Glossary of Western Art I

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Created by bravepigeon

term: sculpture in the round
A three-dimenional sculpture.
term: relief sculpture
Surrounding material is carved away, making a background that sets off a projecting figure.
Work: Lion-Human
Germany, c. 30,000-26,000 BCE
Work: Woman From Willendorf
Austria. c. 24,000 BCE.
Work: Wall Painting with Horses, Rhinoceroses, and Aurochs
Chauvet Cave, France. c 32,000-30,000 BCE
term: composite pose
Most characteristic features are emphasized: certain body parts are seen from the front, while others are seen in profile.
Work: Bird-Headed Man With Bison
Lascaux Cave. c. 15,000 BCE
Work: Tomb Interior with Corbeling and Engraved Stones
Newegrange, Ireland. c. 3000-2500 BCE
term: megalithic architecture
Structures made from huge stones, derived from Greek words for "large" (mega-) and "stone" (lithos)
term: corbeling
Rows or layers of stone are laid with the end of each row projecting beyond the row beneath, continuing until the opposing layers almost meet, and capped with a stone that rests across the tops of both layers.
term: post-and-lintel construction
Two upright posts support a horizontal element (lintel).
Work: Stonehenge
Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England. c. 2900-1500 BCE
term: henge
Circle of stones or posts, often surrounded by a ditch with built-up embankments.
work: Stele of Naram-Sin
Sippar. c 2254-2216 BCE.
term: hieratic scale
Artistic practice where relative size indicates relative importance.
term: cuneiform
wedge-shaped symbols
term: stele
upright stone slab
work: Carved Vessel
Uruk. c. 3300-3000 BCE
term: ziggurats
huge stepped structures with a temple or shrine on top
term: registers
horizontal bands
work: Votive Figures
Eshnunna. c. 2900-2600 BCE
term: provenance
the history of the possession of a piece of art
term: votive
images dedicated to the gods
work: Nanna Ziggurat
Ur. c 2100-2050 BCE
work: Votive Statue of Gudea
Girsu. c 2090 BCE
work: Stele of Hammurabi
Susa. c 1792-1750 BCE
work: Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions
Kalhu. c 875-860 BCE
work: Guardian Figures at Citadel of Sargon II
Dur Sharrukin. c 721-706 BCE
term: lamassus
guardian figures that combined the bearded head of a man, body of a bull or lion, wings of an eagle, and the horned headdress of a god.
work: Palette of Narmer
Hierakonpolis. c 2950 BCE
term: mastaba
flat-topped, one story building with slanted walls erected above an underground burial chamber.
term: necropolis
a city of the dead
term: ka
the spirit
work: Funerary Complex of Dsojer at Saqqara
By Imhotep. Saqqara. c 2630-2575 BCE.
work: Great Pyramids at Giza
Giza. c 2575-2450 BCE
term: idealization
perfected features, rather than realistic normal human faces
work: Khafre
Giza. c 2520-2494 BCE
term: canon of proprtions
scale figured based on a grid system. 18 squares tall.
work: Seated Scribe
Saqqara. c 2450-2325 BCE
work: Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
Saqqara. c. 2450-2325 BCE
term: clerestory
a row of tall, narrow windows in the upper walls
term: naturalism
some term that's NOT DEFINED IN THE BOOK ANYWHERE but is apparently expected of us.

I'm assuming the opposite of realism.

term: sunken relief
outlines of figures are carved in rather than the background being carved in.
work: Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun at Karnak
Karnak, Egypt c 1292-1190 BCE
work: Akhenaten And His Family
Akhetaten. c 1353-1336 BCE
term: capital
sculpted block that tops a column
work: Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun
1353-1336 BCE
work: Figure of a Woman
Cyclades. c 2600-2400 BCE
term: Cycladic
hailing from the Cyclades islands
work: Ajax and Achilles Playing A Game
By Exekias. c 540-530 BCE
work: Dipylon Krater
Made by Hirschfeld Workshop. Athens. c 750-700 BCE
work: Sanctuary of Apollo
Delphi, Greece. 6th-3rd century BCE
work: Temple of Hera I
Paestum, Italy. c 550-540 BCE
term - Greek Orders: stylobate
the floor of the temple
term - Greek Orders: column
functions as the post in a post and lintel system
term - Greek Orders: column; base
the bottom of a column
term - Greek Orders: column; shaft
the long part of a column with all the lines
term - Greek Orders: column; capital
the decorative piece on top of the column shaft
term - Greek Orders: entablature
functions as the lintel in a post and lintel system
term - Greek Orders: entablature; architrave
the bottom most part of the entablature
term - Greek Orders: entablature; frieze
the middle part of the entablature
term - Greek Orders: entablature; cornice
the topmost /FLAT/ part of the entablature
term - Greek Orders: triglyph
the decorative pieces in a frieze
term - Greek Orders: metope
the undecorated negative space in a frieze
term - Greek Orders: pediment
the very top of an order - slanted at an angle
term - Greek Orders: cella
the main room. surrounded by the peristyle
term - Greek Orders: peristyle
row of columns that surrounds the cella
term - Greek Orders: entasis
in column shafts, as they rise a swell in the middle and a contraction in the top.
term - Greek Orders: Doric order
columns with no bases or capitals, only shafts; entablatures and pediments are present
term - Greek Orders: Ionic order
columns with shafts, bases, and capitals; complete with entablatures and pediments
term - Greek Orders: Corinthian Order
nearly the same as Ionic order, but without the slanted pediment roof
term: Archaic smile
a conventional closed lip expression
work: Metropolitan Kouros
Attica. c. 600 BCE
work: Death of Sarperdon
By Euphronios. c 515 BCE
term: black-figure painting
uses black painting to paint the figures of a Greek ceramic piece; uses a stylus to carve out details.
work: Kritios Boy
Acropolis, Athens. c 480 BCE
term: contrapposto
convention of presenting standing figures with opposing alternations of tension and relaxation around a central axis.

aka: he's comfortable.

work: Charioteer
Delphi. c 470 BCE
term: lost-wax casting
a method of casting metal by a process in which a wax mold s covered with clay and plaster, then fired, melting the wax and leaving a hollow form. molten metal is placed into the hollow space and slowly cooled. when the hardened clay and plaster exterior shell is removed, a solid metal form remains.

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