Glossary of anatomy midterm

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Action potentials are triggered when initial depolarization reaches its _________.
Axon terminals store _______ (neurotransmitter) in _____ ______.
acetylcholine,synaptic vesicles
Axons cannot send a second msg until theyve repolarized. What is the purpose of this refractory period?
1.Assures transmission is one-way event. 2.Assures APs are seperate events. 3.Allows cell to recover to the resting state (builds cell up, restores ionic balance)
Classify connective tissue.
1.Connective tissue proper (loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue). 2.cartilige. 3.bone. 4.blood
Define A bands.
Anisotropic (able to polarize light)
Define a gap junction
Hole b/w two adjacent cells and allows for electrical synapse.
Define a triad in skeletal muscle.
T-tubule and cisternae ... important in accurately conveying info from AP to sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+
Define adipose cells.
1.contain oil droplets(neutral fats). 2.found beneath skin/around organs. 3.protective cushioning. 4.source of energy.
Define anastomosis
Connection between two arteries in the circle of willis
Define anatomy.
The study of the STRUCTURE of the body and their relationship to one another
Define arachnoid granulations.
Transfer CSF from subarachnoid space to superior sagittal sinus.
Dialize and fertilize
Reabsorbs CSF.

Define areolar connective tissue.
1.most widely distributed. 2.several kinds of cells(fibroblasts,macrophages,plasma cells, mast cells). 3.3 types of fibers(collagen,elastin,reticular)arranged randomly
Define ascending sensory axon tracts
Send info from spinal cord to brain
Define association fibres
- located within hemispheres, between lobes
- connect adjacent gyri

Define body cavities
Potential spaces within body that protect, seperate and support internal organs
Define cariac tamponade
Fluid leakage into pericardial space. Fluid restricts movement of organ and must be removes by aspiration or results in death.
Define cells.
1.smallest unit of living matter. 2.similar essential organelles. 3.differ in genes produced, unique shape and function.
Define central sulcus
Divides brain into front motor half and posterior sensory half
Define cerebral peduncles (brainstem)
Cortico-spinal motor tracts
Define commissures (corpus callosum)
- located between hemispheres
- white matter tracts
Define depolarization
Cations (Na+) entering the cell reduce potential (cell is less negative)
Define dermatome
region of skin innervated by a spinal segment (leads back to one level of CNS, can tell where patient has a lesion)
Define descending motor axon tracts
sends info out to muscles
Define dural sinuses.
Fed by cerebral veins, grooved out cavities where blood is emptied (don't have typical layers of veins)
Define epidura hematoma
Blunt force to the skull can rupture meningeal vessels causing the dura to seperate from the skull and localizing the blood clot (blood clot is located on top of the brain outside of the dura).
Define excitation-contraction coupling.
1.generation and propagation of AP
2.muscle contraction
Define fibroblasts.
1.most common cell in CT. 2.produces fibers by secreting proteins.
Define gyri
Bumps in cerebrum
Define homeostasis.
A relatively stable state of equilibrium or a tendency toward such a state between the different but interdependant elements or groups of elements of an organism, population, or group.
Define hyperpolarization
When cations (K+) leave the cell, potential increases (cell is more negative)
Define I bands
isotropic (do not polarize light) ie let light go through
Define intercalated discs
Special junctions between cardiac muscle cells that provide a larger surface area for attachment (light lines im image)
Define intracellular scaffolds.
In cytoskeleton, organize cell function.
Define M-line
The connection between heavy filaments
Define mast cells.
1.contain granules that mediate inflammation and allergies (heparin, histamine) -->granular cytoplasm.

Define mediastinum
central part of thoracic cavity. located between lungs, contains all thoracic viscera except for the lungs
Define microphage.
1.move w/in CT. 2.engulf&destroy foreign cells(lysosomes). 3.important defense against infection (immune system)
Define motor end plate
Highly folded area of the sarcolemma in contact with the axon terminal (increases surface area b/c of the number of receptors)
Define motor unit
All the muscle cells served by a single motor neuron from the spinal cord
Define muscle dystrophy
Muscle membrane ripped apart because the contractile force generated by filaments can't be transferred to outside (protein distrophin doesn't work), pull on lipid membrane
Define muscles
consist of cells specialized to generate motility through contraction. are organs incl. muscle,connective&nervous tissue
Define mycocytes
Muscle cells.
Define myofibrils.
Bundles of filaments in myocyes that include:
1.thin filaments(actin)
2.thick filaments (myosin)

Define myoglobin
O2 binding pigment in the sarcoplasm
Define nerve conduction
movement of nerve impulses down neurons. sometimes called propagation of nervous impulses.
Define neuromuscular junction
Represents the interface between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma
Define neurotransmission
transmission of nerve impulses across a synapse
Define Nodes of Ranvier.
Areas of the axon membrane without myelin in a myelinated axon - used in Saltatory Conduction.
Define nucleus
collection of cell bodies in the CNS, sents signals to peripheral via axon tract
Define parietal
Any structure plastered to the body wall
Define photoaging.
When UV causes disorganization of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis.
Define physiology
The study of the FUNCTION of the body
Define postcentral gyrus
Home of primary motor neuron, termination of sensory motor neuron
Define potential (difference).
Seperation of electrical charge (potential energy b/c of difference in distribution of electrical charges)
Define Precentral Gyrus
Prominent bumps on either side of sulcus
Define Projection Fibers
- connect cerebral cortex to different parts of CNS
Define rete ridges.
Downgrowth of epidermis into dermis (fingerprints)
define reticular formation
core of brainstem: alertness
grey matter tract surrounds cerebral aqueduct
releases endogenous opiods (endorphins and enkephalins) that control pain

Define sacromere
Repeating unit between successive Z lines.
Define sarcolemma
Muscle cell membrane
Define sarcoplasm
Muscle cell cytoplasm (contain myoglobin - O2 binding pigment)
Define sarcoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum
Define sebaceous.
Oil glands on the skin associated with hair follicles.
Define soma.
Cell body of a neuron.
Define subdural hematoma
Sudden movement of the head causes the brain to move inside the skill rupturing cerebral vessels...bleeding occurs underneath the dura in the CSF
Define sudoriferous glands
Sweat glands on surface of skin.
Define Sulci
Folds/valleys in cerebrum
Define synaptic cleft
Space in the neuromuscular junction between the axon membrane and the sarcolemma
Define syncytium
Long muscle fibers formed by cardiac muscle cells that are joined by intercalated discs
Define the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Branch of nervous system that controls involuntary muscles like heart and smooth muscles. Also a sensory part (viceral afferents), ingnored unless "referred pain"
Define the axon hillock
Point where stimulus is initiated in an axon (potential moves away from point of stimulus). Small area of cell where axon meets soma.
Define the corpus callosum
Connects the right and left hemispheres (seperated by longitudinal fissure)
Define the deep nuclei of the cerebral cortex
1. Limbic System
- emotions and memory
2. Basal Ganglia (corpus striatum)
- initiate/coordinate/stop motor movements
- eliminates unneccessary movements
- skills memors (input from cerebral cortex and output from thalamus to motor cortex)

Define the inferior colliculus (brainstem)
auditory reflex relay (corpora quadrigemina)
Define the longitudinal fissure
seperates the right and left hemispheres of the brain
deep fissure with white matter tracts between the two hemispheres
Define the meninges.
Connective tissue that protects CNS from damage
Consists of
1. Dura Mater
2. Arachnoid Mater
3. Pia Mater

Define the nuclear envelope.
Double layer membrane protecting the nucleus.
Define the precentral and postcentral gyrus
precentral gyrus - motor cortex (work hands and face)
postcentral gyrus - sensory cortex
Define the red nucleus
motor pathways : flexion
provides input to flexion motor component, more muscle on front of body vs back
Define the refractory period in an action potential.
1.absolute refractory period - during de- & repolarizing, no AP possible
2.relative refractory period - during hyperpolarizing period, APs harder to start
Define the resting membrane potential.
Potential of cell at rest. Inside cell has more - protein and lots of K+. Outside of cell has lots of Na+.
Define the subcutaneous layer.
Made up of areolar and adipose tissue. Layer of tissue that attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs.
Define the substantia nigra.
Dopamergenic rxns to basal ganglia
Define the superior colliculus (brainstem)
vision reflex relay to midbrain
Define titin.
filament that starts at z-disc and goes to M-line (myosin). Very stretchy and holds everything together, restricts sarcomere from being stretched too much.
Define transverse tubules (T-tubules)
Invaginations of the sarcolemma into the muscle cell (allow simulatory signal to get to inside faster, allowing skeletal muscle fibers to respond faster)
Define ventricles.
Tubes in the adult brain filled with CSF (located inside and outside of brain).

Define viscera
organs inside ventral body
Define visceral
Any structure associated with the organ itself
Define Z-disc
Where think filaments of actin join
Describe adipose tisuse.
1.LCT. 2.cells specialized for storage of triglycerides. 3.derived from fibroblasts. 4.insulator. reserve. 6.supports&protects organs. 7.higher weight=new blood vessel (obeisity=high BP) 8. found where areolar and connective tissue are
Describe aerobic ATP production for filament movement.
O2 required.stored muscle glycogen-->glucose, provides most of ATP needed for moderate exercise. Blood glucose&fatty acids act as fuel when muscle glycogen exhausted.
Describe anaerobic ATP production for filament movement.
When respiratory and circulatory systems cant deliver enough O2 to sustain muscle contraction, glycolysis occurs (glucose broken down to lactic acid and pyruvic acid)
Describe cardiac muscle.
1.striated 2.single nuclei, combined in branched arrays 3.involuntary contractions
Describe cartilige.
1.dense network of collagen&elastin fibers in chondroitin surface. 2.can endure more stress than LCT&DCT. blood vessels except in perichondrium
Describe CNS lesions and their subsequent sensory and motor symptoms
Lesion above brainstem crossing causes contralateral signs
Lesion below brainstem cross (to spinal cord) causes ipselateral signs in quantitative and contralateral in qualitative (b/c it crosses over early)

Describe collagen fibers
1.composed of protein collagen. 2.flexible, high tensile strength. 3.fibers hold cells/tissues together
Describe CSF flow.
1. Drains from subarachnoid space into superior sagittal sinus (venous blood).
2. Leaks from ventricular system to subarachnoid space through foramina in thin roof of 4th ventricle.
3. Leaks through holes in brain stem below cerebellum (through foramina

Describe cutaneous sensory reception in skin.
Two pathways. 1 conveys external sensations(pain, temp) other touch, pressure to spinal cord and brain.
Describe dense irregular connective tissue.
1.collagen fibers packed closely together,irrgularly arranged. 2.found in body where pulling forces in diff directions. 3.sheets(dermis), perichondrium, heart valves, etc.
Describe dense regular connctive tissue.
1.bundles of collagen fibers regularly arranged in parallel patterns(greath strength). 2.strands pull along fibers, fibroblasts in between ribers. pliable ex/tendons,ligaments.
Describe direct ATP production for filament movement.
Creatine phosphate dephosphorylation - fast regeneration of ATP from ADP and Pi.
Describe elastic cartilige.
Maintains shape. Chondrocytes in elastin fibers.
Describe elastic connective tissue.
1.branching elastic fibers (yellowish). 2.fibroblasts in spaces b/w fibers. 3.strong, can recoil back to original shape after stretched. 4.important in lung tissue&elastic arteries.
Describe elastic fibers
1.composed of protein elastin. 2.less strength than collagen but offers elasticity to structures such as blood vessels
Describe electrical synapse.
Electrical signal transmitted across synapse by inducing ionic movement in adjacent cell.Gap junctions found b/w smooth muscle cells, esp in the heart muscle(myocardium&uterus
Describe Excititory Postsynaptic Potentials(EPSPs)
EPSP increase in voltage brings cell closer to threshold. Often due to Na+ opening (Na+ enters cell)
Describe fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.
intermediate diameter,rich blood supply, aerobic&anaerobic respiration, walking&sprinting
Describe fibrocartilige.
1.chondrocytes scattered amonst clearly visible bundles of collagen fibers. 2.lacks perichondrium, strongest (invertebral discs between backbones)
Describe graded potentials.
Short lived, local changes, depolarization or hyperpolarization, can be summed, negative feedback mechanism quickly brings them back to RMP
Describe Huntington's (Chorea) Disease
- degeneration of Lenticular nucleus and substantial nigra
- rapid irregular tremor
Describe hyaline cartilige.
1.resilient.2.fine,collagen fibers(not visible). 3.surrounded by perichondrium w/exception of aritcular cartilige in joints&epiphyseal plates. 4.most abundant 5.flexibility/support,reduces friction&absorbs shock at joints
Describe Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs)
IPSP decrease in voltage (brings cell further from threshold). Often due to K+ opening (K+ moves out of cell and depolarization is less likely)
Describe ligand-gated ion channels.
1.ligand binds to receptor. 2.gate opens. 3.cations enter. 4.potential decreases. 5.ligand dissociates. 6.gate closes
Describe loose connective tissue
1. forms thin membranes around body.
2. beneath skill and epithelial layers, matrix for blood vessels
Describe lysosomes.
Digest substances, get rid of toxins inside cell. Membrane-enclosed vesicles that form GA.
Describe melanin.
Yellow-reddish-brown-black pigment that protects the germinal layer against UV rays (increased UV=increased melanin)
Describe metabolism and storage of nutrients in the skin.
Melanocytes synthesize and store melanin (pigment, protects from UV radiation) and keratinocytes make vitamin D
Describe Parkinson's Disease
- degeneration of substantia nigra (midbrain nucleus that connects to basal ganglia)
- difficult in movements, tremor or "pill rolling"
Describe reticular connective tissue.
1.fine,interlacing reticular fibers/cells. 2.forms stroma(support network) of liver,spleen,lymph nodes. 3.bind together smooth blood cells. 4.filter blood in spleen,remove bacteria etc.
Describe reticular fibers
1.fine collagenous fibers (smaller in diameter than collagen). 2.branch extensively. 3. fibers hold cells/tissues together.
Describe Saltatory Conduction.
1.Stimulus(increase in voltage) triggers actions potential,depolarizes local membrane. 2.+charge leaps b/w Nodes of Ranvier(exposed membrane).
Describe signal transmission across an electrical synapse.
1.Stimulus(increase in voltage) triggers AP, depolarizes local membrane. 2.+charge moves down membrane. 3.wave of depolarization meets axon terminal, +ions flow through ion channels,postsynaptic membrane depolarizes.Signal propogated across synapse.
Describe skeletal muscle.
1.structural basis for voluntary muscles. blood supply(capillaries), constant supply of O2 for function 3.muscle groups work in synchrony(agonists&antagonists) 4. multinucleated 5.contraction controlled by peripheral nerves (axons in motoro neuron
Describe slow oxidative fibers
small diameter,rich blood supply, aerobic respiration, posture and endurance.
Describe smooth muscle.
1.main contractile cells in walls of blood vessels and organs 2.spindle shaped w/single nucleus 3.smaller than skeletal 4.involuntary contractions 5.slow&sustained contractions
Describe spinal reflexes
Sensory nerves cause ascending tract to tell you something has happened - muscle twitches before reaction takes place (flexor, extensor)
Describe sympathetic output.
Fight,fright,flight. Short preganglionic neuron. Nicotinic ACh used in ganglia, NE used on effector (adrenergic receptors).
Describe the action potential.
Occurs in any cell with excitable membrane (muscles, axons of neurons), brief reversal of voltage (goes back to -), never summed, all-or-none, positive feedback
Describe the actions of potassium across a plasma membrane.
Try to leave cell because wants to go down concentration gradient (high [] inside cell).
Describe the actions of sodium across a plasma membrane.
Try to enter cell because wants to go down [] gradient (less [] inside cell) and wants to go down charge gradient (inside of cell is - so + charged Na ions try and enter)
Describe the amygdala
- analyses anger and fear expressions
- assesses danger and elicits fear response
- forms emotional memories
- output to diencephalon or hypothalamus

Describe the ANS.
Involuntary control (autonomous) & two neurons b/w CNS and effector. First (preganglionic) and second (postganglionic) neurons connect in areas called the autonomic ganglia. Innervates cardiac&smooth muscle, and glands.
Describe the aorta.
Largest artery carrying blood away from the heart (to arms...1st rib)
Describe the arachnoid mater.
Spider web like, very think, attached to dura, space between it and the pia mater is referred to as the subarachnoid space
Describe the basement membrane.
1.between epithelial and connective. 2. composed of EXM collagen fibers and proteins.
3.under basal surface
Describe the cellular organization of the cortex
1. Superficial grey matter (neurons)
2. Deep nuclei (neurons - formed around ventricles)
3. White Matter tracts (axons)

Describe the common carotid
Runs up the side of the neck to the brain. Meets the vertebral inside the skull through the foramin magnum.
Describe the conformational change of troponin
1.myosin heads cant bind to actin b/c access blocked by tropomyosin (regulatory-prevents interaction in resting state)
2.when [Ca] increases, TnC binds 4 not 2 Ca, change in charge=change in shape
Describe the connective tissue
1.wherever 2 types of tissue come together,interface w/CT. 2.found throughout body. 3.must abdundant tissue by weight
Describe the cytoskeleton.
Organizes interior of cell(network of protein filaments). Directs materials inside cytoplasm. Defines shape of cell.
Describe the dermis.
1.deeper&thicker than epidermis. 2.binds epidermis to underlying tissues. 3.contains collagen&elastin fibers that support skin.
Describe the diencephalon
- thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal
- under basal ganglia/limbic

Describe the difference in the meninges of the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord.
Unlike in the skull, the dura is not attached directly to the bone of the vertebrate allowing it to move freely... cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills subarachnoid space
Describe the dura mater.
Stuck to the skull, so thick and durable that it has its own arteries/veins/nerves, when irritated (arteries expand) a headache results
Describe the endoplasmic reticulum.
Folded sheet spanning cytoplasm.
RER-synthesizes glycoproteins&phospholips.
SER-synthesizes fatty acids&steroids

Describe the epidural fat space.
Space between the dura and the spinal cord, easily compressed during bending allowing for easy movement.
Describe the epithelial tissue.
1.covers most body surfaces inside(paritenium) and outside(skin).
2.covers organs and lines body cavities,absorption,filtration,excretion,sensory reception,secretion

Describe the events from the nerve impulse to muscle contraction
1.AP to axon terminal 2.release of ACh 3.ACh travels across synapse in neuromuscular junction,binds to receptors on motor end plate of sarcolemma 4.depolarization across sarcolemma&down t-tubules 5.Ca mobilised from SR&filaments slide across each other 6.
Describe the external carotid artery
Supplies blood to the face.
Describe the extracellular matrix (ECM)
Complex structural entity surrounding and supporting cells found within mammalian tissues.
Describe the golgi appartus.
Modifies and sorts secretory proteins from GA into extracellular fluid.
Vesicles exiting GA fuse with plasma membrane.
Describe the hippocampus.
- long term memory formation
- output to cortex via fornix

Describe the hypodermis(subcutaneous layer)
1.deepest layer. 2.attaches skin to underlying structures(muscles). 3.contains loose connective tissue and adipose tissue. 4.insulates and cushions body
Describe the internal carotid artery.
Supplies blood inside the skull.
Describe the location/pathways of the ventricles.
Ventricle I and II: in each cerebral hemisphere
Ventricle II: middle of cerebral cortex in diencephalon
LEAD TO (via cerebral aqueduct)...
Ventricle IV: between cerebellum and brain stem
central canal down brain stem

Describe the mammillary bodies.
Olfactory relay nucleus.
Describe the medulla (part of brainstem).
cranial nerves
cortico spinal motor tracts from underneath (through pons)
crossing of paramital cortico spinal tracts (left side of brain controls right side of body)

Describe the midbrain (part of brainstem).
Motor pathways (cortex to spinal cord)
Column- like
Descending upper motor neurons going down pons to medulla then to brain stem

Describe the mitochondria.
Oval, self replicates, produces energy (ATP). Bound by 2 membranes (outer&inner). Cristae are folds where ATP is produced.
Describe the movements of the body with regards to the anatomical position
Flexion - anterior (front)
Extension - contraction to the posterior (back)
Describe the negative feedback loop in temperature regulation.
1. Stimulus disrupts homeostasis by decreasing body temperature
2. Receptos: in skin and hypothalamus
3. Input: nerve impulses
4. Control centers: preoptic area, heal promoting center, and neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus
5. Output: nerve impuslse

Describe the organization of cotrical grey matter
superficial grey matter
Describe the organization of the cortex
made up of gray matter (neurons)
consist of DEEP NUCLEI (neurons) underneath the superficial gray matter and lateral to the diencephalon, formed around the ventricles
- limbic system
- basal ganglia

Describe the parasympathetic output.
Long preganglionic neuron. Nicotinic ACh in ganglia, muscarinic ACh used on effector.
Describe the pathway involved in skills memory
- use vision and motor planning area -> basal ganglia (remember motor movements)
- repeat actions fed to motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
Describe the pathway of the motor system
Descends from the cortex down the spinal cord until it reaches the brainstem, crosses at medulla, descends to lower motor neurons
Describe the pathways involved in fact memories
- loop circuits reinforce important memories
- experience remembered by analysing with amygdala
- hippocampus remembers spatial relationships and sends signal to diencephalon for important memories and overlays memories at initial point of processing

Describe the pia mater.
Think, delicate, covers the brain and goes into grooves of vessels
Describe the pons (part of brainstem)
- relay nuclei from cortex to cerebellum (cerebellar peduncles)
Describe the process of venous drainage of the brain.
Blood flows from sigmoid sinus
Down internal jugular vein (paired with internal carotid artery) and down into superior vena cava and heart
Describe the sections of the brain responsible for speech.
1. Broca's - front part of the brain, beginning of alphabet, in motor section therefore responsible for formation of words and act of speaking
2. Wernicke's areas - back part of brain, ending of alphabet, sensory therefore understanding and formulation o
Describe the serous membrane.
thin, slippery, covers viscera within thoracic and abdominal cavities and lines walls of thorax and abdomen
Describe the sliding filament mechanism of contraction.
1.thin actin filaments slide over thick myosin filaments 2.requires increase in Ca2+ 3.repeated binding cycles b/w actin and myosin
Describe the sodium-potassium pump.
1.Membrane is leaky (Na in, K out) so ions have to be returned or RMP runs down.
2.3Na+ pumped out for every 2K+ pumped into cell (net - charge), mildly electrogenic(causes a bit of RMP)
Describe the somatic motor system
Voluntary control, one neuron from CNS to effector (no ganglia). ACh used as the only neurotrasmitter.
Describe the spinal cord and white/gray matter.
Transmits sensory info from PNS to brain
Gray matter - neurons
White matter - axons (plastered outside gray matter)

Describe the steps involved in the generation and propagation of the action potential.
1.ACh vesicles released into synaptic cleft 2.bind to receptors on sarcolemma 3.Na channels open, ions enter sarcoplasm. 4.depolarization(graded membrane potentials) and initiation of AP at the motor end plate 5.AP propagated across sarcolemma and T tubul
Describe the steps involved in the generation of an action potential.
1.AP travels to axon terminal. 2.axon terminal releases ACh into synaptic cleft 3.ACh binding opens up Na channels 4.AP generated in SR 5.Ca released to initate contraction
Describe the structure of the basal ganglia
1. caudate (head)
2. caudate (tail)
3. lenticular nucleus (putamen & globus pallidus)

Describe the structure of the plasma membrane.
Phosoplipid bilayer made of of H-C chains with hydrophobic tails on the inside and hydrophillic heads outside.
Describe the subclavian blood vessel.
Branches off the aorta and takes blood to the head and arms.
Describe the thalamus.
- nuclei of diencephalon (in lateral wall of 3rd ventricle)
- sensory relay nucleus: selective attention
Describe the thoracic cavity
consists of pericardial and pleural cavities
Describe the three layers in the structure of the skin
3.subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

Describe the vertebral artery.
Commes off the subclavian and is protected in bone. Supplies back portion of the brain with blood.
Describe the wave of depolarization along the axon.
1.voltage increased (stimulus). 2.voltage-gated Na channels open. 3.voltage-gated Na channels continuously open, wave of depolarization down excitable membrane. 4.voltage-gated K channels open bringing potential back down below RMP
Describe troponin
Made up of 3 polypeptides
1.TnI-binds to actin(inhibitory)
2.TnT-binds to tropomyosin(helps position it relative to actin)
3.TnC-binds to Ca2+ ions (2 when resting, 4 when [Ca] elevated

Describe voltage-gated ion channels.
1.voltage change (from RMP) 2.gate opens 3.cations(Na+)enter. 4.potential decreases 5.gate closes(feedback mechanism)
Describe what happens at the chemical synapse.
1.Ca2+(not Na)rushes into axon of presynaptic neuron 2.causes vesicles to bind w/presynaptic membrane 3.exocyte neurotransmitter into synapse 4.msg gets across membrane. 5.neurotransmitter binds to and opens up Na channel, depolarizes
Desribe the hypothalamus
- nuclei in diencephalon
- control of autonomic nervous system (BP, heart rate, etc)
- pleasure, fear, rage
- temp regulation
- appetite
- water intake and thirst
- sleep
- endocrine control

Differentiate between first, second, and third-degree burns.
1st:epidermal layer damaged
2nd:epidermid&dermis damaged
3rd:destroys entire thickness,nerve damage, skin grafts required

Differentiate superficial and deep
superficial - structures found towards the skin
deep - ex/neuromuscular bundle (arteries, veins, nerves etc)
Elastic fibers provide the skin _______.
Endomysium,perimysium,and epimysium collect together at muscle ends to form a ________.
Epidermis is a ________ layer made up of what kind of cells?
Stratified squamous cells (keratinocytes)
Fast glycolytic fibers.
large diameter,few capillaries,anaerobic respiration, power movements
Give an example of an external and an internal pretuberation from homeostasis.
Increased or decreased environmental temperatures and sugar in the food we eat / byproducts of metabolism.
Hair colour is determined by the amount and type of pigment produced by the _______.
stratum basale.
How are muscles innervated?
Peripheral nerves
How are signals sent in to form of membrane potentials?
"electrically coded messages"

How are smooth muscle cell contractions stimulated?
1.autonomic nervous system (nerves have swellings - varicosities - that release neurotransmitters) 2.stretching, hormones, and other local factors
How are the leakage of Na+ and K+ addressed (hint: Na+/k+ ATPase)
1.ATP binds to pump. 2.ATP converted to ADP and P. 3.Pump activated and 2Na+ exit and 2K+ enter cell. 4.ADP and P dissociate and pump stops.
How can neurotransmitters be removed?
1.inactivation(breakdown by specific enzyme)
2.reuptake(unto presynaptic neuron)
How can pathology result from positive feedback?
Epileptic seizure results when synchronized neurons fire and recruit more neurons until theyre all firing together and seizure results which can be motor if motor neurons recruited (muscular) or psychological if neurons in cortex/parietal lobe affected
How can the reuptake of neurotransmitters be blocked?
1.selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 2.Cocaine(blocks epinepherine) 3.tranylcypromine(blocks NE)
How do cells form specialized tissues and organs?
The cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix integrate signals into structure which dictate function.
How do different muscle fibers differ?
1.morphology 2.body location 3.function 4.method of activation for contraction
How does one describe the cell layers of the epithelial tissue?
1. simple - single layer of cells.
2. stratified - mutiple layer of cells
How does skin thickness vary?
thick - soles of feet, palm of hands

How does the cerebellum perform its function?
1. frontal cortex notifies cerebellum of intention to make a movement
2. proprioceptors in muscles and tendons etc. inform cerebellum about position of body
3. cerebellar cortex calculates best way to coordinate movement
4. deep cerebellar nuclei send

How does the dermis regulate body temperature?
1.dialation of blood vessels. 2.sweat 3.conduction of heat through skin
How does the electronic message get from incoming axons to the cell body so that it can be transmitted further?
1. electrical synapse.
2. chemical synapse
How does the skin act as a blood reservoir?
The dermis carries 8-10% of the total blood.
How does the skin maintain a body temperature of 37 degrees?
1.Blood vessel dialation&constriction
3.conduction of heat directly from skin

How does the skin protect from external damaging agents using biological barriers?
Langerhan's cells (bone marrow)¯ophages (connective tissue) - activate immune system
How does the skin protect from external damaging agents using chemical barriers?
Oily secretions from acidic protective film waterproofs body and retards growth of microrganisms.
How does the skin protect from external damaging agents using physical barriers?
Serveral layers, upper layers are dead. Designed to withstand abrasion. Thickness and keratin(tough protein making up epidermis)
How is ATP broken down after the power stroke?
Myosin ATAPases to ADP and Pi.
How is ATP for filament movement produced?

How is muscle contraction stimulated?
action potential in the t-tubules causes Ca2+ to be released from the ST into the sarcoplasm
How is stimulation of muscle contraction terminated?
1.ACh is metabolized by acetycholinesterase in synaptic cleft and taken up into the presynaptic terminal 2.Na/K ionic [] restored 3.Ca taken back up into SR
How is the brain formed during development?
As a tube - hollow and filled with CSF
How is the epithelial tissue classified?
Shape and number of cell layers.
How is the membrane differentially permeable?
Membrane is less permeable to Na+ than K+. So, Na+ leaks into cell more slowly than K+ leaks out of cell. Result:more + charge leaks out than leaking in, net - charge left on cell.
In the spinal cord, where are the ascending sensory fibres located?
In the spinal cord, where are the descending motor fibres located?
Input from the ________ branch of the ANS is dominant in an organ.
Is smooth muscle striated?
Least amount of melanin produces _____ then ______ with ______ being the most.
Blond, brunette, black.
List the lobes of the cerebral cortex
1. Frontal lobe
2. Parietal lobe
3. Occipital lobe
4. Temporal lobe
5. Speech (Broca's and Wenicke's areas)

List the three cell shapes of the epithelial tissue.
Muscle cell(myocyte) is surrounded by ________.
Muscle cells bundled together in _______ surrounded by _________.
Muscle fascicles are bundled together in a muscle surrounded by _________.
Name the arteries to the brain.
1. Internal carotid
2. External carotid
3. Vertebral
4. Common carotid
5. Subclavian
6. Aorta

Name the bones of the axial skeleton
Skull, vertebrate, sternum, ribs, sacrum
Name the lower limbs of the appendicular skeleton
Pelvis, femur, patella, tibia and fibula (leg), tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Name the parts of the CNS.
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Brainstem (located under cerebral cortex)
3. Diencephalon (deep within brain)
4. Cerebellum
5. Spinal Cord

Name the structures of the hair located in the epidermis and dermis(top to bottom) shaft (epi). 2.pore 3.duct 4.papilla(root,receives nutrients) 5.capillary 6.sebaceous gland 7.arrector pili muscle 8.sweat gland
Name the structures of the hair located in the hypodermis.
1.nerve fiber 2.blood vessel 3.adipose cells
Name the upper limbs of the appendicular skeleton.
Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Name two diseases associated with memory
1. Alzheimer's - affects recent and past memories
2. Hippocampal Atrophy - can't store memories
Nerve roots extend further (in the spinal cord) via _______
Clauda Equina ("horses tail")
Smooth muscle is _______ organized than skeletal muscle
Spinal cord ends at verebrae ___

Spinal cord is ____ than vertebral canal
The muscle tendon is continuous with the connective tissue covering the bone,which is _________.
We must constantly change to maintain internal consistency so in order to stay consistent we must be _______.
Dynamic (every cell and organ must simultaneously regulate)
What abdominal region are the appendix and urinary bladder located in?
Hypogastric (pubic)
What abdominal region are the small intestine and transverse colon of the large intestine located in?
What abdominal region is the ascending colon of the large intestine located in?
Right lumbar
What abdominal region is the cacum located in?
Right inguinal
What abdominal region is the descending colon of the large intestine located in?
Left lumbar
What abdominal region is the diaphragm located in?
Left hypochondriac.
What abdominal region is the stomach located in?
What abdominal section are the liver and gallbladder located in?
Right hypochondriac.
What are accessory structures of the skin?
Hair, skin glands, nails.
What are cerebellar nuclei?
- deep
- output to brain after computation
What are cerebral peduncles
input and output fibres of the cerebellum
What are choroid plexus?
Blood vessels that produce CSF
What are different neurotransmitter types?
1.Biogenic amines (contain aminto functional group R-NH2)
-amino acids(glutamate,GABA,glycine,aspatate)
-Peptides(substance P,oxytocin,enkephalines)

What are dural extensions?
Reflect from the bone inwards and divide the cranial cavity into compartments.
What are examples of positive feedback mechanisms?
1. blood clotting
2. action potential in neuron
3. ovulation
4. orgasm
5. uterine contractions in labour

What are keratinocytes?
Make up epidermis, contain keratin which toughens and waterproofs the skin.
What are melanocytes and where are they found?
Found in the epidermis. Contain melanin which is a pigment that protects underlying cells from UV radiation.

What are nuclear pores?
Pores inside the nucleus (when mRNA made, exits through pores into cytoplasm)
What are qualitative sensations?
temperature, pain
What are quantitative sensations?
touch, position
What are rete ridges made up of?
1.Dermal papilla (ridges of tissue that penetrate down)
2.Epidermal peg
What are some characteristics of the epithelial tissue?
1.injuries heal rapidly.
2.always has free surface (apical)
3.anchored to connective tissue (basement membrane)

What are the "Motor autonomic" cranial nerves?
1. muscles of eyes
2. chewing muscles
3. muscles of facial expression
4. muscles of swallowing/taste
5. autonomic to internal organs
6. muscles moving head
7. muscles of tongue

What are the "Special Sense Sensory" cranial nerves?
1. smell
2. vision
3. sensory to face
4. taste (both)
5. hearing and balance

What are the cell types located in the epidermis?
2.melanocyte(pigment melanin)
3.langerhans cell(immune system)
4.merkel cell(sensation of fine touch)

What are the characteristics of diseases affecting the basal ganglia?
1. difficulty in movements
2. involuntary movements (tremors)

What are the consequences of a stroke affecting the thalamus?
- occlude thalamic arteries
- loss of sensation on contralateral (opposite) side of body
- contralateral paralysis (damage to descending motor fibres passing nearby)
- burning pain eventually

What are the deep nuclei of the brain supplied by?
Branches from middle cerebral artery
What are the detailed steps stimulating muscle contraction?
1.AP propogated down t-tubules.2.Ca2+ release from terminal cisternae in SR.3.Ca bind to troponin,changes shape,removes tropomyosin,actin active site exposed.4.myosin cross bridges attach/detach pulling actin filaments to center of carcomere, release of e
What are the different functions of the proteins embedded in membrane?
1.ion channels(passage of elements). 2.receptors(recognize hormones). 3.enzymes 4.transporters(ex/neurochemicals) 5.cell identity markers. 6.linkers(stuctural proteins)
What are the different layers of the hair structure (from innermost to outermost)?
1.medulla 2.cortex 3.cuticle 4.inner root sheath 5.outer rooth sheath 6.matrix(below) 7.Dermal capillaries (below) 8.Capillary loop(below)
What are the different ways in which graded potentials can be summed?
1.spatial summation(near each other)
2.temporal summation(close)
What are the effectors of the negative feedback loop in temperature regulation?
1. vasoconstriction: decreases heat loss through skin
2. adrenal medulla: releases hormones that increase cellular metabolism
3. skeletal muscles: cotract in a repetitive cycle=shivering
4. thyroid gland: releases thyroid hormones which increase metabo

What are the five components of the feedback system?
1. Variable
2. Detector/Receptor
3. Stimulus
4. Control center
5. effector

What are the five layers making up the epidermis?
1.stratum corneum(cornified)-dead, superficial cells, keratin
2.stratum lucidum(clear)
3.stratum granulosum(granular)
4.stratum spinosum(spiny,outside PM, spikes join w/other cells)
5.stratum germinativum (basale)-dividing,cells migrate to surface

What are the five phases of action potentials?
2.resting phase:all channels closed (RMP stable). 2.depolarizing phase (Na opens)3.repolarizing phase (K opens)4.hyperpolarizing phase 5.resting phase (all channels closed)
What are the five sensory modalities? How do they enter the spinal cord?
1. Pain, temperature
2. Touch, pressure
3. Proprioception (position)
Enter through dorsal root.

What are the Flexor Digitorum?
Muscles that flex the fingers
What are the four cell types in connective tissues?
1. macrophages
2. mast cells
3. fibroblasts
4. fat (adipose) cells

What are the four directions to describe the body in?
1. superior - rostral/top
2. inferior - caudal/tail
3. lateral (side)
4. distal - farther from point of origin/attachment
5. proximal - closer to axial skeleton (middle of body)

What are the four types of tissues and their function?
1. Epithelium - lines inside and outside of the body
2. Muscle - contractile, makes things move (GI tract)
3. Connective - body support (skeleton) and blood
4. Nervous - controlling all other tissues

What are the functions of the basement membrane?
2.adhesive between cells. 2.resists stretching and tearing. 3.diffusion barrier. 4.regulates cell proliferation. 5. influences cell migration (metastatic cancer cells invade BM of new tissue).
What are the functions of the connective tissue?
1.binding&support. against infection. 3.Repairs tissue damage (fibroblast). 4.Insulation(fat=adipose cells)
What are the functions of the following cranial nerves:
1. olfactory tract
2. optic nerve
3. trigeminal nerve
4. vagus nerve

1. smell
2. vision
3. sensory (face)
4. internal organs (parasympathetic)

What are the functions of the skin?
1.Thermo-regulation. 2.Blood reservoir. 3.Protection. 4.Cutaneous sensations. 5.Metabolism&nutrient storage. 6.Excretion&absorption(minor)
What are the glial cells in the PNS called and what is their function?
Schwann Cells - produce myelin (insulate axons), regeneration of nerve cells
What are the involuntary contractions of the cardiac muscle stimulated by?
1.intrinsic conduction system (spcialized cardiac cells) 2.regulated by autonomic nervous system
What are the latin words for crown, back of head, ear, neck, shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand?
Vertex, occiput, auris, collum cervix, omo, brachium, cubitus, anti brachium, carpus, manus
What are the latin words for the back, loin, thigh, leg, calf, heel?
Dorsum, lumbus, femur, crus, sura, calx
What are the main components of intercalated discs?
1. desmosomes - physical holding (provides strength)
2. gap junctions - open folds allowing for equilibrium of ionic contents (electrical synapses)
What are the major components in the organization of the cell?
1.plasma membrane (cells and cell contents, defines limit) 2.cyoplasm&organelles(bound by PM) 3.nucleus (chromosomes-genes)
What are the major differences in the glial cells of the CNS and PNS?
1. CNS has 3 different type of glia, PNS only has one
2. CNS regernation is limited (neurons are postmitotic which means that they dont divide after you are born) and so glia inhibit axon growth
In PNS, regernate damaged area at rate of 1mm/day

What are the major functions of the plasma membrane?
1.isolates cytoplasm from external environment. 2.regulates flow of materials in&out. 3.communication between cells(proteins) 4.identification
What are the nine sections that the abdominal quadrant is divided into?
Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac.
Right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar.
Right inguinal (iliac), hypogastric (public), left inguinal (iliac)

What are the nuclei of the brainstem?
1. substantia nigra
2. red nucleus
3. reticular formation

What are the organelles making up a cell?
ribosomes, RER, SER, golgi apparatus, mitochondria,lysosomes,cytoskeleton
What are the six levels of organization?
1. Molecular
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organs
5. System
6. Organism

What are the skeletal muscle fiber types?
1.slow and fast(speed of contraction)-depends on rate of myosin ATPase action
2.oxidative fibers(aerobic ATP production)
2.glycolytic fibers(anaerobic ATP production)

What are the spinal nerves?
1. Cervical (neck - 8)
2. Thoracic (12)
3. Lumbar (5)
4. Sacral (5)
5. Coccygeal (...)

What are the steps in regulation of blood glucose by negative feedback?
1. Homeostasis: normal blood glucose is ~ 4.5 mmol/L
2. Stimulus: high glucose in blood
3. Detector & control center: pancreas
4. Response: insulin release
5. Effectors: body cells and liver take up glucose

What are the steps in the negative feedback loop of temperature regulation?
2.control center:hypothalamus receives msg amd stimulates effectors
3.effectors:blood vessels dialate&sweat glands activated
4.increased evaporation/convection returns to homeostasis

What are the steps involved in generating the power stroke?
1.myosin heads hydrolyze ATP,become reoriented and energized. 2.myosin heads bind to actin,forming crossbridges 3.myosin heads rotate towards center of sarcomere(power stroke) 4.binding of ATP stops this
What are the steps involved in the positive feedback of blood clotting?
1.stimulus:broken blood vessels w/exposed binding sites 2a. detectors:platelet receptors for broken blood vessel walls 2b.control center:platelets (activate other platelets) 3.effectors:platelets that make up clot 4.growth limited by anticlotting factors
What are the steps of a negative feeback loop?
1. Detector/receptor: change is detected in the variable (stimulus)
2. Control Centre: response is initiated
3. Effector: creates the response to the change
4. Response decreases the change in the set point (restores homeostasis)

What are the steps of positive feedback in childbirth?
1.stimulus:pressure on cervix. 2.stretch receptors(detectors) send nervous signal to hypothalamus(control center). 3.posterior pituitary releases oxytocin in blood 4.effector:contracting uterus
What are the three fiber types in connective tissue?
2. elastin

What are the three major classes of biomolecules that make up the ECM?
1.structural proteins:collage&elastin.
2.specialized proteins:fibronectin and laminin.
3.proteoglycans:long chains of repeating disaccharide units (glycosaminoglycans) attached to protein core

What are the three phases of hair growth?
1.Anagen phase (growth)
2. Catagen phase (shrivelling up)
3.Telogen phase (dormant)

What are the three types of cartilige?
3.elastic cartilige

What are the three types of dense connective tissue?
1.dense regular CT
2.dense irregular CT
3.elastic CT

What are the three types of filamentous proteins that make up the cytoskeleton.
2.intermediate filaments (thicker, exceptionally strong stablization of organelles)
3.microtubules(tubular, long, unbranched hollow tubules of protein tubulin. Cell shape,function,movement.Motor proteins in kinesins and dynesin

What are the three types of loose connective tissue?`
1. areolar
2. adipose
3. reticular

What are the three types of muscle fibers in the body?

What are the two communication arteries in the circle of willis?
1. posterior communicating artery
2. anterior communicating artery
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
1. Sympathetic - thoracic outflow (paravertebral ganglia or para-aortic ganglia) "fight or flight"
2. Parasympathetic Division: cranial-sacral outflow, visceral ganglia, homeostasis
What are the two forces pushing the ions making up the RMP?
1.[] gradient (ions diffuse from area of high [] to area of low [])
2.charge gradient (+ charges diffuse to areas of - charge and vice versa)
What are the two main dural extensions?
1. Falx Cerebri - located in midline, divide left and right cerebral hemispheres
2. Tentorium Cerebelli - divides cerebellar and cerebral hemispheres ("tent" over where cerebellum sits)
What are the two major cell types found in the CNS?
1. Neurons - signaling cells
2. Glial cells - supporting cells
What are the two means by which homeostasis is maintained?
Positive and negative feedback (negative is more common)
What are the two organizations of smooth muscle cells?
1. Multi-unit:cells stimulated individually
2.Single-unit:electrical synapses link cells which function together
What are the two sensory pathways?
1. senses enter the spinal cord via primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root (ganglion)
2. enter dorsal horn
3. ascend up the spinal cord to the brain through tracts
4. another potential pathways is through the secondary sensory neurons and across th

What are the two types of growth of cartilige?
Interstitial and appositional growth.
What are the two types of membrane potential changes?
1. graded potentials
2. action potentials
What are the two types of sudoriferous glands?
1.apocrine-sweat released into hair follicle
2.eccrine-sweat released into pores (autonomic nervous system...stress)
What are two ways that the RMP is maintained?
1.differentially permeable membrane
2.Sodium-Potassium Pump (Na+/k+ ATPase)
What causes a potential difference?
Across plasma membrane there are few more negative ions on inside than outside (small charge seperation).
What causes the RMP?
1.uneven distribution of ions (ECF rich in Na+ and Cl- and cytosol rich in K+ and protein w/ - charge)
2.add up charges, few more - on inside(line up on membrane)
What defines cerebellar disease?
- jerky and irregular motor movements
- difficulty with rhythmic movements
- unable to stand and walk
- slurred speech
- disorders of eye

"permanently drunk"

What different types of transplantation are possible?
Cells (eggs, sperm, stem). Tissues (pancreatic islets,bone marrow,skin,veins,bone,ligaments. Organs (heart,lungs,kidney,liver).
What do grey and white matter correspond to?
Neurons (grey) and axons (white)
What do the departures from homeostasis yield?
1. Signs - objective measures of change
2. Symptoms - subjective measures of change
What does bladder biopsy generate?
Smoth muscle and endothelial cells(urothelial cells).
what does the abdominal cavity consist of?
digestive viscera
What does the anterior cerebral artery supply?
Frontal and parietal lobes
What does the carotid artery split into?
External carotid- supplies face
Internal carotid-supplies inside the skill
What does the CNS consist of?
1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord
What does the contraction cycle of the power stroke depend on?
Whether or not ATP is available and if Ca2+ level in the sarcoplasm is high enough.
What does the middle cerebral artery supply?
Frontal, temporal and occiptal lobes
what does the pelvic cavity consist of ?
bladder, reproductive organs and rectum
What does the PNS consist of?
Mixed Spinal Nerves carrying:
1. Sensory Information from body to CNS (afferents)
2. Motor information from CNS to body (efferents)

What does the positive feedback mechanism require to return to homeostasis?
distinct event
What does the positive feedback mechanism require?
1. something to regulate - variable.
2. detector for detecting the change in the variable (stimulus)
3. control center to figure out what to do when variable change is detected
4. effector to move the variable further from the starting point and provid

What does the posterior cerebral artery supply?
Occipital lobe
What does the thickness of the dermis depend on?
Sex, age, nutrition (amount of fat cells), area of body)
What filaments are muscle cells made up of?
Thick - myosin and think - actin
What five regions can the body be divided into?
1. head - skull and face
2. neck - supports head, attaches to trunk
3. trunk - chest, abdomen, pelvis
4. upper limb - attaches to trunk
5. lower limb - attaches to trunk

What four arteries supply the brain?
1. R Carotid
2. L Carotid
(around pituitary gland)
3. R Vertebral
4. L Vertebral

What happens to hair with age?
Lack of pigment causes it to turn gray/white and increased number of air spaces in the shaft of the hair results in thinning of hair.
What happens to the potential difference when potassium leaves the cell?
It is greater (voltage becomes more negative as positive stuff leaves the cell).
What happens to the potential differnece when sodium enters the cell?
Potential difference is less (voltage moves towards zero) b/c positive Na ions decrease net amount of negative change in cell.
What ion is the speed of smooth muscle cell contractions dependant on?
What is a blister?
Forms in response to excessive shearing forces to the dermis. Extracellular fluid accumulates at the dermal-epidermal junction to lift the dermis.
What is a homunculus?
Representation based on number of neurons ("little man")
Exist for post-central gyrus sensory and pre central gyrus motor
(face and hands have more neurons than trunk)

What is a transverse (cross) section?
Divides body into upper and lower halves?
What is coning?
Extreme movements of the CNS are restrivted by the dural extensions and can cause damage to the brain or nerves (chip off cranial nerves or cause brain to fall through holes or dural extension) ex "shaken baby syndrome"
What is contained in the dermis? glands. 2.highly vascular,contains hair follicles and nerve endings. 3.regulates body temperature
What is function of the Great cerebran vein of "Galen"?
Drains blood away from the brain
What is hyperthermia and hypothermia?
Too hot and too cold
What is parasagittal?
A division of the body into side halves (left/right) and isn't in the middle (off the one side)
What is the "tailor's" muscle?
Sartorius - leg
What is the anatomical position?
The subject is erect facing the observer, feet are flat and forward, arms at side with palms forward, upright
What is the arrector pili muscle?
Muscle at the bottom of the hair follicle. When it contracts it causes goosebumps.
What is the Basilar?
Major blood vessel that the four main arteries supplying blood to the brain join
What is the brainstem responsible for?
regulates basic body functions
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
controls balance and coordination
What is the Circle of Willis?
Connects four arteries in a ring:
1. Anterior/Middle/Posterior Cerebral Artery
2. Internal Carotid Artery (incoming blood)
3. Basilar Artery
4. Vertebral Artery (incoming blood)

What is the coronal sectioning plane?
Divides body into equal front and back halves
What is the corpus callosum?
commissure connecting left and right hemispheres
What is the CSF and where is it produced?
Dialized blood (H20 and dissolved proteins).
Produced in lateral, 3rd and 4th ventricles by CHOROID PLEXUS (blood vessels)
What is the difference between loose and dense connective tissue?
1.loose-fibers loosely intertwined, many cells present. 2. dense-more numerous, thicker and denser fibers but fewer cells.
What is the difference between passive and active transport?
Passive:down [] gradient. diffusion through bilayer,channel or facilitated diffusion.
Active:requires energy (up [] gradient) to get material into cell
What is the difference between white and brown adipose tissue?
Brown-darker in colour because it is rich in blood supply and has many mitochondria. Found in fetus and infants, generates heat (maintains body temp in newborns)
Heat carried to body by extensive blood supply
What is the difference in location of white matter and gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?
Brain - gray matter on outside
white matter on inside
Spinal cord-gray matter on inside
white matter outside

What is the dorsal horn?
area in spinal cord that has sensory neurons
What is the first glial cell of the CNS?
Glia 1. Oligodendrocytes: insulate axons with myelin (make it), speed up transition of electrical impulse down dendrite to axon, inhibit nerve cell regernation

What is the frontal lobe responsible for?
Personality, emotions, problem solving, reasoning and motor.
What is the function of a nucleus?
Controls cell function and structure (contails chromosomes, genetic blueprint to create proteins etc).
What is the function of the brainstem?
Crainial nerves, autonomic functions (controls tissues, organs, systems)...basic functions such as breathing and regulation of heart rate
What is the function of the cerebellum?
coordination of movement
What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
Thinking, memory, voluntary motor movements, sensory perception.
What is the function of the Circle of Willis?
Minimizes consequences of a stroke as three arteries can be blocked and blood supply still continues to the brain (via communicating arteries)
What is the function of the diencephalon?
Sensory/motor relay center, autonomic functions
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Association cortex, intellect, premotor cortex (precentral gyrus)
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
What is the function of the papillary in the hair follicle?
Nourishes cell at bottom.
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
Somato sensory (touch, pressure, temp, pain - "post central gyrus")
Association cortex (puts together sensations)
What is the function of the spinal cord?
motor output and sensory input (interface with PNS), carries information to and from cerebral cortex, reflexes.
What is the function of the straight sinus?
draings deep veins, leading edge of falx cerebri
What is the function of the superior sagittal sinus?
drains superficial veins
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
Auditor cortex (hearing)
Associated with temporal bone of skull
What is the left hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
LOGIC : language, math, logic, handedness
What is the major anatomical concept?
Form follows function
What is the major principle that anatomy and physiology are based on?
The principle of complementarity of structure and function.
What is the most important regulating structure (of homeostasis) in the brain?
What is the most important role of the ANS?
Maintain homeostasis of things like blood pressure
What is the occipital lobe responsible for?
What is the parietal lobe responsible for?
What is the pericardial cavity?
What is the pericardium made up of?
1. visceral pericardium - covers surface of heart
2. pericardial sac - slipper serous fluid
3. parietal pericardium - lines chest wall

what is the peritoneal cavity?
GI tract and reproductive organs.
what is the pleural cavity?
What is the prone position?
Body is lying facing down
What is the purpose of the Foramen Magnum?
"Big Hole" - exit tube down spinal cord
What is the resting potential of a neuron and of other cells?
Neuron = -70mV
Other cells = -40mV
What is the result of prolonged departure from homeostasis?
disease or disorder
What is the right hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
ARTS : visual-spatial skill, intuition, emotion, art and music, creativity
What is the role of the control center in a feedback loop?
Figures out what to do when the stimulus is detected.
What is the role of the detector/receptor in a feedback loop?
Detects change in the variable from its set point
What is the role of the effector in a feedback loop?
Moves the variable back to normal by depriving the system of the stimulus and terminating the feedback loop (restores homeostasis)
What is the role of the plasma membrane in a cell?
Facilitates the union and communication between cells.
What is the role of the stimulus in a feedback loop?
Movement of the system away from its set point
What is the role of the variable in a feedback loop?
Acts as the thing that is regulated.
What is the sagittal (longitudinal) sectioning plane?
Divides body into equal side halves (left and right)
What is the second glial cell of the CNS?
Glia 2. Astrocytes: system of glia, form blood-brain barrier (protect CNS from poisons in blood)
What is the skin a good indicator of?
Clinical conditions and dysfunction
What is the subarachnoid space and what is its function?
Located between the arachnoid and pia mater, contains cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a buffer and absorbs shock to the brain. Blood vessels run to and from the skull in the subarachnoid space.
What is the supine position?
Body is lying facing up
What is the temporal lobe responsible for?
Hearing, language, speech
What is the third glial cell of the CNS?
Microglia - act as defense (intrinsic immune responses)...brain is an immune priviledged site and therefore don't want the immune system to be randomnly firing (disruptive and is called bystander cell death)therefore these cells go into the brain before t
What is the ventral horn?
area in spinal cord that has motor neurons.
What kind of filaments are keratin?
What layer of the epidermis produces hair follicles?
stratum germanativum
What makes up the brainstem?
1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla

What makes up the dorsal (posterior) body cavity?
1. cranial cavity (brain)
2. vertebral cavity (spinal cord)

lined by meninges

What makes up the ECM?
Molecules secreted by cells to outside environment and ground substance and fibers (liquid-like)
What makes up the integumentary system?
Skin + hair, nails and glands
What makes up the ventral (anterior) cavity?
1. superior thoracic (chest cavity)
2. inferior abdominopelvic cavity
What nerve endings does the dermis contain? nerve endings(pain). 2.Pacinian corpuscles(pressure) 3.Meissner's corpuscles(touch)
What organs are smooth muscle cells located in?
Repiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive.
What part of the myosin molecule interacts with actin?
the head
What pigment causes red hair?
Iron base.
What regulatory proteins are present in the actin filament?
1.tropomyosin (rod shaped protein)
2.troponin (globular protein)
What role do the superficial plexus and deep plexus play in temperature regulation?
When cold,superficial plexus closes,lower arteries open to prevent blood from reaching surface.When hot,all blood vessels open so more heat loss from blood through skin.
What sensory pathways do quantitative sensations take?
Go up the same side of the spinal cord and up to the brain stem - cross over large dorsal tracts at the medulla
touch and pressure go to cortex, proprioception goes to cortex or cerebellum
What sensory pathways to qualitative sensations take?
Cross immediately in spinal cord, ascend on the same side to the cortex
Smaller tracts (not very developped or accurate sensations)
What structure seperates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
What supplies blood to the spinal cord?
Vertebran and Spinal Segmental Arteries (2 posterior spinal arteries and 1 anterior spinal artery)
What three pigments are present in the skin?
1. melanin (mainly): yellow-tan-black
2. carotene: yellow-orange
3. hemoglobin: red

What tissue layer is only located in thick skin?
What transplantation is a common treatment for type I diabetes?
islet tisse transplantation (from pancreas, purified, injected into blood stream into liver, produce insulin)
What type of sectioning is most commonly used in non-invasive medical surgery?
What would happen if a sympathectomy were performed on the heart?
Since only the parasympathetic branch would be functionning, heart rate would slow down and BP would decrease b/c of a decrease in the force of contractions of the heart (bradycardia, -ve iontropic effect)
What would happen if all autonomic input was stopped to the heart?
The heart rate would go up and the force of contractions would increase because more para than sympathetic input.
Where are different sensations associated?
parietal lobe
Where are the shath (outermost layer of hair), root (closest to skin) and hair follicle (w/in skin) produced?
matrix at bottom of hair follicle.
Where does a neuron receive its incoming messages from?
Axosomatic synapse and Axodendritic synapse (axon and dendrites)
Where does a neuron release its message?
Axoaxonic synapse (axon/nerve fibre)
Where does connective tissue orginate/form?
Mesoderm (middle layer during development)
Where does potential difference exist?
Across a membrane (membrane potential).
Where is melanin transferred to?
Keratinocytes (move to surface of skin from germanitivum)
Where is the CNS located and what protects it?
Located in the dorsal body cavity, firm boney protection
Which parts of the brain are responsible for motor and sensory?
ventral - motor
back/posterior - sensory
Why are the cervical and thoracic spinal cord areas fatter than lumbar?
Because they have ore neurons (sensory info from fingers/toes therefore motor skills are better than trunk)
Why are the locations of white and gray matter the opposite in the brain and spinal cord?
Axon tracts of sensory system that begin in spinal cord can go outside of the spinal cord, up to the cortex and motor nerve can go outside and down the spinal cord and enter at appropriate level.
Why do people who exercise have bigger muscles when the number of muscles cells do not change?
Exercise stimulates the production of actin and myosin filaments (expand fiber causing muscle enlargement and definition)
Why do positive feedback and negative feedback occur together?
Positive feedback has to be found within other negative feedback otherwise the feedback never ends.
Why does saltatory conduction occur?
When APs have to travel too long of a distance (ex/spinal cord and muscle)...depolarization is too slow for a coordinated movement
Why does the body so tightly regulate temperature?
When too hot proteins denature and can't regulate - metabolic processes no longer function
Why does the body so tightly regulate/maintain blood glucose levels?
The brain only eats glucose.
Why doesn't cartilige grow back very easily?
Avascular - substances needed for repair (blood cells in tissue repair) must diffuse/migrate to cartilige.
Why is an alternating current bad?
For an alternating current of 60Hz, axons fire 60x/sec. APs make muscle rigid (tetanic muscle contraction). If diaphragm&intercostal muscles involved, respiratory arrest can occur.
Why is myelin important to the process of saltatory conduction?
Speeds up process b/c only a short section of the axon has to be depolarized.Insulates areas so AP cant occur there.
Why is saltatory conduction faster in thicker axons?
Less resistance to current flow in large membrane (ions spread out)
Why is the CNS and not the PNS protected?
The CNS is protected inside the dorsal body cavity because of its limited regenerations
Why is the thorax so easily divisible?
Ribs and intercostal spaces act as landmarks

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