in body
-different environments present different challenges
osmolarity
-the concentration of all solutes in a fluid
osmolyte
-solute
-inorganic, charged ions (Na+, Cl-)
-organic, uncharged (glucose, amino acids)

osmotic concentration of fluids
-seawater=1000
-freshwater=3-10
-mammalian plasma=300

osmoconformers
-organisms that allow osmolarity of fluids to conform with environment
problem with osmoconformers
-ionic osmolytes destablizing to macromolecules
-solution: use uncharged organic molecules as osmolytes
TMAO
-organic osmolyte that protects proteins from urea
osmoregulators
-organisms maintaining and actively regulating an osmolarity different from the environment
problem with bony fish in seawater
-constantly losing water to seawater
solutions for bony fish constantly losing water
-drink lots of water
-produce little urine
-excrete salts, across gills and in urine

problem with bony fish in freshwater
-constantly gaining water from environment
solutions for bony fish gaining water
-drink no water
-uptake ions in gills
-produce copious dilute urine

problem with terrestrial animals & osmoregulating
-threat of desiccation in air
solutions to terrestrial animals
-drink
-reduce water loss
-water conservation in excretory organs

excretion
-disposal of nitrogenous waste
function of excretory organs
-perform excretion
-maintain water balance
types of nitrogenous wastes
-ammonia (fish)
-urea (mammals and sharks)
-uric acid (reptiles & birds)

general characteristics of excretory system
-all systems have same general function
-forms are highly diverse
filtration
-water and solutes forced by pressure across membranes into tubule
reabsorption
-valuable substance return to blood
secretion
-other substances extracted from body
malphighian tubules
-present in insects & spiders
-superb water conservation
-uric acid out with feces

vertebrate kidney
-renal cortex (outside)
-renal medulla (inside)
-made up of a network of nephrons

components of nephron
-glomerulus
-proximal tubule
-distal tubule
-loop of henle (looping tubule)
-vasa recta (capillary net)
-collecting duct




glomerulus function
-filtration of:
*actual* glomerulus funtion
-filtration of:
-water
-salts
-urea
-metabolites



loop of henle function
-active and passive reabsorption of water and salt
collecting duct function
-reabsorption and excretion
nerve nets
-simplest
-brain absent
central nervous system (CNS)
-brains
-nerve cords
CNS & peripheral nervous system (PNS)
-brains
-nerve cords
-ganglia

sensory cells
-diverse and present in cnidarians to humans
diversity in nervous system organization..
-correlates with lifestyle
sensory input
-receptor detects stimuli
-external (light, sound)
-internal (blood pressure, muscle tension)

interneurons
-integrate: analyze and interpret
motorneurons
-communicate with effector cells
-muscles->effect movement
nerve tissue
-neurons
-schwann cells
-supportive cells

neuron structure
-dendrite
-cell body
-schwann cells
-axon


synapse
-space between cells
-site of cell-cell communication
Neuron structure #2
-form varies with function
impulse transmission ungated ion channels
-always open
-allow ions to pass through membranes
impulse transmission gated ion channels
-open and close in response to stimuli
-3 types (stretch, chemical, voltage)
resting potential
-all cells have membrane potential
-electrical charge different across membranes
-membrane is polarized
-maintained by active & passive transport, ungated channels and pumps


resting potential in neurons
-70mV
-inside negative
-outside positive

action potential
-transmits signal down axon
-signal from changed polarization of membrane
-self propagating, directional

action potential and myelinated nerves
-impulses travel faster by jumping between schwann cells
synapses (process)
-action potential arrives
-synaptic vessels fuse with membrane
-neurotransmitter binds chemical gated channel
-channel opens
-ions rush in
-impulse propagated
-neurotransmitter released and crosses cleft





somatic nervous system
-signals to and from skeletal muscles
-response to external stimuli
autonomic nervous system
-signals to and from cardiac and smooth muscle and endocrine system
-response to internal stimuli
-important in homeostasis

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