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Glossary of a&p lab exam (right one) 2

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What are the major regions of the brain?(4)
(1)brain stem (2)cerebellum (3)diencephalaon (4)cerebrum
What is the most vital part of the brain?
medulla oblongata
what is the medulla oblongata?
houses the respiratory and cardiovascular control centers
NAME
houses the respiratory and cardiovascular control centers
medulla oblongata
What are the three parts of the brain stem? (3)
(1)medulla oblongata (2)pons (3)midbrain
NAME
controls the rate of breathing and depth of breathing
respiratory center
NAME
is responsible for the rate and force of the heartbeat and blood pressure reflexes
medulla oblongata
What is the pons?
has respiratory center that assists the medulla oblongta in controlling breathing (2)relays information to the diencephalon and the cerebellum
NAME
has respiratory center that assist the medulla oblongta in controlling breathing
pons
NAME
relays infor to the diencephalon and the cerebellum
pons
What are the parts of the midbrain? (2)
(1)cerebral peduncles (2)corpora quadrigemina
NAME
the parts include the cerebral peduncles and corpora quadrigemina
midbrain
What is the cerebral pedunceles?
are white fibers that connect the upper and lower brain areas
NAME
are white fibers that connect the upper and lower brain areas
cerebral pedunceles
NAME
is called little brain
cerebellum
the cerebellum has (1)
two hemispherhes
What connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum?
vermis
What is the vermis?
connects the two hemisphers of the cerebellum
What is the diencephalon?
is the brain's central area
NAME
is the brain's central area
diencephalon
What are the (3) main regions of the diencephalon?
(1)thalamus (2)hypothalamus (3)epithalamus
NAME
has three main regions, thalamus, the hypothalumus, and the epithalamus
diencephalon
What is the thalamus?
is the brain's grand central relay station
NAME
is the brain's grand central relay station
thalamus
Why is teh thalmus the brain's grand relay station?
bc it is the prinicpil relay station for sensory fibers and some somatic motor fibers
NAME
is the prinicipil relay station for sensory fibers and some somatic motor fibers
thalamus
NAME
has imporant nuclie that control many body functions and homeostatis
hypothalamus
What is the hypothalamus?
has important nuclei that control many body functions and homeostati
NAME
of its major functions include intergrating and controling the pituitary gland and hormonal functions, autonomic functions, emotions, and behavior , body temp, eating, and drinking
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus also includes (1) and (2)
(1)infundibulum (2)mammillary bodies
NAME
includes infundibulum and mammillary bodies
hypothalamus
What is the infudibulum?
is a stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
NAME
is a stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
infudibulum
What is the mammilary bodies?
are relay stations for smell and taste relfexes
NAME
are relay stations for smell and taste reflexes
mammilary bodies
What is optic chiasm?
the area where the optic nerves cross
NAME
is the area where the optic nerves cross
optic chaism
What is the pituitary gland?
looks like alarge pea
NAME
looks like a large pea and is attached to the end of the infundibulum
pituitary gland
NAME
controls the pituitary gland
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus controls the (1)
pituitary gland
What makes up the epithalamus?
pineal gland
NAME
is made up of a pineal gland
epithalamus
What is the pineal gland?
a small endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melatonin
NAME
is a small endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melationin
pineal gland
NAME
is made up of right and left cerebral hemispheres
cerebrum
What is the cerebrum?
is made up of right and left hemispherers
NAME
is the largest and most complex division of the brain
cerebrum
The cerebrum is the (1) and most (2) divisions of the brain
(1)largest (2) complex
NAME
is the center of higher mental processes such as intelligance, communication, learning, and memory, reasoning, and emotions
cerebrum
NAME
also interprets sensory input and intilates skeletal muscle contraction
cerebrum
The cerebrum is the center for (1) such as (2)
(1)higher mental processes (2)intelligance, communication, learning, and memory, reasoning, and emotions
Cerebrum also interprets (1) and (2)
(1)sensory input (2)initates skeletal muscle contraction
What are the three main regions of the cerebrum?
(1)cerebral cotrex (2)white matter (3)basal gangila
What is the cerebral cortex?
is composed of nerve cell bodies and dendrites
NAME
is composed of nerve cell bodies and dendrites
cerebral cortex
NAME
the three main regions are cerebral cortex, white matter, and basal gangla
cerebrum
What does the insula do?
is the part of the cerebrum that inetgrates sensory information, initiates motor output, and is also involved in emotions and intellectual processes
NAME
is the part of the cerebrum that integrates sensory info, initiates motor output, and is also involved in emotions and intellectual processes
insula
What does the basal gangila control?
automatic skeletal muscle movement and are involed in the limbic system or emotional brain
NAME
is an automatic skeletal muscle movement and are involved in the limbic system or emotional brain
basal bodies
What is white matter?
composed of mostly myleinated axons that give it the white appearnce
NAME
composed of mostly myleinated axons that give it the white apperance
white matter
What are three fiber tracts found in white matter? (3)
(1)association fibers (2)commissural fibers (3)projection fibers
What are association fibers?
transmit nerve impulses w/in the same hemisphere
NAME
transmits nerve impulses w/in same hemisphere
assocation fibers
What are commissural fibers?
transmit nerve impulses btwn the two hemispheres
NAME
transmit nerve impulses btwn the two hemispheres
commissural fibers
What are projection fibers?
are ascending and descending tracts that project nervous impulses from inferior to superopr brain areas
NAME
are ascending and descending tracts that project nervous impulses from inferior to superior brain areas
projection fibers
What is the fornix?
tract of arched association fibers
NAME
is a tract of arched association fibers
fornix
What is the internal capsule?
is a large group of projection fibers containing sensory and motor tracts
NAME
is the large group of projection fibers containing sensory and motor tracts
internal capsule
What are the (4) lobes of the cerebrum?
(1)frontal (2)parietal (3)occipital (4)temporal lobes
NAME
has 4 lobes frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
cerebrum
NAME
is an elevation or fold in the cerebral cortex
gyrus
NAME
is a shallow groove btwn elevations
sulcus
NAME
shallow groove separating fronal lobe from parietal lobe
precentral gyrus
What is gyrus?
is a elevation or fold in the cerbral cortex
What is a sulcus?
is a shallow grove btwn elevations
What are the (3) functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
(1)sensory areas (2)motor areas (3)assocation areas
NAME
has three functional areas: sensory areas, motor areas, and association areas
cerebral cortox
What are the sensory areas?
receive and interpret impulses to sensory receptors
NAME
receive and interpret impulses to receptors
sensory areas
What are the motor areas?
initiate impulses to skeletal muscles
NAME
initiate impulses to skeletal muscles
motor areas
What are assocation areas?
perform complex integrative functions, receive, and send info to multiple areas of the cortex via assocation fibers
NAME
perform complex integrative functions, receive, and send info to multiple areas of the cortex via assocation fibers
assocation areas
NAME
initiates impulses to skeletal muscles
primary motor cortex
NAME
initates impulses that results in speech
broca's speech area
NAME
receives nerve impulses for touch, proprioception, pain, and temp
primary somatosensory cortex
NAME
receives impulses when the auditory receptors of the ear are stimulated
primary auditory area
NAME
receives impulses when taste buds are stimulated
primary gustatory area
NAME
receives impulses when olfactory receptors of the nose are stimulated
primary olfactory area
NAME
recieves impulses from the thalamus when the retina are stimulated
primary visual area
NAME
recognizes spoken words, translates words into thoughts, and possibly helps us sound out strange or new words
wernicke's area
NAME
integrate sensory info from the sensory cortex w past experiences allowing us for ex to id objects by touch
somatosensory, visual, and audoitory assocation areas
What protects the brain both physically and chemcially ? (3)
(1)cranial bones (2)blood-brain barrier (3)cerebrospinal fluid
What are the (3) cranial meninges?
(1)dura mater (2)(3)arachnoid mater (3)pia mater
What are the two layers of the dura mater?
(1)periosteal layer (2)meingeal layer
What are the dural sinuses?
drains cranial blood into jugular viens
NAME
drains cranial blood into jugular viens
dural sinuses
NAME
is btwn the arachnoid and pia cranal meninges
subarachnoid space
NAME
constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord w O2, nutrients, and vital chemicals.
CSF
What does CSF stand for?
cerebrospinal fluid
What is CSF?
constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord w O2, nutrients, and vital chemcials
NAME
is made from blood plasma that leaks out of choroid plexus
CSF
What is CSF made from?
blood plasma that leaks out of choroid plexus
NAME
smiling muscle
zygomaticus major
NAME
the kissing muscle
orbicularis oris
NAME
closes eyelid
orbicularis oculi
NAME
two muscles that close the mouth
(1)masseter (2)temporalis
NAME
paired muscle that flexes head and roates head to side
sternocleidomastiod
NAME
extends head
trapezius
NAME
adducts and flexes arm
pectoralis major
NAME
anterior portion flexes arm; lateral portion abducts arm
deltoid
NAME
abducts scapula and rotates it upward
serratus anterior
NAME
flexes verterbral column and compresses abdomen
rectus abdominis
NAME
two muscle pairs that flex vertebral column, compress abdomen, and laterally flex the vetrbral column
(1)external oblique (2)internal oblique
NAME
compresses abdomen only
transversus abdominis
NAME
extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm (2)
(1)tere major (2)latissimus dorsi
NAME
posterior portion extends arm; lateral portion abducts arm
deltoid
NAME
superior portion elevates scapula, middle portion adducts scapula, inferior portion depresses scapula
trapezius
NAME
nicknames for neutrophils (2)
(1)PMNS (2)polymorphanuclear
NAME (3)
are granulocytes
(1)neutrophils (2)eosinohphils (3)basophils
NAME (2)
are agranulocytes
(1)lymphocytes (2)monocytes
NAME
most numerous leukocyte
erythrocyte
NAME
least numerous leoukocyte
basophil
Draw a chart showing the anitgens on RBC's and anitbodies in the plasma for O+, A-, B-, and AB+
see notes
based on what you know about antigens and antibodies, what blood type is the unverisal donor? Explain
O because it does have not have any anitgens that will react with the A and B antigens that other blood types have
What blood type is the unverisal recepient?
AB because AB can receive A and B bc it has both antigens
What is a hematocrit
determine the volumne of RBC's described the percentage of RBC's in a whole blood sample
NAME
determines the vol of RBC's described the percentage of RBC's in a whole blood sample
hematocrit
Ron has a hemocrit of 47%. is this w/in the normal range? y or n?
yes
Janey has a hematocrit of 58%. is this w/in the normal range? y or no.
yes
Do the hemocrit and hemoglobin content of blood measure the same thing?
no, hemoglobin measure the # of protien's carrying white blood cells and (2)hemaocrit-is percent of RBC's in blood
Would a hemophiliac have an above or below normal coagulation time?
a below normal coagulation time
NAME
contains vital centers that regulate heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, vomiting, and coughing
medulla oblongata
NAME
smoothes and coordinates skilled skeletal muscle movement, also posture and balance or equilbrim
cerebellum
NAME
serecretes melatonin, that controls the sleep-wake cycle
eptihalamus
NAME
inteprets sensory input, controls skilled skeletal muscle movements, and is involved in emotional and intellectual processes
cerebral cortex
NAME
helps control breathing, conducts impulses, to and from the cerebellum, midbrain, and medulla
pons
NAME
coordinates gross, automatic muscle movements, also invoved w limbic system
basal gangila
NAME
white fiber tracts communicating btwn hemisphers
assocation fibers
NAME
paired muscle that extends verebtral column, maintains erect posture, and laterally flexes verebral column
erector spinae
NAME
extends forearm at elbow and extends arm
triceps brachii
NAME
flexes forearm at elbow and flexes arm
biceps brachii
NAME
flexes forarm
brachialis
NAME
flexes forearm and pronates and supinates forearm
brachioradialis
NAME (2)
flexes and abducts hands
(1)flexor carpi radialis (2)flexor carpi ulnaris
NAME
weakly flexes hand
palmaris longus
NAME
extends hand and extends phalanges
extensor digitorum
NAME (2)
Extends and abducts hands
(1)extensor carpi radialis (2)extensor carpi ulnaris
NAME
extends leg at knee and flexes thigh at hip
rectus femoris
NAME (3)
three muscles that extend leg only
(1)vastus intermedius (2)vastus lateralis (3)vastus medialis
NAME
flexes leg and flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh
sartorious
NAME
adducts thigh and flexes leg
gracilis
NAME
group of muscles that adducts and flexes thigh
adductor magnus, longus, brevis
NAME (2)
abduct thigh
(1)gluteus medius (2)tensor fasciate latae
NAME (2)
extends thigh
gleutus medius or gluteus maximus
NAME (3)
three muscles that extend leg
(1)biceps femoris (2)semimembranosus (3)semitendinosus
NAME
planar flexes and everts foot
fibularis
NAME
plantar flexes foot and flexes toes
flexor digitorum longus
NAME
plantar flexes foot only
soleus
NAME
plantar flexes foot and flexes leg
gastrocenemius
NAME
dorsiflexes foot and extends toes
extensor digitorum longus
NAME
dorsiflexes and inverts foot
tibialis anterior
What is plasma?
is the clear straw-colored portions
NAME
is the clear straw-colored liquid
plasma
NAME
is the dark-red and buff colored portion of blood
formed elements
What are formed elements?
are the dark-red and buff colored portion of blood
What are the formed element of blood? (3)
(1)RBCS (2)WBCs (3)platelts
What does RBCs stand for?
red blood cells
What does WBCs stand for?
white blood cells
RBCs are also called (1)
erytrocytes
NAME
are also called erythrocyres
RBCs
WBCs are also known as (1)
leukocytes
(1) are also known as leukocytes
WBCs
Platelets are also known as (1)
thrombocytes
(1) are also known as thrombocytes
Platelets
What does the CBC stand for?
complete blood count
What is the CBC?
screens for abnormalities in the # and structure of formed elements
NAME
screens for abnormalites in the # or structure for formed elements
CBC
What are erythrocytes?
are small anucelate cells that contain hemoglobin
NAME
are small anucleate cells that contain hemoglobin
erythrocytes
What is hemoglobin?
a protien that carries O2 in the RBC
NAME
is a large molecule used to transport O2 and CO2 in the blood
hemoglobin
When blood is bright red, it means that (1)
O2 rich
When blood is (1), it means that it is O2 rich
bright red
When blood is darker red, it means that it is (1)
O2 poor
When blood is (1), it means that it is O2 poor
darker red
What is polycythemia?
is an abnormally high # of RBCs
NAME
are abnormally high # of RBCs
polycythemia
What is anemia?
is a usally low number of RBCS
NAME
is a usally low # of RBCs
anemia
NAME
have discernible vesicles in the cytoplasm that can be seen after staining
granular leukocytes
What are granular leukocytes?
have granules in the cytoplasm that can be seen after staining
NAME
is performed to determine the % of each of the five types of WBCs
differential WBC count
WHat is the blood order?
Never let Monkies eat Bananas

N=Neutrophils
L=Lymphocytes
M= monocytes
E=eosinophils
B=basophils
NAME
can also be described as a high hematocrit
polycythemia
NAME
can also be descibed as a low hematocrit
anemia
NAME
is a protien that carries O2 in the RBC
hemoglobin
What is coagulation?
the process of blood cloting
NAME
is the process of blood clotting
coagulation
What does coagulation do?
prevents excessive blood loss
What is orgin?
is the nonmoving point of attachment
NAME
is the nonmoving point of attachment
orgin
NAME MUSCLE THAT MOVE THE HYOID BONE (2)
elevates hyoid bone and depresses mandible
anterior belly (2)posterior belly or the diagstric muscle
NAME MUSCLE THAT MOVE THE HYOID BONE
elvates hyoid bone and depresses mandaible (2)
posterior belly and anterior belly or diagstric
NAME MUSCLE THAT MOVE THE HYOID BONE
elevates hyoid bone and moves is posteriorly
stylohyoid
NAME MUSCLE THAT MOVE THE HYOID BONE
elevates hyoid bone and floor of oral cavity and depresses mandible
mylohyoid
What are three muscles that help in breathing? (3)
(1)external intercoastal (2)internal intercoastal (3)diaphragm
What are the group of muscles that move the vertebral column?
erector spinae
NAME
extends vertbral column and maintain erect posture when both muscles contract. Laterally, flexes vertebral column when only one muscle
erector spinae
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND (2)
flexes and abducts hand
flecor carpi radialis (2)flexor carpi ulnaris
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND
weakly flexes wrist
palmaris longus
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND

flexes hand and proximal and middle phalanx of each finger
flexor digitorum superficialis
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND
flexes distal phalanx of thumb
flexor pollicis longus
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND (2)
extends and adducts the hand
extensor carpi ulnaris (2)extensor cari radialis brevis
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND
extends hand and proximal phalanx of fifth digit
extensor digitorum minimi
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND
extends hand and proximal middle, and distal phalanges
extensor digitorum
NAME MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HAND
extends distal phalanx of thumb and first metacarpal of thumb and abducts hand
extensor pollicus longus
NAME
is the largest buttocks muscle
gluteus maximus
What is the differ btwn sulcus and gyrus?
(1)sulcus-are shallow grooves btwn elevations (2)gryus-are elevations or folds in the cerebral cortex
Draw a diagram showing the parts of the brain and how they are divided up
see notes
What is the differ bwtn the styohyoid and mylohoid muscles?
(1)styohyoid- elevates the hyoid bone and moves it posteriorly (2)Mylohoid- elevates hyoid bone and the floor of the oral cavity and depresses mandible
What is the sternohyoid muscles?
depresses the hyoid bone
What is the sternohyoid muscle?
depresses the hyoid bone
NAME (2)
depresses the hyoid bone
(1)omohyoid (2)sternohyoid
NAME WHAT IT INDICATES
high neutrophils
bacteria infection
NAME WHAT IT INDICATES
high lymphocytes
viral infection
NAME WHAT IT INDICATES
viral or fungal infection
monocytes
NAME WHAT IT INDICATES (2)
high eosinophils
allergic reaction or parastic infection
NAME WHAT IT INDICATES
high basophils
allergic reaction
NAME INDICATOR
bacterial infection, burns, stress, and inflammation
high neutrophils
NAME INDICATOR
viral infection, some leukemias
high lymphocytes
NAME INDICATOR
viral or fungal infections, tuberclosis, some leukenmias, and toehr chronic diseases
high monocytes
NAME INDICATOR
allergice reaction, parastic infections, or autoimmune diseases
eosinophils
NAME INDICATOR
allergice reactions, leukemias, cancers, and hypotheyriodism
basophils

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