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Glossary of Vet path

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Pathogenesis
the mechanisms of disease development
Morphologic diagnosis
based on predominate lesions and refers to the structural changes that are seen in cells.

Ex: severe brochopneumonia

Aetiologic diagnosis
specifically identifies the aetiology
Stains for fat
Oil red O
Stains for glycogen
Periodic acid schiff
Stains for Fibrous Tissue
Massonc Trichrome -- green
Stain for hemosiderin
Perls prussian blue
Stain for immunohistochemical stains
GFAP
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment or incomplete development of cells
Hyperplasia
increase in the number of cells
Aplasia
lack of development of tissue
Agenesis
failure of embryonic development
metaplasia
replacement of one adult cell type to another
dysplasia
cells take on abnormal features and abnormal function
Coagulative necrosis
basic outlines are preserved dute to delayed proteolysis

acute
Ischemia


caseous necrosis
friable "cheese" like appearance. chronic lesion. may develope dystrophic calcification
liquefactive necrosis
cavity filled with liquefied debris
Fat necrosis
specific necrosis of fat
pyknosis
nucleus becomes small or shrunken
Karyorrhexis
nucleus defragments to smaller parts
karyolysis
lysing of the nucleus

this will stain very light or no stain.

apoptosis
condensation of chromatin, fragmentation of cytoplasm and budding of cytoplasm

cells are shrunken and there is no associated inflammation



fatty infiltration
replacement of cells by adipocytes
dystrophic calcification
serum calcium levels are normal but the calcium is deposited in tissue that is already dead or dying
metastatic calcification
hypercalcaemia that is reflected in damage to intracellular organells
suppurative or purulent exudate
many neutrophils plus dead host cells
often bacterial
Fibrinous exudate
thin eosinophilic meshwork which sometimes coagulates
serous exudate
early in inflammatory lesions like blisters
Mucous or catarrhal exudate
in respiratory and GI tract where mucous secreting cells contribute
diffuse lesion
involves whole organ
multifocal to coalescing
used when multifocal lesions join up with each other
segmental
used for describing a portion of a tubular organ
miliary
used for multiple small lesions
algor mortis
cooling of the body after death
hypostatic congestion
effect of gravity
pseudomelanosis
green to black discolouration due to conversion of iron to iron sulphide by the GI bacteria
autolysis
self digestion of tissues by intracellular lytic enzymes
stomach and intestine fast
then pancrease and renal tubules
muscle and skin much longer


putrefaction
dead tissue is invaded by anaerobic organisms
splenic siderofibrosis
yellow and dry encrustations on capsule of a spleen.
local hemorrhage with subsequent deposits of Fe, Ca and fibrosis.
only in dogs

anthracosis
carbon particles phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages that become small black foci in lung tissue
arteriosclerosis
loss of elasticity and hardening of arterial wall most often evident around branches of arteries
hypernatraemia
ratio of total body Na to total body water is increased.

caused by:
water deficiency
sodium excess



hyponatraemia
ratio of total body Na to total body water is decreased.

sodium deficit and water excess

alimentary loss - salivation
renal loss
prolonged diuresis
sweating






dependent edema
generalized
sinks with graviy
ventral abd and limbs affected



Pitting edema
diffuse SQ edema
finger pushed leaves indentation
Hypothorax
edema in pleural cavity
hydropericardium
edema in peritoneal sac
Ascites
fluid in peritoneal cavity

Transudate
clear, or pale
thin and serous
low protein
no coagulation
low specific gravity
low cell count






Exudate
dark yellow, red, brown
hyperaemia
occurs when arteriolar dilation increases blood flow to the tissue which leads to tissue erythema.
Congestion
is due to reduced outflow of blood from a tissue which can be due to heart failure
Haemorrhage
escape of blood from vessels due to vascular rupture or damage.

Leads to loss of RBC

Hematoma
massive accumulation of blood within a tissue
hemothorax
accumulation of blood within the thorax
Petechiae
very small bleeds in the skin or mucous membranes.

Associated with increased vascular pressure

Purpura
slightly larger more than 3mm and is associated with trauma, vasculitis, or increased vascular fragility
Ecchymoses
1-3cm, skin bruises
The significance of hemorrhage depends on......
volume, rate and location of blood loss
What percentage of blood loss leads to hypovolaemic shock?
30-40%
What is the significance of the fibrinolytic cascade?
to prevent the over production or persistence of fibrin
What is plasmin?
a protease that breaks down fibrin into fibrin degradation products which act as weak anticoagulants
What is the kinin system?
associated with inflammation.

Example is bradykinin which is a vasodilator to increase vascular permeability which allow an increase in leukocyte migration and causes contraction of smooth muscle and pain

What is the complement system?
Contributes to inflammation especially anaphylaxis, phagocytosis of microes and cell lysis
What causes Thrombocytopaenia?
decreased production or increased destruction of platelets

Examples: bone marrow disease, DIC, septicaemia, radiation

Two categories of hemorrhagic diseases.....
increased vessel fragility

Inadequate hemostatic response

What is Von Willebrands' Disease caused by?
deficiency or plasma glycoprotein vWF which is produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes
What are the Vitamin K activated factors?
2, 7, 9, 10
What is a thrombus?
a layered mass containing RBC, granular leucocytes and platelets held together by fibrin
What are the three factors that predispose to the fomation of thrombi? Virchow's Triad
Damage to endothelium
Stasis and/or irregular/turbulent flow
Hypercoagulability of blood

Where are the cellular elements of blood in normal flow?
the platelets central and the plasma is at the edges alongside the endothelium
What is the determines the significance of a thrombi?
the size, location, and rate of formation
Arterial thrombosis
Secondary to arteriosclerosis, verminous arteritis, iliac thrombosis,

are frequently occlusive

Cardiac thrombosis
usually valvular but can be mural

Example is valvular endocarditis

Venous thrombosis
secondary to indwelling catheter

occlusive

Capillary thrombosis
usually microthrombi, associated with acute local inflammation, or terminal disease, DIC
What is dissolution of a thrombus?
Removed by fibrinolysis
What is propagation or embolisation of a thrombus?
Where the thrombus gets bigger and it is likely that a piece of it will break off and for an embolism
What is organisation and recanalisation of a thrombus?
This is where the thrombus is invaded by neutrophils macrophages, and fibroblasts which then turns it into a connective tissue mass. The capillaries then anastomose around it which is called recanalization
What is an embolus?
a solid or gaseous mass that is carried by the bloodstream from it's point of origin to a distant site.
What is a thrombo-embolism? Where do they go?
common, where fragment of an thrombi detach and spread throughout the circulation. They go to biurcation of vessels
What is a gas embolism?
A volume of air is injected into circulation, accumulates in the pulmonary trunk and forms a fatal airlock.
What is a fat embolism?
where adiposcytes from the bone marrow are relased into the circulation following bone fractures.
What does ischaemia mean?
reduced blood flow to a tissue/organ and results in tissue hypoxia
What is an arteriospasm? What is the significance?
Arteriospasm is caused by arterial truma, ergotism, or other drug effects. The importance is that it is a possible cause of ischaemia
What is an infarct?
a segmental or localized area of ischaemic necrosis due to occlusion of the blood supply.
What is the model orgain for infarction?
kidney
What is Disseminated intravascular coagulation?
condition that starts with activation of coagulation in vascular system. There is deposition of bibrin and consumption of coagulation factos. Then activation of fibrinolytic system that utilizes more coagulation factors which leads to a tendency to bleed! Starts as hypercoagulability ends in hemorrhagic diathesis
What factors int he clotting cascade are inhibited by protein C and S?
8a and 5a
What factors are inhibited by TFPI in the clotting cascade?
7a and 10a
What are the three types of shock?
cardiogenic, hypovolaemic, and blood maldistribution
What is cardiogenic shock?
failure of the heart to adequately pump blood. Leads to stagnation and tissue hypoxia
What is hypovolaemic shock?
Reduced circulating volume resulting from blood loss or fluid loss.
What is blood maldistribution?
this is decreased peripheral vascular resistance where there is pooling of blood in peripheral tissue. The blood volume remains normal but the microvascular area increase therefore circulating volume reduces.
What are the three types of blood maldistribution?
neurogenic shock
anaphylactic shock
septic shock

What is neurogenic shock?
this is usually induced by trauma, generally to the NS, electrocution, fear, emotional stress. Leads to venous pooling
What is anaphylactic shock?
generalised type 1 hypersensitivity, leads to hypotension and hypoperfusion
What is septic shock?
most common type, mediated by vascular and inflammatory mediators released in response to bacteria or fungal elements.
What are the three stages of shock?
non progressive- the body compensates
Progressive stage - caused by hypovolaemia and leads to necrosis
Irreversible - multiorgan failure

What are the clinical morphological features of shock?
hypotension
weak pulse and tachycardia
hyperventilation
decrease urine production
hypothermia



Granulomatous disease
are diseases characterised by granulomatous inflammation
Granulomatous inflammation
is inflammation in which macrophages predominate
What is a classical granuloma?
granulomas consist of focally discrete, closely packed aggregates of macrophages surrounded by a zone of lymphocytes and plasma cells, with an outer rim of fibroblasts
What is granulomatous disease?
macrophages predominate, also giant cells and lymphocytes
What is eosinophilic granulomatous disease?
Macrophages plus eosinophils
What is pyogranulomatous disease?
macrophages plus neutrophils
What is granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis?
an idiopathic disease which causes granulomatous disease in the central nervous system of young to middle aged small breed dogs.
Describe malignant neoplasia?
anaplastic, pleomorphic, abnormal nuclear, increased mitoses, non encapsulated and infiltrative, and metastasises.
What causes neoplasia?
genetic changes in a cell which allow it to be unresponsive to their normal growth controls. excessive growth still persists after cessation of the stimulation.
What is a benign surface epithelium?
papilloma
What is a benign glandular epithelium?
adenoma
What is a malignant surface epithelium?
carcinoma
Waht is a malignant glandular epithelium?
adenocarcinoma
What is a benign mesenchymal tumor?
anything ending in oma
What is a malignant mesenchymal tumor?
sarcoma
What re the causes of neoplasia?
1. single inherited mutated gene
2. multiple inherited genes
3. acquired somatic mutations either intrinsic or extrinsic factors



What are the molecular determinants of neoplasia?
1. Growth promoting oncogenes
2. Growth inhibiting tumor suppressor genes
3. apoptosis genes
4. DNA repair genes


How are sarcomas spread?
by hematogenous spread
How are carcinomas spread?
by lymphatic spread
What is transcoelomic spread?
where there is seeding in body cavities. Examples are mesotheliomas, ovarian adenocarcinomas.
How does the body fight neoplasia?
by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages
What is the stem cell theory of cancer?
where only a minority of the population of cells within a tumor are capable of sustaining tumor growth. This minority is known as cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells.

what is increased preload caused by?
conditions which result in an increased volume of blood entering the heart during diastole
What is increased afterload caused by?
conditions which increase the resistance against which the heart must pump blood during systole
What is concentric hypertrophy?
there is a increase in the mass of the ventricle of the wall of which becomes thicker. There is no change or a decrease in the end diastolic volume which causes increased afterload
What is eccentric hypertrophy?
there is an increase in the mass of the ventricle however the wall becomes longer and the chambers dilates resulting in an increase in end diastolic volume. The cells mass is greater than normal because the cells have increased in size by elongating, increase in preload.
What does stratified squamous epithelium line?
- mouth
-esophagus
-non glandular part of stomach in pig and horse
- forestomach
- anus



What does columnar epithelium line?
- glanddular stomach and abomasum
What are the cell types found in the stomach?
- stem cells at neck
- mucous neck cells
- parietal cells
- chief cells
- neuroendocrine cells





Waht do parietal cells secret?
HCL and oxyntic
What do chief cells secret?
peptic/ zymogen, pepsinogen
Does the large intestine have villi?
NO villi present.
What are the defece mechanisms of the gut?
- sterile at birth
- secretions
- epithelium
- commensal flora
- movement
- and cell mediated humoral defenses




What are the cells that provide humoral defences in the lamina propria?
macrophages,
B and T cells
- plasma cells
- mast cells




What is the pathogenesis of a mild insult to the alimentary tract?
1. congestion
2. mucous and seerous secretions
3. epithelial hyperplasia



What is the pathogenesis of a more severe insult to the alimentary tract?
1. congestion
2. edema
3. neutrophil infiltration
4. catarrhal exudate or diptheritic membrane
5. erosion
6. ulcer






What is an ulcer?
a mucosal defect where the entir epithelial thickness down to or deeper than the basement membrane is present
What is erosion?
where there is partial thickness epitelial is lost
What is a bullae?
where vesicles coalesce to form a larger bullae
What is the defense mechanism of the oral cavity?
- tast buds
- normal flora
- saliva

What is brachygnathia superior or inferior?
- short axillae or mandible
What is prognathia?
abonrmal prolongation of maxilla and madible
What is cleft palate or palatoschisis?
inadequate growth of palatine shelves leaves a central defect.
What is Cheiloschisis?
absence of part of the lip rostral to nasal septum
What is stomatitis?
inflammation of the membranes of the oral cavity
What is glossitis?
inflammation of the tongue

What is gingivitis?
inflation of the gingiva
What is a papilloma?
benign epithelial tumor, with cauliflower like lesion on lips and oral mucosa
What is the common oral malignancy in a cat?
squamous cell carcinomas
Are melanomas always pigmented?
no
- amelanotic melanoma
What is epulis?
benign neoplasms of the periodontal origin affecting gingivae.
What is achalasia?
failure of the cardiac sphincter to open
What causes megaesophagus?
- idiopathic disorder of the vague
- acquired neurological disorder
- acquired muscular disorder

What are the three things that can cause the esophagus to obstruct?
- intraluminal - foreign body
- intramural within the wall, abscess
- extrinsic - outside the wall - vascular ring anomaly

What are leiomyomas?
tumors that affect the esophagus but they are benign tumors of smooth muscle
What are the three tumors of the esophagus?
- papillomatosis
- squamous cell carcinoma
- leiomyomas

What is ruminal tympany?
bloat- failure to expel fermentation gases.
what are the two types of ruminal tympany?
primary- frothy bloat in rum from high protein diet or low roughage diet

- secondary from obstruction or functional problem causing an increase in gas production

What are the clinical signs of rumnal tympany?
- rumen distended with gas
- blood dark and clots poorly
- congestion, edema, and hemorrhage of head and neck

What causes ruminal acidosis?
grain overload

What is the pathogenesis of ruminal acidosis?
- excess carbohydrate
- increased gram positive cocci
- increase in VFA and lactate production
- drop in pH less than 5
- acidosis



What are the three pathways traumatic reticulitis can occur?
- object can fall to the floor of reticulum = insignificant
- FB can penetrate cranial wall - acute peritonitis with fibrous adhesions
- inflamation around reticulum leading to vagus indigestion and ruminal stasis

What is rumenitis?
bacterial or fungal infection

ex- f. necrophorum that takes advantage of acidotic lesions in rumen.

What histological changes are seen with rumenitis?
- dark areas of swollen papillae,
- coagulative necrosis of papillae
- neutrophil inflitration
- serofibrinous exudate
- thromboembolic spread to for necrosis and abscesses in the liver



What is papillomatosis?
BPV4 pedunculated structures in the reticulum/ rumen of cattle
What is pyloric stenosis?
congenital hypertrophy of pyloric muscle that causes delayed gastric emptying and persistent vomiting or regurgitation
What is abomasal displacement?
this is where the abomasum becomes displaced either to the right (RDA) or the left (LDA).
- LDA is most common in dairy cattle
What is the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement?
- abomasum rolls
- constricution of blood vessels
- trauma to bagus nerve
- abomasal distension with blood stained fluid and gas
- congested mucosa and infaction



What is gastric dilation and volvulus?
- in deep chested dogs and pigs
- distension of stomach with gas (aerophagia)
- stomach and spleen rotate on long axis
- occlude esophagus and venous retur
- congestion, edema, necrosis
- dark bloody contents




What would you look for to determine if gastric rupture was antemortem?
- hemorrhage
- peritonitis
What causes hemorrhagic gastritis/ abomasitis?
- clostridial diseases
What is chronic hypertrophic gastritis in dogs?
- caused by chronic retention of gastric fluid and bile reflux
- mucosal thickening and convolution of rugae
- epithelial hyperplasia
- loss of parietal chief cells
- dilation and inflammation of lamina propria



What is ostertagiosis?
- sheep and cattle
- encysted larvae that cause mucosal nodules (cobblestone)
- glandular hyperplasia
- loss of parietal and chief cells
- chronic inflammation with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils



What is atrophic gastritis in dogs?
- reduced mucosal thickness
- loss of rugae
- loss of gastric gland
- diffuse mixed inflammatory infiltrate in lamina propria


What is the pathogenesis of gastric ulceration?
- hypersecretion of acid
- impaired mucosal barrier
- pepsin and acid cause necrosis
- erosion and ulcer


What is the significance of erosion?
underlying blood vessel erosion leads to hemorrhage
What are some causes of ulceration in the dog?
- NSAIDS
- mass cell tumor
- zollinger ellison syndrome because of pancreatic gastrin secreting tumor
- cirrhosis
- bile reflux





What are some causes of ulceratin in pigs?
- weaned grower and feeders where the stratified squamous areas of stomach are affected
- related to finely ground food


What are some causes fo ulceration in horses?
- stratified squamous epithelum at margo plicatus
- sometimes glandular area caused by stress or NSAIDs
What are some causes of ulceration in cattle?
- management related in young calves and dairy cow
- these have a tendency to bleed and perforate
- infectious agents

What is the most common gastric neoplasia of small animals?
- adenocarcinoma - malignancy of mucosal epithelium
- thickened pale, ulcerated or fungating
- locally agressive spread by lymphatics to LN, liver, lung

What is the most common gastric neoplasm of the horse?
- squamous cell carcinoma- couliflower like mass
- transcoelomic spread
What is a gastric leiomyoma/ leiomyosarcoma?
- somooth muscle neoplasma forming nodular masses mainly in dogs.
What is the difference between a lymphoma and a lymphsarcoma?
nothing they are both malignacy of lymphocytes
What results from impaired digestion?
- lack of digestive enzymes
- reduced bile and pancreatic enzymes
- loss of beneficial gut flora

What causes malabsorption?
- reduced surface area for absorption
- infiltration of tract by other cells
Why is hypomotility the most common cause of diarrhea?
- anaerobic bacterial overgrowth
What do disturbance of fluid balance lead to?
- dehydration
- electrolyte imbalances
What is Diarrhoea?
- increase in bulk and usually fluidity of feces.
List the three types of diarrhea.
- secretory where secretions exceed absorption
- malabsorptive where there is an increase in osmotic pressure due to unabsorbed digesta
- increased mucosal permeability where there is an increase in hydrosttic pressure or a decrease in oncotic pressure

What is the characteristics of a protein losing enteropathy?
- where there is a problem with in the GIT that causes a dietary protein that is normally completely absorbed but is now being lost.
What are the causes of a protein losing enteropathy?
- seere inflammatory disease where a protein is lost in an exudate
- increased mucosal permeability
- lymphangiectasia- where there is a loss of protein rich lymph due to obstruction of gut lymphatics

What is atresia?
complete occlusion of the lumen of the small or large intestine
What is an intestinal ileus?
- this is intestinal stasis that occurs post surgery, with a metabolic disease or is due to sympathetic inhibition
What is equine dysautonomia?
- grass sickness
- of unknown cause
- where there is acute or subacute cases of fluid in small intestine or stomach with an inpacted LI
- degenerative lesions in autonomic nerve ganglia including enteric plexuses


What is an intraluminal obstruction in a horse caused by?
- food impaction
- foreign body
What can an intramural obstruction be caused by?
- neoplasia
- scar tissue
- abscess
-granuloma


What are some examples of extrinsic obstrucitons?
- adhesions
- neoplasma
- prostate enlargement

What is a volvulus?
- twisting of the intestine on the mesenteric axis
What is a torsion?
- Rotation of a tubular organ along it's longitudinal axis.
What is intussusception?
- telescoping of one segment of the bowel into another
What are the steps following the effects of intestinal hypoxia?
- obstruction of efferent veins
- blockage of afferent arteries
- reduced blood flow to unobstructed.
- seperation of epitelium from basement membrane
- villus destruction
- necrosis of crypt cells
- mucosa is necrotic, sloughed off





What is the most common cause of intestinal hypoxia or necrosis?
- strangulation lesions
- intese edema
- congestion
- hemorrhage
- necrosis



What is a non strangulation infarction of the intestine in horses?
- arterial thromboembolism
What is enteritis?
inflammation of the intestine
what is typhlitis?
inflammation of the cecum
What is colitis?
inflammation of the colon

What is proctitis?
inflammation of the rectum
what cells int eh small intestine are used to provide new cells lining the lumen?
epithelial progenitor cells
How long do enterocytes last normally?
2-8 days
What are the effects of increased loss in epithelial cells?
minor- lateral migration of adjacent cells
-major- villus contracts and cell migrate across intercrypt surface
What is villus atrophy found in?
- SI enteric disease where there will be malabsorption of nutrient sand water.
What are the two main types of villus atrophy?
- villus atrophy with intact hypertrophic crypt glands
- villus atrophy with damage to crypts.
What are some examples of villus atrophy with intact or hypertrophic crypt glands?
- rotavirus, coronavirus
- coccidia
- nematodes

List some causes of villus atrophy where the crypts are damaged.
- parvo
- lymphoma
- some chemotherapy

What are the 7 types of enteritis?
- secretory and osmotic
-hemorrhagic
- granulomatous
- necrotizing
- ulcerative
- enteritis with villus atrophy
- inflammatory bowel disease





What type of enteritis does colibacillosis cause?
- secretory and osmotic diarrhea
- bacteria adhere to enterocyte receptors
- toxins encourage loss of NaCl and water in gut secretion s

What type of enteritis does clostridial enterotoxaemia cause? Effects?
- hemorrhage gastroenteritis
- distended gas filled SI
- congestion
- hemorrhage
- coagulative necrosis of vill, with edema and hemorrhage
- influx of inflammatory cells in lamina propria




What is lamb dysentery?
- type B
- sudden death in young lambs
- hemorrhagic enteritis necrosis ulcers, fibrinous peritonitis

What is pulpy kidney?
- type D
- sudden death in lambs
- subserosal hemorrhage, gut inflammatio

What effects are found in the intestine of an animal with canine parvovirus?
- young dogs
- target crypt cells and lymphoid areas
- intestine is congested with hemorrhagic blood in lumen
- necrosis of crypt cells, shortening of villi, neutrophils in lamina propria
- fibrinous exudate on surface of mucosa
- necrotic peyer's patches




What are two examples of granulomatous enteritis?
- paratuberculosis - johne's disease
- feline infectious peritonitis - feline coronavirus
What happens with paratuberculosis?
- mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
- found in macrophages and causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants
- thickening of mucosa, distended lymph and mesenteric lymph nodes
- increased macrophages in mucosa, submucosa and LN


What happens with wet FIP?
- wet is widespread, white miliary granulomas and fibrin deposition with serosa of intestine and a high protein exudate in peritoneal cavity
What happens in dry FIP?
- larger grey granulomatous masses with thickening of wall of small and large intestine
- multifocal pyogranulomas on serosa through out wall
- inflitration by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages with fewer neutrophils.
- necrosis and vasculitis present


What are two types of necrotizing enteritis?
- salmonellosis
- coccidiosis
What occurs with salmonellosis?
catarrhal inflammation, yellow fibrinous exudates on mucosal surface
- mucosa is necrotic slought off
- inflitration of lamina propria with neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells and lyphocytes.
- enlarged peyer's patches with necrosis


What happens with coccidiosis?
- eimeria and isospora
- intracellular in enterocytes of young
- mucosal hyperaemia, thickening and necrotic membran
- white pinpoint foci with hemorrhage
- necrosis of crypts, hyperaemia, mixed inflam cells
- ulceration and villus atrophy




What is an example of ulcerative enteritis?
- cyathostomosis
What is cyathostomosis?
- - strongyles in nodules in mucosa of cecum and colon to cause diarrhea
- pinhead grey to red mucosal nodules
- surrounded by fibrous capsule and inflam cells
- emerge to get eosinophil, neutrophil, and macrophage with edema and ulceration


What are two examples of enteritis associated with villus atrophy?
- canine parvovirus
- feline parvovirus
What is feline parvovirus?
- dilated SI with red/brown fluid and fibrinous exudates
- crypt epithelium damaged, crypts dilated
- fibrin on surface
- erosion of villus epithelium and villus atrophy with lymphoid follicles depleted


What are some examples of inflammatory bowel disease?
- lymphocytic/plasmacytic enteritis
- eosinophilic gastroenteritis
- lymphangiecia

What are the common features of inflammatory bowel disease?
- thickening of mucosa and villus atrophy
- significant inflammatory inflitrate in mucosa and deeper layers
What species is lymphocytic/ plsmacytic enteritis common in?
- dog
What is lymphangiectasia?
- severe protein losing enteropathy and diarrhea in dogs
- lymphatic obstruction
-SI and LI affected with dilation of lacteals, edema of mesenteric lymphatics and LN
- accumulation of lipid laden macrophages and granulmoatous response


Describe intestinal adenoma?
- SI or LI
- grow into lumen
- benign and polyp like

What is intestinal adenocarcinoma?
- malignancy of epithelial cells
- may cause stenosis of lumen, proximal muscle hypertrophy and dilation
- lymphatic spread to LN lung liver
- transcoelomic spread also


What is adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland?
- true anal sac gland
- usually female dog
- associated with hypercalcaemia

What is acute peritonitis?
- increaded fluid in abdominal cavity with rough serosal surface of abd organs and perietal peritoneum
What is chronic peritonitis?
- fibrous adhesion involving any of abd organs and omentum/ mesentery/ peritoneum
What are the causes of peritonitis?
- bacterial
- chemical
- viral
- parasitic


Waht is the sequelae to peritonitis?
- hypermotility initially
- hypomotility (ileus)
- Impaired CV function and acid base imbalance
- sequestration of fluid and protein in exudate
- hypomotile gut and bacterial exo/endotoxin



What are the parasitic cystes found in ruminants?
- cysticerus in liver, mesentery peritonieum
- cysticerus ovis in sheep diaphram
- hydadid cyst in any mammal

What is the hydatid cyst from?
echinococcus granulosus
- usually ruminants and horse but can be in man
What are mesotheliomas?
- malignant
- from serosa, multiple small nodules
- mainly cattle and dogs



What does a conducting zone in the respiratory system consist of?
- nasal cavity
- larynx
- pharynx
-trachea
-bronchi



What does a traditional zone in the respiraty system consist of?
- bronchioles

What does the exchange zone of the respiratory system consist of?
- alveoli
What are the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system in the conducting zone?
- mucus and mucociliary clearance
- antibodies
- lyzozyme

What does the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system int he transitional zone consist of?
- calara cells,
- anibodies
-lyzozymes

What does the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system consist of int he exchange zone?
- macrophagges
- surfactant,
- antibodies.

What kind of materials are ingested through aerogenous invasion and where are they expected to go?
- inhaled droplets, food, or fluid greater than 10cm.
- They will deposit in the bronchiolar alveolar junction
Where would we expect to find lesions in the lungs in an infection is spread hematogenously?
- pulmonary capillary bed is the largest in the body.
- lesions tend to localize in the caudal lung lobes
How would a transcoelomic infection spread to the lungs?
-Traumatic penetration
- diaphram
- esophagus
- chest wall


What is hemoptysis?
blood in the saliva or sputum
What is epistaxis?
blood in the nasal discharge
What is progressive ethmoid hematoma?
- pedunculated mass in ethmoid region.
- lesion contains hemosiderophages
What are the two non ciliated cells in the lung that secrete fluid?
- serous cells that secrete clear thin seromucin
- goblet cells that secrete thick opaque mucous
What are common causes of rhinitis?
- infectious
- allergic
- toxic
- traumatic


What is serous rhinitis?
- mildest form
- increased secretion
- infectious disease, allergy, irritation
- runny nose


What is catarrhal rhinitis?
- goblet cells and mucous glands secrete
- when chronic there is goblet cell hyperplasia
- with white blood cells and exfoliated debris

What is a purulent or suppurative exudate from?
- thicker
- neutrophiles
What is a fibrinous exudate?
- where there is an increase in vascular permeability
- fibrin in a yellow mat
- can have ulceration

What is a granulomatous rhinitis?
- macrophage dominated
- specific pathogen
- chronic allergic reaction

What is seen with sinusitis?
- usually with rhinitis
- dental or periodontal disease
- infections from dehorning, fractures of facial bones

Bacterial rhinitis is usually secondary to what?
- secondary to viral, allergic, toxic, or traumatic rhinitis
What is seen in chronic rhinitis?
- extensive fibrosis or lamina propria, atrophy of nasal glands, squamous metaplasia
- polypoid thickening called nasal polyps
- common in horses, cats, sheep

What is atrophic rhinitis in pigs?
- atrophy of nasal turbinates
- distortion and shorting of snout
- co infection of nasal mucosa with bordetella or pasteurella
- where toxin acts directly on bone cells of the nasal turbinates to cause bone loss


What is strangles?
- Streptococcus equi
- suppurative rhinitis, pharyngitis, and lymphadenitis of LN in head and neck
- metastatic abscesses
- pouch empyema or chondroid formation
- purpura hemorrhagica



What is glanders?
- burkholderia mallei
- multiple small nodes in the nasal mucosa
- core of neutrophile, rim of marcophages, and grandulation tissue
- fever and head and neck lymphadenitis




What is mycotic rhinitis?
- Aspergillus fumigatus
- chronic necrotizing lesions with friable exudate with necroti tissue and hyphae
- distruction of turbinates and nasal septum

What kind of mycotic rhinitis is found in the cat?
- cryptococcus neoformas
- facial swelling
What are the results of chronic bronchitis?
- excessive production of mucous from goblet cells with hyperplasia
- replacement of ciliated squamous epithelium
- bronchiectasis

What are some examples of chronic bronchitis?
- kennel cough/ infectious tracheobronchitis
- bronchiectasis in cattle
What are the effects of bhronic bronchitis in dogs?
- excess mucoid or mucopurulent exudate in the trachea
- bronchial mucosa thickened, hyperaemic, edematous,
- increase in mucus glands
- lymphocytes and plasma cells in lamina propria
- coexistent with bronchopneumonia
- pulmonary heypertaension to cor pulmonale




What is bronchiectasis in cattle?
- permanent saccular or cylindrical dilation of bronchi
- exudate in lumen and partial rupture of bronchial walls
- sac nodules with purulent exudate
- cattle prone because of complete lobular septation and lack of collateral ventilation


Achalasia
Failure of cardiac sphincter to open

papillomatosis
- in cattle BPV 4
- transforms to squamous cell carcinoma with bracken fern toxins
pyloric stenosis
congenital hypertrophy of pyloric muscle that causes delayed gastric emptying and persistent vomiting and regurgitation

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