Glossary of basic soil

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Which of the following groups of organisms are responsible for greatest amount of organic matter decomposition in
A. macrofauna
B. macroflora
C. mesofauna
D. microflora
Using microorganisms to detoxify contaminated soils is known as:
A. bacteriology
B. microphobia
C. microphilia
D. none of the above
none of the above
In most soils the overall population (number) of microorganisms changes with time, generally following changes in:
A. supply of decomposable organic matter
B. supply of oxygen
C. pore space
D. none of the above.
supply of decomposable organic matter
The most numerous microorganisms in a gram of moist soil are:
A. protozoa
B. fungi
C. bacteria
D. algae
4. When the same chemical process is carried out by different microorganism, you have:
A. functional redundancy
B. functional diversity
C. genetic variation
D. species diversity
functional diversity
6. A soil organism that is credited for improving the soil fertility by ingesting a lot of organic matter is:
A. earthworm
B. nematodes
C. bacteria
D. rhizosphere
Increasing soil organic matter will not increase soil:
B. water holding capacity
C. bulk density
D. pore space and infiltration
bulk density
Relatively speaking, which of the following pool contain the largest amount of the world's carbon?
A. soil
B. vegetation
C. atmosphere
D. ozone layer
The increasing CO2 concentration of the atmosphere is due to:
A. loss of organic matter
B. destruction of natural forests
C. burning of fuels
D. all of the above
all of the above
The organic matter content of a typical cultivated Alabama soil will be:
A. 0%
B. 1-4%
C. 50%
D. 90%
About 80% of elemental composition of a dry plant leaf is due to:
A. N and C
B. N and S
C. H and C
D. C and O
C and O
When a plant residue with C:N ratio > 25 is added to soil, microbes will absorb soluble nitrogen in the soil.
This will result in:
A. nitrate depression
B. organic residue mineralization
C. chelation
D. none of the above
nitrate depression
13. Which of the following is not a soil organic matter fraction?
A. Passive
B. Active
C. Slow
D. none of the above.
none of the above
The conversion of an element from an organic form to an inorganic state as a result of microbial
decomposition is known as:
A. Immobilization
B. Mineralization
C. Bioremediation
D. none of the above
The C:N ratio of a typical soil is generally close to:
A. 1:1
B. 100:1
C. 1000:1
D. none of the above
Plants get their C directly from____________.
A. water
B. CO2
C. cellulose
D. organic material uptake
High soil organic matter is associated with:
A. high rainfall and low temperature
B. little or no tillage
C. lush natural vegetation
D. all of the above.
all of the above.
The addition of soluble fertilizer through irrigation water is called:
A. leaching
B. water potential
C. watering
D. none of the above.
none of the above
Auburn University Soil Testing lab routinely determines:
A. soil pH
B. P
C. K
D. all of the above
all of the above
“One fertilizer recommendation does not fit whole field” can be accomplished through:
A. fertilizer diffusion
B. subsoiling
C. variable application of fertilizers
D. none of the above.
variable application of fertilizers
The main reason AU Soil Testing lab does test for N is because of:
A. difficulty in determination of N
B. trace amount of N in the soil
C. growers know how much N to apply
D. none of the above.
none of the above.
For nutrients such as Ca, B, and other micronutrient that are immobile in plants, deficiency symptom will show up
first in the:
A. younger leaves
B. older leaves
C. middle aged leaves
D. all leaves at the same time.
younger leaves
The goals of balanced soil nutrient management does not include:
A. conservation of nutrient resources
B. increased production at any cost
C. environmental quality
D. none of the above
increased production at any cost
How can you tell if a corn leaf chlorosis (yellowing of vain) is K deficiency but not N deficiency?
A. K deficiency shows up first in the younger leaves while N deficiency shows up in the older leaves.
B. K deficiency shows up first in the olde
K chlorosis starts from the edge in the older leaves, but N chlorosis starts around the center veins of older leaves
Gain of N in the soil does include N:
A. volatilization
B. leaching
C. denitrification
D. none of the above
none of the above
More than 90% of N in soil is found in ____________ form.
A. mineral
B. soluble
C. organic
D. none of the above.
The two common forms of nitrogen that are taken up by plants are:
A. N2 and NO2
B. NH4+ and NO3-
C. NH3 and N2O
D. none of the above.
NH4+ and NO3-
The percentage of P2O5 in NH4H2PO4 is:
A. 26.96
B. 61.26
C. 33.33
D. 12.17
High percentage of P and K reach corn roots by __________________ mechanism.
A. mass flow
B. diffusion
C. root interception
D. none of the above
Ca and Mg are applied to soil mostly as _____________.
A. acidifying materials
B. liming materials
C. gaseous elements
D. all of the above.
liming materials
Which of the following statements is true about plant nutrients in the soil?
A. Nutrients in soil solution are plant available
B. dissolution, desorption and organic mineralization of nutrients will replenish the soil solution.
C. plants a
all of the above
The name of bacteria involved in the conversion of NH4
++302 ??????􀃆 2NO2
-+4H+ +2H20 +E is:
A. thiobacillus
B. nitrobacter
C. nitrosomonas
D. none of the above.
The most common form of sulfur taken by plants is:
A. SO4-2
B. H2S
C. S
D. none of the above
A plant nutrient availability depends on:
A. mineral or organic reserve the element
B. release rate of the element
C. soil solution concentration of the element
D. all of the above
all of the above
ATP and ADP contain which of the following essential macronutrient?
A. K
B. S
C. Ca
D. none of the above.
none of the above.
The two forms of P that are commonly found at normal soil pH are:
A. H3PO4 and PO4-3
B. H2PO4- and PO4-3
C. H2PO4- and HPO4-2
D. HPO4-2 and PO4-3
C. H2PO4- and HPO4-2
The most common P mineral rock that is mined in FL is:
A. apatite
B. gypsum
C. quartz
D. none of the above
The two elements mostly associated with P fixation at low pH are:
A. Ca and Mg
B. Fe and Al
C. Ca and Fe
D. Mg and Fe
Fe and Al
If you were in a tropical remote area where there is no soil testing facility and you conducted the following experiment and recorded the following average data: P treatment (lbs/A) 0 60 120
Corn Yield (bu/A) 50 50 49
A possible explanation for
all of the above are possible explanations for your observation.
There are _________ cationic essential micronutrients.
A. 18
B. 6
C. 9
D. none of the above
Removal of contaminants in the soil through absorption by plants is called:
A. bioremediation
B. phytoremediation
C. radiation
D. synergism
In remote sensing, the actual scene, control or signature against which the remotely sensed value is calibrated:
D. none of the above
none of the above
Waste disposal from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on farmlands has resulted in excess
accumulation of _________________ in soils.
A. Cl
B. N
C. P
D. none of the above
Precision farming is:
A. site specific treatment and management of a field.
B. incorporating information from GPS and remotely sensed data
C. using map displays that identifies different treatment needs of a field
D. all of the above.
all of the above
A farmer needs 100 pounds of N per acre will buy how many pounds of urea (46% N) per acre?
A. 120.0
B. 46.0
C. 217.4
D. 294.1

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