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Glossary of Western Art I 2

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Spear Bearer (Doryphoros)
By Polykleitos. c. 450-440 BCE (Roman copy)
Nike (Victory) of Samothrace
c. 180 BCE
Reconstruction of An Etruscan Temple
No dates; learn the layout and similarities and differences between the Etruscan temple and Greek temples
Apollo
By Master Sculptor Vulca. c 510-500 BCE.
Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs
3rd Century BCE. Cerveteri, Italy.
Reclining Couple on a Sarcophagus
c 520 BCE, Cerveteri, Italy
term: Hellenistic Period
323-31/30 BCE; after the death of Alexander the Great. Empire was ruled by three generals - Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. Artists shifted from an idealized form to a more realistic, individual, and specific style.
term: Tuscan order
Similar to a Greek order. Bases, column shafts, and capitals resemble Doric or Ionic order, and entablature resembles Doric friezes.
term: terra cotta
baked clay
term: sarcophagus
coffin
Pont du Gard
1st century BCE. Nîmes, France. Aqueduct.
Augustus of Primaporta
Early 1st century CE. Possible copy of a 20 BCE bronze.
Ara Pacis
13-9 BCE. Rome, Italy.
House of the Vettii
1st century CE. Pompeii, Italy. Rebuilt in 62-79 CE.
Initiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus, Villa of the Mysteries
c 60-50 BCE. Pompeii, Italy.
term: aqueduct
A long sloped structure designed to bring fresh water from miles away.
term: concrete
building material that can be poured and hardened; Romans invented
term: arch
a semicircle on top of a wall opening
term: keystone
the top center stone of an arch that locks the curved stones on either side together.
term: voussoir
wedge-shaped blocks used to form an arch
Arch of Titus
c 81 CE. Rome, Italy
Spoils from the Temple of Solomon
Relief on Arch of Titus. 81 CE. Rome, Italy
Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum),
70-80 CE. Rome, Italy.
Column of Trajan
113-116 or after 117 CE. Rome, Italy.
Pantheon
c 118-128 CE. Rome, Italy
term: forum
A wide-open gathering area, usually the center of commerce in Roman cities
term: triumphal arch
A huge, single standalone arch made in commemoration of a victory or triumph.
term: composite order
Column order; similar to Corinthian.
term: continuous narrative
A narrative that progresses across an entire span with no clear distinctive separation, such as the continuous spiral on the Column of Trajan
term: drum
The huge, thick walls supporting the dome ceiling
term: coffers
Sunken panels in the dome ceiling
term: oculus
Central opening in the ceiling
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
c 176 CE.
The Tetrarchs
c 300 CE.
Arch of Constantine
312-315 CE. Rome, Italy.
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine
306-313 CE. Rome, Italy.
term: porphyry
a purple-colored rock, similiar in properties and symbolic meaning to Diorite. Very hard to carve.
term: basilica
large rectangular building, often with a clerestory, side aisles, a center nave, and an apse at one or both ends.
term: nave
center room in a basilica
term: apse
a semicircular section at the end of a nave
Menorahs and Ark of the Covenant
3rd Century. Rome, Italy.
The Mosaic Floor of the Betha Alpha Synagogue
By Marianos and Hanina. 6th Century. Galilee, Israel.
The Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah
Late 3rd to early 4th century. Ceiling of the Catacomb of SS. Rome, Italy.
Old St. Peter's
Rome, Italy
term: catacombs
underground tombs/graves
term: lunette
semicircular areas framed by arches
term: Edict of Milan
313 CE; Constantine, as gratitude for the flaming cross vision, granted religious freedom in the Roman Empire.
term: transept
a wing that crosses the nave in front of the apse
term: orant
A worship pose with the arms bent and hands facing upward.
Church of Santa Sabina
c 422-432. Rome, Italy
Church of Santa Costanza
c 350. Rome, Italy
Harvesting of Grapes
c 350. Ambulatory Vault, church of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy.
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
c 359. Vatican, Rome, Italy.
Oratory of Galla Placidia
425-426. Ravenna, Italy.
The Good Shepherd
425-426. Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy.
term: spoils
Items and loot brought back from conquered peoples
term: central-plan church
Built around a center apse rather than the nave.
term: ambulatory
A sort of hallway-section surrounding an apse or altar.
term: barrel vault
series of arches creating a tunnel
term: tesserae
the tiles used in mosaics
term: typology
relationship between the Old and New testaments
Church of Hagia Sophia
By Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532-537. Istanbul, Turkey.
Church of San Vitale
520. Ravenna, Italy.
Christ Enthroned, Flanked by Angels, St. Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius
547. Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants
547. Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
Empress Theodora and Her Attendants
547. Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
The Transfiguration of Christ with Sant’Apollinare, First Bishop of Ravenna
6th century. Church of Sant'Apollinare. Classe, Itale.
term: Constantinople
Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire
term: Justinian
Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 527-565
term: gallery
balconies overlooking the naos
term: pendentive
concave, spherical triangles between arches that rise upward and inward to form a circular opening where a dome rests
Rebecca at the Well from the Vienna Genesis
Early 6th Century.
Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, Monastery of St. Catherine.
Second half of 6th century. Mount Sinai, Egypt
Cathedral of St. Mark
1063. Venice, Italy.
term: encaustic
A painting medium using pigments mixed with hot wax.
term: icon
An image representing a sacred figure.
term: iconoclasm
Banning or destruction of images, especially icons and religious art.
also learn your greek orders again
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