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Glossary of West and World chapter 17

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Universal law of gravitation
by Isaac Newton:
demonstrated that the same force holding an object to the earth also holds the planets in their orbits.

establishing the existence of a single gravitational force and giving it precise mathematical expression.

sign. a scientific model to replace aristotle




induction
theories/hypotheses that emerge after the accumulation and analysis of data

sign. abandonment of preconceived ideas and base scientific conclusions on experience and observation

empiricism
says that all scientific theories be tested by experiments based on observation of the natural world
deductive reasoning
logical process by which ideas and laws are derived from basic truths/principles
rationalism
insists that the mind contains rational categories independent of sensory observation

changes scientific research in the 16th/17th century

mechanical philosophy
assumtion that the natural world operated as if it were a machine made by a human

implied that the entire universe was uniform in structure

dualistic
the philosophy thats says their is a sharp distinction between the mind and body.

mind was completely separte from body and material world

Neoplatonism
teaching of plato- philosophy that stressed the unity of the natural and spiritual worlds


made a direct contribution of the birth of modern science


paradigm
intellectual frameworks that goverened scientific research

3rd interal cause of the scientific revolutions was the collapse of these

skepticism
tendency to doubt what we have been taught/expected to believe

formed part of the method that sciencetist adopted to solve philosophical problems

Secularization
process in which religion gave way to more worldy concerns.

theology lost its dominant position in uniersities and religion had lost mch of its influence on politics/economic activity

alchemy
the magical art of attempting to turn base metals into gold or silver
deists
thinks who believed that god created the universe but did not intervene in nature or in human affairs

rejected the possibility of miracles

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