Glossary of Western Civ. 1600-1800
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- What is history?
- The memory of things said and done
- What is Sovereignty?
- Political power
- What was the struggle in England over?
- Sovereignty between Parliament and Kings
- What started the sovereignty struggle in England?
- Queen Elizabeth I died
- What was Queen Elizabeth I's family?
- Tudor family
- Who was the closest relative to Queen Elizabeth I?
- James I
- What family was James I from?
- Stuart family
- What was the Parliament/Monarch agreement based on?
- What were Parliament's powers in the unwritten agreement?
- 1. Taxes (who, how much, how it's spent)
2. Domestic policy
- What were the Monarch's powers in the unwritten agreement?
- 1. Religious policy
2. Foreign policy
- What sorts of people did James I make angry with Parliament?
- Members and supporters of Parliament
- What did James I say in his speach to Parliament?
- Monarchs are supreme, God's leutenants on earth, chosen by God, and by God himself, kings are called gods.
- What sort of monarchy did James I want?
- Absolute Monarchy
- What is an absolute monarch?
- A royal ruler whose power is unlimited
- What percentage of the people were Catholic?
- What percent of the people were protestant?
- What is the Anglican church?
- Official church of England
- Who was the leader of the Anglican church?
- The monarch
- What is the Recusancy Law?
- It placed a fine on anyone who didn't attend service in the Anglican Church
- What church did most Protestants belong to?
- Anglican Church
- What did James I first say about the Recusancy Law?
- He wouldn't enforce it
- What happened when the Recusancy law wasn't enforced?
- There was an economic crisis in the Anglican church
- Why was there an economic crisis in the Anglican church?
- 1. Fines were not collected from Catholics
2. Attendance within the Anglicans dropped, as did donations
- What happened as a result of the economic crisis in the Anglican church?
- James I re-enforced the Recusancy Law
- What was the name of the plot to kill James I?
- The Gunpowder Plot
- Who was the head of the Gunpowder Plot?
- Robert Catesby
- Where would gunpowder be placed in the Gunpowder Plot?
- In tunnels underneath Parliament
- Why did the Gunpowder Plot get stopped?
- There were a few Catholics in Parliament who other didn't want to be hurt, so they tipped them off
- Who did soldiers find in the tunnels under Parliament?
- Guy Fawkes
- What happend to Catesby and Fawkes?
- They were put to death for treason
- What was the true result of the Gunpowder Plot?
- Hatred toward Catholics
- What were the 4 main groups of people that James I irritated?
- 1. Parliament
4. Everyone else
- What percentage of the Anglican Church is Puritan?
- About 25%
- What are Puritans?
- People who wanted to purify the Anglican church of Catholic-type things
- What did the Puritans do?
- Protested to make James I change the church
- How did James I respond to Puritan protests?
- He refused to make changes
- Why was the group "everyone" upset with James I?
- 1. Homosexuality
2. Search for a Spanish daughter-in-law
- Why did the people disapprove of James I's homosexuality?
- The leader of the church was commiting adultery as well as sinful homosexual acts
- How did James go about finding a wife for his son?
- Spent 5 years negotiating with the Royal family of Spain
- Why didn't people want James I to find a Spanish wife for his son?
- 1. Spain and England were enemies
2. Most of Spain (including the Royal family) was Catholic
- Who was the son of James I?
- Charles I
- Why did Charles I try to go to war with Spain?
- To try to become more popular
- What was the process that happened when Charles went to war with Spain?
- 1. Most got sick
2. No proper waste management
3. More got sick
4. Everyone was dehydrated
5. People drank wine
6. Became more dehydrated
7. Original cause was bad wine
8. It was HOT
9. They were completely destroyed
- Why did people hate the war with Spain?
- Thought it was a waste of:
- Who did Charles I marry?
- Henrietta Maria
- Who was Henrietta Maria?
- Sister of Louis XIII, King of France
- What was wrong with Henrietta Maria?
- 1. Englad and France were enemies
2. She was Catholic
3. Spent too much money
- Why did the king disband Parliament for the first time?
- They refused him money
- People were angry because Charles didn't have the right to ______
- Pass laws on taxes
- What did people do when Charles passed new taxes?
- Refused to pay them
- What did Charles do to those that refused to pay taxes?
- Threw them in prison
- What document was the agreement between Charles I and Parliament?
- Petition of Right
- What did the Petition of Right say?
- 1. Parliament controls taxes
2. Monarch can't imprison people without just cause
- What happened through the Eleven Years of Tyranny?
- Charles disbanded Parliament
- Who was Charles' religious advisor?
- Archbishop Laud
- What did Charles I and Archbishop do to anger the Puritans?
- Announce that predestination was incorrect and cannot be taught in the Anglican church
- Who founded predestination?
- John Calvin
- What book did Calvin write?
- Institues of the Christian Religion
- According to Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvin, how is salvation attained?
- Catholics: Good works
Lutherans: Faith in God
Calvin: nothing we can do, we're pre-selected
- What is the war between England and Scotland often called?
- The Bishop War
- Why was James I king of Scotland?
- He was already king of Scotland before he took the place of Elizabeth
- What did Charles announce to the Scots?
- Everyone must leave the Presbyterian Church and join the Anglican Church
- What is the basic theology of the Presbyterian Church?
- Did Scots submit to Charles I?
- What did Charles do to force the scots to join the Anglican church?
- Sent troops
- Who won the Bishop War?
- How did Scotland threaten England?
- They'd invade and conquer England unless the recived millions of dollars
- What did Charles do in response to Scotland's threat?
- Reconvened Parliament, asked them for money
- What were Parliament's 2 conditions under which they'd give the money for Scotland?
- 1. Parliament controls taxes
2. Parliament must meet at least every 3 years
- What things did people say were the crazy things Charles did?
- 1. Created his own tax
2. Threw people in prison who didn't pay
3. Got his money anyway
4. Disbanded Parliament
5. Did away with Predestination
6. Lost a war with Scotland
7. Called on Parliament, got more money
- What were Parliaments options on punishing Charles I?
- 1. Take away some money
2. Take away some power
- What was the name/s of the war between Charles and Parliament?
- The English Revolution OR English Civil War
- What was the "straw that broke the camel's back"?
- Charles I sent soldiers to arrest several memebers of parliament
- What did Parliament do to start the Revolution?
- Created its own army
- What were the two sides in the English Revolution?
- 1. Crown
- What were the King and Parliament divided on?
- Religion and Politics
- Who was on the side of the King?
- 1. Catholics
2. Anglicans (most)
- What are Royalists?
- Those who believe in a strong king, weak or no Parliament
- Who was on the side of Parliament?
- 1. Puritans
- What are Parliamentarians?
- Those who believe in strong Parliament, weak or no king
- What was the name of those who sided with the King?
- The Cavaliers
- What was the name of those who sided with Parliament?
- The Roundheads
- Where were Scots at the beginning of the English Revolution?
- Why did it appear that the Roundheads had won after they captured the King?
- 1. Had help from Scotland
2. Oliver Cromwell
- Why did Scotland side with Parliament?
- Parliament agreed to make the Presbeterian Church the official church of England
- Who was Oliver Cromwell?
- The most brillian military leader either side had
- What were the two problems after it appeared the war had been won?
- 1. Couldn't agree on what do do with the King
2. Couldn't agree on what to do with the Presbyterian Church
- Why wasn't the Presbyterian Church made official in England?
- Cromwell refused
- Why did Cromwell refuse to follow through with the Scots?
- He didn't want an official church
- What happened while they were arguing?
- the King was sprung from jail
- The second time of figthing, why were the Cavaliers more strong?
- Scots helped them
- Who won the revolution for the final time?
- Who was absolutely in charge after the revolution?
- Oliver Cromwell
- What happened to Charles I?
- He was exicuted
- What was the name of Cromwell's constitution?
- "The Instrument of Government"
- What was the name of Cromwell's government?
- The Protectorate
- What was the name of the leader of The Protectorate?
- The Lord Protector
- Who was the Lord Protector?
- Oliver Cromwell!
- What sort of leader was Cromwell?
- A Dictator
- What did Cromwell do that the people didn't like?
- 1. Committed regicide (killing of the king)
2. Refused to have a monarch
3. Banned alcohol
4. Banned dancing
5. Banned gambling
- Who did Cromwell have support from?
- The Military
- How did Cromwell die?
- Who did Cromwell name to be the new Lord Protector?
- His son, Richard Cromwell
- What did Richard Cromwell do with his father's policies?
- Continued them
- Who lead a rebellion against Cromwell?
- General George Monk
- What was Monk's plan to avoid revolution?
- 1. Reconvene Parliament
2. Invite Charles I's son to be king
- What did Richard Cromwell do when he heard of Monk's plan?
- Left the country
- What were the 3 parts of the Stuart Revolution?
- 1. Parliament Reconvened
2. Charles II returned to England
3. Richard Cromwell fled
- What is duplicity?
- Who was was into duplicity?
- Charles II
- What were the 2 main differences between appearance and reality of Charles II's reign?
- 1. Appeared Anglican, was Catholic
2. Appeared happy to be limited monarch, wanted to be abosolute
- What is a limited monarch?
- Monarch whose rule is not absolute
- What two things happened that upset Chares II?
- 1. Clarendon Code
2. Conventicle Act
- Who passed the Clarendon Code?
- What did the Clarendon Code do?
- Re-established the Recusancy Law
- What did the Clarendo Code do?
- Re-established the Anglican Church as the official church of England (wasn't one under Cromwell)
- What did the Conventicle Act do?
- Re-established Recusancy Law
- What 2 natural disasters struck England?
- 1. Plague
2. Great Fire
- What impact did the Plague have on London?
- Within 10 months, half of London was dead
- What did the people do that increased the Plague?
- Killed the cats
- What spread teh Plague?
- Fleas on rats
- Where did the Great Fire start?
- A bakery on Pudding Lane
- Who was the Treaty of Dover between?
- Charles II and Louis XIV
- What did the Treaty of Dover state?
- 1. England and France would fight against Dutch Netherlands
2. Catholic Church would be official church of England
3. Louis XIV would give Charles II a lot of money
- Where did the countries involved in the Treaty of Dover stand religiously?
- France: Catholic
- What was the problem of Charles II promising to make the Catholic church official in England?
- He didn't have that power, Parliament did
- What did Charles II when it appeared to be on the verge of revolution?
- Got rid of the treaty of Dover
- Who was upset when the Treaty of Dover was demolished?
- Who "uncovered a plot to kill the king" by the Catholics?
- Titus Oats
- What was the name of the "plot" Titus Oats "discovered"?
- Popish Plot
- What happened to those accused by Oats?
- Put on trial for treason
- What had to happen before people could be executed?
- Their death warrants had to be signed by the King
- Why did Charles II have difficulty signing death warrants of accused Catholics?
- 1. He didn't think they were guilty
2. If he signed them, the innocent ones would be killed - but if he didn't sign them, he'd be in trouble with the people
- What did Charles II proclaim and do with the death warrants of the Catholics?
- Said, "I think they're innocent" then signed the warrants
- What happened to Charles II's popularity after Popish plot?
- What were the first political parties in England?
- 1. Tories
- What did the Tories stand for?
- Strong monarch, and weak Parliament or no Parliament at all
- What did the Whigs stand for?
- Strong Parliament, weak monarch or no monarch at all
- What plot tried to kill Charles II?
- Rye House Plot
- Who created teh Rye House Plot?
- What were the steps to the Rye House Plot?
- 1. Kill Charles II, with no legitimate heirs to the throne
2. Kill Charles II's brother, James, who was Catholic
- Who did the Whigs want to be king?
- Duke of Monmouth
- Who was the Duke of Monmouth?
- Son of Charles II, born out of wedlock
- What were the long-term implications of the Rye House Plot?
- 1. The king was more popular
2. Whig party was discredited
- Who was king after Charles II?
- James II, his brother
- What happened to the Duke immediately following the Rye House Plot?
- He was deported
- What was the success of Manmouth's Rebellion?
- Very little support, crushed almost instantly
- Where did the Duke's execution take place?
- Tower Hill
- What were executions considered?
- Social Events
- What can a execution be compared to?
- A rock concert and a baseball game
- What souvenirs may be recieved from an execution?
- 1. Blood
- What was the duke executed on?
- A platform
- What did the Duke do when he got on the platform?
- Walked to the far end and prayed, and ignored the executioner
- What two roles did the executioner play?
- 1. Executioner
- What are the spectated reasons of the Duke's brutal execution?
- Executioner was...
3. Distracted (family affairs)
4. Looking for revenge from the Duke
5. Embarrassed (Duke didn't pay him)
- What was done a few weeks after the execution of the Duke?
- His body was dug up and his head re-attached for a painting
- Why did they need a painting of the Duke?
- What was wrong after they re-attached the Duke's head?
- He didn't have a neck
- What sort of painting was done of the Duke?
- A battle scene
- Where is the battle scene with the Duke now?
- National Portrait Gallery
- Who was on the throne during the Duke's execution?
- James II
- Why was James II hated?
- 1. Catholic
2. Reconvened Parliament to repeal the Test Act
3. Appointed Catholics to positions
4. As the king, he nullified the Test Act
5. He had a son who was baptized in the Catholic Church
- What was the Test act?
- Catholics can't hold any positions within the government, except the king.
- What act did Parliament refuse to pass at James II's request?
- Test Act
- Who did Parliament negotiate with?
- William and Mary
- Who were William and Mary?
- Leaders of the Dutch Netherlands
- Who was "Mary" in relationship to the throne?
- Daughter of James II
- Who was Mary's husband?
- William of Orange
- Of what religous background were William and Mary?
- What did Parliament ask William and Mary to do?
- Be king and queen of England, if they would live by the Declaration of Rights
- What is the Declaration of Rights, AKA English Bill of Rights?
- 1. Monarchs can't nullify laws
2. Freedom of the Press
3. Parliament controls military
4. Parliament controls taxes
- What did Parliament "inform" James II of?
- They had invited William and Mary to be king and queen
- What did James II ask the people to do?
- Asked the people to fight for him... they didn't
- What did William expect when he arrived in England, and what did he do?
- Expected war, brought 15,000 men.
- What did James II do when William came?
- Who were coronated after James II?
- William III and Mary II
- What is the name of the final revolution against James II?
- Glorious Revolution OR Bloodless Revolution
- What was the significance of the Bloodless Revolution?
- 1. Struggle over sovereignty ended
2. Parliament had ultimate political power
3. Model for other countries to copy
- What are the two parts of the Intellectual Revolution?
- 1. Scientific Revolution
2. Enlightenment ("Age of Reason")
- What were the causes of the Scientific Revolution?
- 1. Renaissance
2. Printing Press
- What is the Renaissance?
- Rebirth of interest in art and literature
- What were the characteristics of art and literature in the Renaissance?
- 1. Secularism
2. Critical attitude
- What is secularism?
- Emphasis on the worldly
- What question does the critical attitude ask?
- Who invented the Printing Press?
- Johann Gutenberg
- What were the two main impacts from the printing press?
- 1. Books were much cheaper
2. Bore people were exposed to the ideas in the books
- What two books made a large impact?
- 1. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
2. On the Structure of the Human Body
- Who wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres?
- Nicholas Copernicus
- What book stated t he findings of the earth moving around the sun?
- On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
- Why was the Geocentric theory "logical"?
- 1. Common sense (duh!)
2. Organized religion said it was so
- Who wrote "On the Structures of the Human Body"?
- Andreas Vesalius
- What scientist wrote "The New Star"?
- Tyhco Brahe
- What 2 things did Brahe discover and what was the significance?
- 1. A new star - change can and does take place in the heavens
2. Differently shaped comet - Not everything in the sky is perfectly circular
- What scientist was the assistant of Brahe?
- Johann Kepler
- What is Kepler known for?
- Plotting mars... planets move in an elliptical shape
- What did Kepler discover about the rotation of planets?
- The planets nearer the sun move around the sun more quickly than those farther from the sun
- Who was the third astronomer?
- What 4 things are Galileo known for?
- 1. Discovering craters (irregularities)
2. Discovering rings of Saturn
3. Discovering that Jupiter had moons (3 at first, 4th later)
4. Ojects fall at the same rate of speed
- Why were the moons of Jupiter controversial?
- Religion taught that Earth was the only planet with a moon
- What did Galileo popularize?
- What place did Dr. William Harvey hold?
- Personal doctor of the Stuart family
- What was the belief on blood before Dr. Harvey?
- Blood circulates through the body one time and is eliminated in either solid or liquid, depending on what it was used for
- What did William Harvey discover?
- Blood must recirculate
- What book did William Harvey write?
- On the Motion of the Blood
- What is Mathematics considered?
- The Language of Science
- Why is Math the language of science?
- Allows for communication
- WHat did Girlamo Cardano do?
- 1. Popularized the negative number
2. Popularized the imaginary number
- What book did Girolamo Cardano write?
- The Great Art
- Where was Pascal from?
- What is Pascal known for?
- 1. Enumerating the laws of probability
2. Discussing the existence of God based on probability
- What did Pascal argue?
- You can't prove God exists, but also can't prove that he doesn't exist
- What was the conclusion of Pascal's wager?
- It's more reasonable to believe in God than it is to not believe
- What is a wager?
- A bet
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